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Optimum follow-up period of arthroscopic and mini-open rotator cuff repairs

Dear Editor, Rotator cuff disorders are the most common cause of disability related to the shoulder,1 and rotator cuff repairs—via mini-open or arthroscopic techniques—are...

Risk Factors for Predicting Mortality in a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit

Following the rapid advances in medical therapy and critical care technology over the past 30 years, coupled with the spiralling cost of medical care,...

Anthropometry of Anterior Cruciate Ligament in Singaporean Chinese

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a technically precise and demanding operation. Attention to factors such as the tunnel position, graft selection, fixation and...

Surgical Results of Open Reduction and Plating of Humeral Shaft Fractures

Management of humeral shaft fractures has been the subject of controversy (Böhler, Ekkernkamp and Muhr, Nast-Kolb and Schweiberer). The problem of non-union, wound infection...

Operative Treatment of Displaced Talar Neck Fractures

Talus is a weight bearing bone with peculiar anatomy and blood supply. It forms the ankle joint with the medial and lateral malleoli, subtalar...

A Case Report of Atasoy Antenna Procedure

The hook nail deformity is a relatively common problem after fingertip amputations. It is usually ignored but can be quite disabling. This article is available...

Infections in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

Children undergoing chemotherapy for cancer are especially vulnerable to infection because of immunosuppression related to their underlying illness, the effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy....

Childhood Leukaemia: Towards an Integrated Psychosocial Intervention Programme in Singapore

In the last two decades there has been a surge of interest concerning the psychosocial correlates of life-threatening illnesses. Research in this area has...

Caudal Morphine in Paediatric Patients: A Comparison of Two Different Doses in Children after Major Urogenital Surgery

The use of caudal preservative-free morphine for postoperative analgesia in children has gained popularity since it was first described by Jensen. Several studies have...

A Retrospective Study of Infants with Severe Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension (PPHN) Managed without Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)

Persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) is an important cause of neonatal mortality amongst infants who are of term or post-term gestation. The most severely ill...

Five Paediatric Case Reports of the Use of Adenosine in Supraventricular Tachycardia

Adenosine has been shown to be effective in terminating supraventricular tachycardia in adults and children. However, the use of adenosine has not been previously...

Use of Central Venous Lines in Paediatrics—A Local Experience

Peripheral access by venous cut down, once popular in the 1950s and 1960s, has almost become obsolete with the introduction of the Seldinger technique...

Survey of Aerobic Bacterial Infections in Paediatric Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients

Data on infections in paediatric surgical patients are few in the literature. Although there are many studies on infection in adult surgical and paediatric...

Double Level Fractures of the Femur Treated with Closed Intramedullary Nailing

Closed locked intramedullary nailing of the femur has become the accepted means of treating fractures of the femur. The use of locking nails has...

Osteoid Osteoma after a Stress Fracture of the Tibia: A Case Report

A 24-year-old man complained of left leg pain following 3 months of infantry training 6 years ago. There was no previous complaint of pain...

Reconstruction of a Supinated Hypoplastic Thumb with Combined Huber Transfer and Derotation Osteotomy: A Case Report

A 6-year-old Chinese girl presented with a deformity of the left thumb since birth. Her father has a similar deformity. This article is available only...

Perinatal Drug Abuse in KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital

In recent years, perinatal drug abuse has been emerging as an area of major concern for the perinatologists. Chasnoff found the prevalence of substance...

Transscaphoid Perilunate Fracture/Dislocations—Results of Surgical Treatment

Transscaphoid perilunate fracture/dislocations are relatively uncommon injuries of the wrist, constituting about 3% of all carpal injuries. However, it accounts for more than half...

Extraarticular Villonodular Synovitis of the Tendoachilles: A Case Report

Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a progressive synovial lesion of uncertain aetiology associated with synovial-lined tissues of the joints, tendon sheaths and bursae. The incidence...

Embolisation of a Leaking Pseudoaneurysm of the Main Artery Supplying a Replanted Arm: A Case Report

Pseudoaneurysms are conventionally treated by surgery. In recent years, non-surgical methods are being considered, including embolisation with wires, coils or gelfoam and anticoagulation. This article...

Parainfluenza Type 3 Viral Outbreak in a Neonatal Nursery

Parainfluenza viruses are relatively large RNA paramyxoviruses. Four serologic types cause disease in humans. This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on...

T Wave Alternans and Acute Rheumatic Myocarditis: A Case Report

T wave alternans, an electrical cardiac alternans in which there is a beat-to-beat variation in the amplitude, shape or the polarity of the T...

Comparison of First Carpometacarpal Joint Arthrodesis with Contralateral Excision Arthroplasty in a Patient with Bilateral Saddle Joint Arthritis: A Case Report

The carpometacarpal joint (CMCJ) of the thumb is commonly afflicted with degenerative arthritis. Of the patients seeking surgical treatment, post-menopausal women outnumber men by...

9th Chapter of Surgeons’ Lecture: The Orthopaedic Surgeon: Historical Perspective, Ethical Considerations and the Future

The legacy of caring and humanitarianism has been the mission of the medical profession since the founding of Singapore by Sir Stamford Raffles in...

The Future of Medicine from the Standpoint of the Practising Paediatrician

From the time of recorded history of medicine, the doctor whether he be the ancient healer or the modern medical practitioner, the doctor had...

Hepatopulmonary Syndrome: A Rare Complication of Chronic Liver Disease in Children

Children with chronic liver disorders may present with dysfunction of other organ systems. Encephalopathy, gastrointestinal bleeding, failure to thrive and impaired renal function are...

Bidirectional Cavopulmonary Anastomosis

Children with complex congenital heart disease and a functional single ventricle may not be ideal candidates for a Fontan procedure. A staged approach to...

A Study of Joint Mobility in a Normal Population

Joint mobility varies between individuals and factors such as age, sex, race and heredity influence the range of motion of a joint. Excessive mobility...

Delayed Amputation in Lower Limb Trauma: An Analysis of Factors Leading to Delayed Amputation

The decision whether to amputate or to attempt a limb salvage procedure in a mangled extremity is a difficult one. Numerous protocols have been...

Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which could lead to visual impairment and blindness, is a recognised serious morbidity amongst surviving premature infants. The inverse relationship...

Establishment of Animal Models Using Experimental Rats for Allogeneic Tissue Transplantation and Quantitative Flow Cytometric Detection of Immunochimera

Allogeneic tissue and organ transplantation has long been an important medical issue, as it provides an effective treatment alternative for a broad spectrum of...

The Effect of Storage at -70°C and -150°C on the Torsion Properties of the Canine Femur

Allograft transplantation of bone has been established as a viable and useful reconstructive procedure when limb salvage is the option of choice. For bone...

Use of Titanium Prosthesis to Bridge a Vertebral Gap in the Spine—A Preliminary Experimental Study

Bridging a vertebral gap in the spine is one of the commonest problems facing the spine surgeon after dealing with a tumour, infection or...

The Results of Autogenous Tibial Periosteal Transplants for Full Thickness Cartilage Defects in the Knee Joints of Pigs

Articular cartilage injuries to the knee are commonly seen by team doctors, sports physicians and orthopaedic surgeons. Despite many clinical as well as experimental...

Echocardiographic Features and Management of Neonatal Ductal Aneurysm

Previously thought to be a rare condition, aneurysms of the ductus arteriosus have been increasingly reported in the medical literature over the past few...

Transaminitis in Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy

Raised aminotransferase levels, especially that of alanine transaminase (ALT), have been traditionally attributed to liver pathology rather than to muscle disorders. However, raised alanine...

Twenty-four hour, Non-invasive, Neonatal Chromosome Analysis—Application in a Case of Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis

Chromosome analysis in neonates requires venisection and this is sometimes both difficult and distressing. In addition, results can at best take 3 days but...

Sandhoff Disease—A Case Report of 3 Siblings and a Review of Potential Therapies

Sandhoff disease is a rare inborn error of metabolism characterised by the absence of both β-hexosaminidase A and B, resulting in an accumulation of...

A Case Report on the Perinatal Management of a 30-week Preterm Baby with Congenital Complete Heart Block

The association between congenital complete heart block (CHB) and maternal autoimmune disorders has been described for many years. Maternal systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is...

Use of Low Molecular Weight Heparin for Prevention of Deep Vein Thrombosis in Total Knee Arthroplasty—A Study of its Efficacy in an Asian Population

The role of thromboprophylaxis in total knee replacement (TKR) remains controversial. In several reports, the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has been significant. This...

Deep Vein Thrombosis after Total Knee Replacement

Western literature reports a very high incidence of deep vein thrombosis in its population especially after orthopaedic surgery. In total knee replacement without prophylaxis,...

Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome—A Complex Genetic Disorder

Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is the most common cause of childhood nephrotic syndrome. It is characterised by the presence of gross proteinuria, hypoalbuminaemia,...

Management of Growth Arrest with Tissue-engineered Cells

Before I go on to the scientific aspects of my talk, I would like to pay tribute to Dr Yahya Cohen. Dr Cohen was...

Candida Arthritis in a Premature Infant Treated Successfully with Oral Fluconazole for Six Months

Candida arthritis in premature infants is regarded as a rare condition. The largest published series of 8 cases from one institution was from Bombay,...

DNA Testing for Fragile X Syndrome in 255 Males from Special Schools in Singapore

Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited cause of mental retardation, affecting approximately 1 in 1250 males and 1 in 2500 females. It...

Initial Experience of Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Supraventricular Tachycardia in Paediatric Patients

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is well-recognised as one of the commonest rhythm disorders in children. There may be few symptoms, but many experience palpitations,...

Surgical Results of Intercondylar Fractures of the Adult Femur

Fractures of the intercondylar region of the femur often resulted from high velocity accidents. This would lead to increased comminution and involvement of the...

A Case Report of Total Finger Joint Replacement Arthroplasty After Traumatic Amputation

A 41-year-old Chinese man had his dominant thumb, index and middle fingers caught by a wood-cutting machine while at work. He sustained a near-amputation...

Re: Rikhraj I S, Tan C T, Tan S K, Teoh S H, Hastings G W. Use of Titanium Prosthesis to Bridge a Vertebral Gap in the Spine–A Preliminary Experimental Study. Ann Acad Med Singapore 1999; 28:20-4

In a recent issue of the Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore the above-mentioned paper was published. Figures 6 and 7 of the paper plot...

Biomechanical Study of C2 (Axis) Fracture: Effect of Restraint

In human, the occipito-atlanto-axial (C0-C1-C2) joint complex is an important region of the spine and often susceptible to impact injury in trauma. Traffic accidents...

Results of Distal Radial Fractures Treated by Intra-focal Pin Fixation

Unstable fractures of the distal radius remain a challenge to orthopaedic surgeons. Unsatisfactory results are often associated with significant malunion. This article is available only...

Diagnosing and Prognosticating Acute Meningitis in Young Infants within 24 Hours of Admission

Meningitis is an important cause of fever in young infants (infants 90 days old or younger). Most cases of meningitis are acute meningitis which...

Book Review

The above is a textbook of medicine written by Singapore doctors and published in Singapore. It is difficult not to be over-enthusiastic about it...

An Introduction to Biodegradable Materials for Tissue Engineering Applications

The concept of tissue engineering arises from the need to develop an alternative method of treating patients suffering from tissue loss or organ failure....

Enteral Nutrition of the Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) Infant

Optimal nutrition is critical in the management of the preterm infant. The fetus in utero receives continuous intravenous nutrition that is interrupted when prematurely...

A Case Series of Six Children with Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an uncommon but serious and debilitating disorder seen in children and adults. By definition, it is an elevation of...

2nd Chapter of Paediatricians Lecture: The Future of Paediatrics in Singapore

When I was first invited to give this 2nd Chapter of Paediatricians Lecture by the Chapter, my obvious answer was no. I could think...

Galeazzi-Equivalent Fracture in Children Associated with Tendon Entrapment—Report of Two Cases

A 12-year-old boy fell whilst running. On examination, there was swelling and deformity of the wrist and there was local tenderness of the distal...

Liver Transplantation in a Child With Severe Hypercholesterolaemia in Alagille Syndrome

Alagille syndrome (AS) or arteriohepatic dysplasia is a genetic disorder transmitted in an autosomal dominant inheritance. The chromosomal abnormality has been identified to the...

The Use of Vigabatrin in Infantile Spasms in Asian Children

Infantile spasms are a form of age-dependent myoclonic epilepsy that is difficult to control. Agents such as adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and prednisolone have been...

The Posterior Cruciate Ligament: An Anthropometric Study in Asians and Evaluation of Safe Limits for Bony Tunnel Creation During Reconstruction

The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) provides the main restraint to posterior translation of the tibia on the femur and is stronger than its anterior...

Advances in Surgical Treatment of Osteoporotic Fractures of the Spine

Osteoporosis is an important cause of fractures in the elderly. In the USA alone, at least 1.3 million fractures are attributed to osteoporosis a...

The Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010

With the ageing population, degeneration of joints and osteoporosis and the resultant disability pose big public health problems in many countries of the world....

Magnetic Resonance Arthrography of the Labral-Ligamentous Complex of the Shoulder: An Update

Shoulder instability is a frequently encountered clinical problem in young active people following injury, particularly in athletes. The labral-ligamentous complex is increasingly recognised as...

A Deceptive Cervical Lymph Node: A Solitary Spinal Osteochondroma

Osteochondromas are cartilage-capped bony exostoses that arise mainly from the metaphyses of long bones from a lateral displacement of the epiphyseal growth cartilage, but...

Limited Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and the Occult Hip Fracture

Worldwide, in the past decade, the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has increased tremendously in the management of musculoskeletal trauma. Not least is...

Extremity Osteosarcoma—A Southeast Asian Experience

Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone cancer occurring primarily in young patients. Although rare, it is still the commonest primary bone cancer seen in...

Towards a Splint-free Repair for Flexor Tendon Injuries

The most problematic area in flexor tendon injuries is zone two. This zone is prone to injury as it is in the grasping part...

Biomechanics of the Shoulder

The shoulder is a complex of 5 articulating surfaces that together form the shoulder girdle. The glenohumeral joint together with the scapulothoracic articulation form...

Instrumentation in Spinal Surgery

Spinal instrumentation is defined as the use of mechanical devices that enhance or restore the segmental stability of the spine. Internal fixation of the...

The Growth and Development of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine in Singapore

Orthopaedic sports medicine in Singapore took form as a subspecialty of orthopaedic surgery over a number of years. Several individuals contributed to it being...

Paediatric Orthopaedics in Singapore

The name “Orthopaedic Surgery” is derived from the words “orthos” (meaning straight or to straighten) and “paido” (meaning child). Thus, it is not unexpected...

Addresses at the 50th Anniversary Celebration of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National University of Singapore on 5 April 2002

Over 200 guests were gathered at the Fullerton Hotel Ballroom on the 5th of April 2002 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Department...

History of the Singapore Orthopaedic Association

The University of Malaya in Singapore was established in 1949. With this, the King Edward VII College of Medicine became the Faculty of Medicine,...

History of the Orthopaedic Specialty in Singapore

When the practice of orthopaedic surgery first began in Singapore, it was not a specialty in itself. There are no records as to when...

50th Anniversary Celebrations—Golden ……. but all is not gold

On an occasion such as this—the 50th anniversary of the inauguration of orthopaedic surgery as a specialty service in Singapore—acclaim, commendations, praise and endorsement...

Paediatric Extracranial Germ Cell Tumours: A Retrospective Review

Germ cell tumours (GCTs) in children account for 2% to 3% of childhood malignancies. They arise from primordial germ cells and constitute a heterogeneous...

Two-year Outcome of Normal-birth-weight Infants Admitted to a Singapore Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

With the rapid advances in the field of neonatal intensive care, the focus of interest has been on the very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infant in recent...

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Chronic Lung Disease of Infancy: Strategies for Prevention and Management

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and chronic lung disease of infancy (CLD) are two chronic pulmonary conditions which are the result of incomplete resolution or abnormal...

A Case Report of Neurologically Unstable Fracture of the Lumbosacral Spine in a Patient with Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis is associated with progressive ossification of the spinal ligaments and ankylosing of the facet joints leading to a totally stiff spine. It...

Intussusception: A Three-Year Review

Intussusception is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction in infants and young children. It occurs when one segment of the intestines telescopes into...

Osteoporotic Hip Fractures in Singapore—Costs and Patient’s Outcome

Singapore is facing a rapidly ageing population. Osteoporosis, which is an age-related illness, will become an increasing problem. Osteoporotic hip fracture, because of the...

Outcomes of Acute Arthroscopic Repair and Conservative Treatment Following First Traumatic Dislocation of the Shoulder Joint in Young Patients

Traumatic dislocation of the shoulder is a serious problem especially in active and young patients. Shoulder instability and recurrent dislocation hinder patient activities. This article...

From Genesis to Genes

I would like to thank the Singapore Orthopaedic Association (SOA) for inviting me to deliver this year’s SOA lecture. When your President, Dr AK...

Severe Newborn Encephalopathy Unrelated to Intrapartum Hypoxic Events: 3 Case Reports

Since Little’s article of 1862, it was popularly believed that brain damage in the majority of cases of cerebral palsy occurs during labour and...

A Case Series of Pre-Viable Severe Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Monozygotic twinning has an incidence of approximately 3.5 per 1000 pregnancies. Only 25% of monozygotic twins have a dichorionic placenta. This article is available only...

Idiopathic Chronic Fetomaternal Haemorrhage Resulting in Hydrops – A Case Report

Small amounts (<0.1 mL) of fetal blood are commonly found in maternal circulation. Massive fetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH) involves fetal blood loss into the maternal...

Imaging of Paediatric Mediastinal Masses

A review of mediastinal masses in children, emphasising imaging features, is important for several reasons. Firstly, the mediastinum is the most common location for...

The Relationship Between Scoring Systems and Cytokine Levels in Neonatal Sepsis

In newborn infants, the early diagnosis of sepsis is an important problem because the early signs and symptoms of septicaemia in term or preterm...

Clinical Characteristics of an Outbreak of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Singapore

The enterovirus family causes a wide array of illnesses, some easily recognised clinically and others diagnosed as non-specific viral illnesses. This large family of...

Perinatal Care at the Threshold of Viability—From Principles to Practice

One of the major challenges in neonatal-perinatal medicine in the new century is the optimal management of the mother and infant when delivery is...

Eight-year Outcome of Very-low-birth-weight Infants Born in KK Hospital

The outcome of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature babies with birth weights of <1500 g has remained an area of great concern for both parents and...

Long-term Follow-up and Outcome of Extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) Infants

With the progressive improvement in the survival of premature neonates, including those born at the extreme edge of viability, there has been a great...

Exogenous Surfactant Therapy in Newborn Infants

Exogenous surfactant therapy is widely used in the management of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and may have a role in the management of...

The Use and Abuse of Steroids in Perinatal Medicine

Preterm birth, delivery prior to 37 weeks of gestational age, accounts for a major and disproportionate amount of infant and neonatal morbidity and mortality....

Mass Newborn Screening in Singapore—Position and Projections

Mass newborn screening is an essential preventative public health programme which aims to diagnose, in the presymptomatic phase, diseases that have a better outcome...

Neonatology In Singapore: The Way We Were, The Way Forward

Over a span of 35 years of my working life, I have witnessed the growth of, and also grown together with, neonatology in Singapore....

Chorioamnionitis and Outcome in Extremely Preterm Infants

Preterm delivery is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, especially among the 1% to 2% infants delivered at less than 32 weeks. Chorioamnionitis is...

Challenges in Perinatal Medicine

One of the significant milestones in the perinatal care in Singapore is the birth of the Perinatal Society of Singapore in March 1989. This...

Book Review

A lot of young orthopaedic surgeons embark on research projects with little guidance. This book is especially directed towards young investigators in the Southeast...

Predicting Significant Hyperbilirubinaemia and Early Discharge for Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficient Newborns

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency occurs in 2.5% of Singapore’s population, and affected newborns are at risk for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia and kernicterus. In the...

Significance of the Lateral Epiphysis of the Acetabulum to Hip Joint Stability

Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) remains one of the most difficult disorders to understand and treat in Paediatric Orthopaedics. The aetiology have not...

Autoimmune Liver Disease in Children

Autoimmune liver disorders are inflammatory liver diseases characterised histologically by a dense mononuclear cell infiltrate, including plasma cells, in the portal tract (Fig. 1)...

HIV/AIDS in Children

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in Asia has grown from a handful of cases to a major...

Adolescent Health Education Programmes: Theoretical Principles in Design and Delivery

Over the past three decades, the patterns of health need in youth have changed. Psychosocial problems such as depression, substance abuse, eating disorders, sexually...

Art and “the Language of Well-Being” in Adolescent Health Care

Creative processes involve imagining, making unexpected connections, maintaining discipline while letting go of controlling the outcome, opening oneself to pleasure, and moving beyond frustration....

From Recreation to Creative Expression: The Essential Features of an Adolescent Inpatient Psychosocial Support Programme

In 1984, the Royal Children’s Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne, Australia opened a new ward specifically for adolescent inpatients. This initiative was the result of...

Adolescent Admissions to a Tertiary Paediatric Hospital: A Dynamic Pattern

The nature of paediatric practice is changing worldwide. In developing countries, infant mortality from infectious diseases continues to fall with improved immunisation, medical care...

Clinical Assessment, Management and Outcomes of a Group of Adolescents Presenting with Complex Medico-psychosocial Conditions

Increased sensitivity to biological change can make adolescents particularly vulnerable to non-organic symptomatic disorders. A variety of pains, headaches, dizziness and fatigue may remain...

Adolescent Chronic Illness: A Qualitative Study of Psychosocial Adjustment

Chronic illness during adolescence can have significant psychological and social consequences within many life domains. Growing up with a chronic medical condition presents many...

Strategies to Promote Better Outcomes in Young People with Chronic Illnesses

The epidemiology of child health in the developed world is changing. Mortality from infectious diseases has fallen sharply over the past century due to...

Adolescent Alcohol and Other Substance Use: Sharing the Australian Experience

The most common causes of morbidity in adolescence often have behavioural or social determinants, and can have enormous social and economic consequences for adolescent...

Sexually Transmitted Infections in Singapore Teenagers

Adolescence can be a difficult period for many individuals who have to navigate their way through complicated emotional, psychological, physical and social demands and...

Eating Disorders in Singapore: A Review

Anorexia nervosa, bulimia and binge-eating disorder are the three best described ‘eating disorders’. All three are predominantly disorders of women with the core symptoms...

Youth Suicide and Parasuicide in Singapore

The World Health Organization defines suicide as an act with a fatal outcome that is deliberately initiated and performed by the person himself or...

Five-Year Review of Adolescent Mental Health Usage in Singapore

The past 20 years have seen much growth in the knowledge of child and adolescent psychiatric practice. Research has provided an improved understanding in...

The Perils of Puberty

Adolescence is a biopsychosocial maturational process, with the biological changes including completion of linear growth and sexual maturation (puberty), maturation of enzyme systems such...

Adolescent Health—A New Perspective in Singapore

In the past five decades, there have been significant advances in the fields of Paediatrics and Adult Medicine in Singapore. However, the bridging field...

MELAS: A Case Report

A 6-year-old Chinese boy presented at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery clinic with gingival bleeding due to poor oral hygiene, odontogenic pain due to...

Oropharyngeal Carriage and Penicillin Resistance of Neisseria meningitidis in Primary School Children in Manisa, Turkey

Infections by Neisseria meningitidis are significant causes of mortality and morbidity in young children and adolescents. The epidemiology of serious meningococcal disease is an...

Condensing Osteitis of the Medial Clavicle – An Intermediate-term Follow-up

Condensing osteitis of the clavicle is an idiopathic condition affecting the medial end of the clavicle, and is characterised by sclerosis and expansion of...

Plantar Dislocation of Lateral Tarsometatarsal Joint: A Case of Subtle Lisfranc Injury

Lisfranc fracture dislocations are uncommon injuries and the diagnosis may be easily missed. There are several variations and we present one such variant. This article...

Thoracic Myelopathy Secondary to Ligamentum Flavum Ossification

Acquired thoracic spinal canal stenosis is an uncommon condition compared to myelopathy and radiculopathy frequently seen in the cervical and lumbar spine, respectively. Because...

Rising Trend of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Females in a Regional Hospital

Female athletes are at a greater risk for injuries involving the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) than their male counterparts in high schools and colleges...

Profunda Femoris Artery Pseudoaneurysm Presenting with Triad of Thigh Swelling, Bleeding and Anaemia

Pseudoaneurysms of the profunda femoris artery have been reported following blunt and penetrating trauma to the thigh, and orthopaedic procedures of the proximal femur....

Cancellous Screw Fixation for Femoral Neck Fractures: One Hundred and Sixteen Patients

The incidence of hip fractures rises with increasing age, doubling for each decade beyond 50 years of age. With the increase in life expectancy...

Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Hip Fracture and Prevalence of Hyperhomocysteinaemia in the Elderly

Western literature reports a high incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after hip surgery in the absence of prophylaxis. It is reported to be...

Septic Arthritis after Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Arthroscopic-guided reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is now recognised as the preferred reconstructive option in restoring anterior knee joint stability. According to...

Morbidity Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Hamstring Autograft

Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) impairs the stability of the knee, resulting in difficulty with athletic performance, increased risk of subsequent meniscal...

A Fatal Turkish Case of Campomelic Dysplasia

Paediatric Medicine (CD) is a rare form of congenital short-limbed dwarfism, classically characterised by campomelia (bowing of the long bones of the lower extremities)...

Familial Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Atopic Dermatitis among Chinese Families in Singapore

Family history has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of allergic rhinitis (AR) and atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the increase...

Clinical Report: A Case of Williams Syndrome and Klinefelter Syndrome

Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare but well recognised neurodevelopmental disease affecting the connective tissue and the central nervous system. The syndrome was first...

Skin Manifestation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Infection – A Case Report and Review Article

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus that is found in aquatic environments. It is a frequent coloniser of fluids used in the hospital...

Gender Disparity in Paediatric Hospital Admissions

Gender difference in the incidence of childhood diseases has long been recognised. but the magnitude of this effect and consistency across many disease categories...

Study of Inherited Metabolic Disorders in Singapore – 13 Years Experience

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) described in the early 1900s by Garrod were due to a block in a metabolic pathway, arising from an...

Does Visual Turbidity Correlate With Serum Triglyceride Levels in Babies on Total Parenteral Nutrition?

Intravenous lipid infusion is commonly used as part of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in newborn babies. Upon infusion, it forms an emulsion that resembles...

Corticosteroids are not Present in a Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulation for Atopic Dermatitis in Children

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic inflammatory skin disease. It has been estimated that 15% of schoolchildren aged 13 to 14 years have...

Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Paediatric Oncology Patients in Singapore

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been gaining acceptance throughout the world. The efficacy of CAM is unproven, yet it remains popular with the...

The Epidemiology of Paediatric Intussusception in Singapore: 1997 to 2004

Intussusception (IS) is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction in infants and young children. The peak age of presentation is 4 to 8...

A Report of Two Families with Sarcosinaemia in Hong Kong and Revisiting the Pathogenetic Potential of Hypersarcosinaemia

Sarcosinaemia (OMIN 268900) is an autosomal recessive condition due to the deficiency of sarcosine dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.5.99.1). It is a rare condition with an...

Neonatal Priapism Associated With Spontaneous Bilateral Pyocavernositis

Priapism is a pathological state of prolonged, generally painful erection, unassociated with sexual desire and not ending in ejaculation. Rare before the 1980s, this...

Paediatrics to Geriatrics: The Continuum

In many parts of Asia today, paediatricians are still grappling with the childhood problems of infectious diseases, diarrhoeal diseases and malnutrition. In Singapore, it...

Radiographic Features of SARS in Paediatric Patients: A Review of Cases in Singapore

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emerged atypical pneumonia caused by the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). It is easily transmitted via droplet infection...

Necrotising Fasciitis and Traditional Medical Therapy – A Dangerous Liaison

The first case was a 54-year-old lady, with a history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia, who presented with bilateral hand pain and stiffness...

A Rotavirus Vaccine for Infants: The Asian Experience

Of all the enteric pathogens that infect young children, rotavirus is recognised as the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis worldwide. Rotavirus accounts for 20%...

Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy

Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an important cause of death and later neurological disability in full-term neonates worldwide. Perinatal asphyxia causes about 19% of the...

Outcome of Organic Acidurias in China

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Organising Services for IMD in Thailand: Twenty Years Experience

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Newborn Screening in Pakistan – Lessons from a Hospital-based Congenital Hypothyroidism Screening Programme

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Newborn Screening in Bangladesh

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Newborn Screening in China: Phenylketonuria, Congenital Hypothyroidism and Expanded Screening

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Minimising Harm from Newborn Screening Programmes

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Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: Universal or Selective Ultrasound Screening?

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Financing Newborn Screening Systems: US Experience

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Inborn Errors of Metabolism Presenting as Neonatal Encephalopathy: Practical Tips for Clinicians

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Legal Issues in Neonatal Screening

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Neuroblastoma Screening in Japan: Population-based Cohort Study and Future Aspects of Screening

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External Quality Assurance Programme for Newborn Screening of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

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Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Correlation between the Genotype, Biochemistry and Phenotype

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Disorders of Vitamin B12 Metabolism Presenting Through Newborn Screening

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Diagnosis of Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) Responsive Mild Phenylketonuria in Japan over the Past 10 Years

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Fatty Acid Oxidation Defects

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Disorders of the Carnitine Cycle and Detection by Newborn Screening

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Spectrum of Inherited Metabolic Disorders in Malaysia

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Establishing a Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Programme

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Current Understanding of Auditory Neuropathy

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A Multidisciplinary Approach to Paediatric Hearing Loss: Programme at the Centre for Hearing Intervention and Language Development, National University Hospital, Singapore

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Early Intervention For Hearing Impairment: Appropriate, Accessible and Affordable

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Impact of the National Hearing Screening Programme in China

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Outcome of Early Cochlear Implantation

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Eliminating Iodine Deficiency: Obstacles and Their Removal

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Neuro-developmental Deficits in Early-treated Congenital Hypothyroidism

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Issues on Universal Screening for Galactosemia

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Newborn Screening for all Identifiable Disorders with Tandem Mass Spectrometry is Cost Effective: The Negative Case

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Newborn Screening for all Identifiable Disorders with Tandem Mass Spectrometry is Cost Effective: Supporting Arguments

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My Early Experiences in Establishing Neonatal Screening and the Reason for Regional Meetings of the International Society for Neonatal Screening

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Diagnosis and Management Support for an Expanded Newborn Screening Programme

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Considerations in Choosing Screening Conditions: One (US) Approach

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Clinical Applications of Molecular Genetics: The Model of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

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Newborn Screening in Japan: Restructuring for the New Era

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Improved Health and Development of Children who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing Following Early Intervention

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Towards Universal Newborn Screening in Developing Countries: Obstacles and the Way Forward

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Improving Child Health – Newborn Screening for All?

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Neonatal Screening – A Global Perspective

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Prevalence of Refractive Error in Malay Primary School Children in Suburban Area of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia

Refractive error remains one of the primary causes of visual impairment in children worldwide. Prevalence of visual impairment in children, is defined as uncorrected...

A Review of Clinical Pathway Data of 1663 Total Knee Arthroplasties in a Tertiary Institution in Singapore

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been established as an effective treatment modality for patients with symptomatic knee arthritis. It provides predictable decrement in pain,...

Assessment of Medical Graduates Competencies

Medical professional proficiency comprises a set of skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to efficiently accomplish the practice of medicine. The major aim of undergraduate...

When Words Really Matter

I think a lot these days about doctors giving advice. Nobody taught me, back in medical school, how to give advice. This article is available...

Behavioural Sleep Disorders in Children and Adolescents

Overall, children spend one-third to one-half of their life sleeping. Although sleep comprises such a significant portion of a child’s day, sleep disturbances are...

Cardiovascular Changes in Children with Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a spectrum of diseases ranging from primary snoring to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). A recent review suggested that the...

Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Hypopnoea Syndrome in Singapore Children

Obesity is becoming a problem of epidemic proportions and is perhaps, the most pervasive medical problem faced by medical providers today. It is a...

Sleep Disorders in Children: The Singapore Perspective

Sleep problems are common in children. For example, snoring occurs in more than 25% of Singapore children1 and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) occurs in...

Diagnosis and Evaluation of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea in Children

Children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) may present with nocturnal and/or diurnal symptoms. The history is best obtained from parents, or siblings who share...

The Scope of Paediatric Sleep Medicine

Despite apparent similarities to adult sleep medicine, the disorders of paediatric sleep medicine have a distinct epidemiology and pathophysiology. During childhood, the physiology of...

Sleep Disturbances in Singaporean Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood psychiatric disorder with various studies reporting prevalence rates of between 1.7% and 16%. The most...

Inflammatory Cytokines and Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is characterised by repeated episodes of upper airway occlusion during sleep that are associated with daytime behavioural changes and abnormalities...

Nasal Obstruction in Children with Sleep-disordered Breathing

Nasal breathing is critical in infants and children; for example, neonatal choanal atresia often leads to respiratory distress and may require urgent intervention in...

“Bone Block” and Congenital Spine Deformity

A 14-year-old female who presented with a limited range of neck motion with various congenital vertebral anomalies that included improper segmentation or extensive “fusion”...

Autologous Bone Marrow Plasma Injection after Arthroscopic Debridement for Elbow Tendinosis

Elbow tendinosis is a term used to describe a syndrome of pain involving the extensor or flexor tendon origin of the forearm musculature. It...

Immunogenicity, Reactogenicity and Safety of a Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Inactivated Polio and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b Combination Vaccine in a Placebo-controlled Rotavirus Vaccine Study

Singapore’s national immunisation programme for the 6 traditional Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccines (i.e. BCG, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and measles) and hepatitis...

Transfusion-dependent Microcytic Anaemia in a 10-year-old Girl

A 10-year-girl from Bangladesh presented with a moderately severe anaemia (lowest recorded haemoglobin level of 5.6 g/dL) and a mild jaundice (latest serum bilirubin,...

Caudal Regression Syndrome

A white female with an uncomplicated history of birth delivery and a familial history of diabetes mellitus presented to the orthopaedic clinic at the...

Primary Hydatid Disease of the Humerus

Hydatid disease is a parasitic tapeworm infection caused by Echinococcus species. E.granulosus and E.alveolaris are the most common causes of hydatid disease in humans. This...

3rd College of Paediatrics and Child Health Lecture – The Past, the Present and the Shape of Things to Come…

In the post-war days of the 1950s, Singapore children were faced with problems of malnutrition and infectious diseases. There was poverty, overcrowded housing and...

Auricular Anthropometry of Newborns at the Singapore General Hospital

Abnormalities of the external ear are described in many syndromes and genetic conditions. Melnick et al reported an incidence of 1 in 90 births...

Recurrent Patellar Dislocation: Reappraising our Approach to Surgery

Traumatic patellar dislocations affect mainly adolescents and young adults. Up to 44% of patients will develop recurrent dislocation. This article is available only as a...

Triple Endobuttton Technique in Acromioclavicular Joint Reduction and Reconstruction

Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocation is a common injury often affecting young athletes. Cyclist, ice hockey players, weight lifters, rugby players and martial exponents are...

Return to Sports After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction – A Review of Patients with Minimum 5-year Follow-up

Complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture results in a mechanically unstable knee. ACL reconstruction is recommended in athletes to help restore knee stability for...

Clinical Evaluation of Arthroscopic-assisted Allograft Meniscal Transplantation

The menisci of the knee are fibro-cartilaginous structures essential for the normal biomechanic of the knee joint. They play a critical role in shock...

Renal Cell Carcinoma Bony Metastasis Treatment

Patellar metastases are extremely rare, ironically, primary tumours of the patella are more common than metastatic disease. A Medline search from 1960 to the...

Treatment of Cardiogenic Pulmonary Oedema by Helmet-delivered Non-invasive Pressure Support Ventilation in Children With Scorpion Sting Envenomation

Scorpion stings represent an important and serious public health problem worldwide due to their high incidence and potentially severe and often fatal clinical manifestations,...

Screening Tools for Bacteraemia in a Selected Population of Febrile Children

Bacteraemia refers to the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. The presence or absence of toxicity differentiates occult bacteraemia, which is relatively asymptomatic, from...

Review of the Management Outcome of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis and the Role of Prophylactic Contra-lateral Pinning Re-examined

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis is the commonest hip problem in the adolescent age group. The goals of treatment are aimed at avoiding the complications...

Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus

Osteochondral lesions of the talus are a known cause of chronic ankle pain. They are frequently found in the active population after ankle sprains. This...

Paediatric perineal skin pit: More than skin deep?

A 2.5-year-old boy was referred to our clinic for abnormal genitalia and a febrile urinary tract infection (Escherichia coli >105 colony-forming units/mL). At birth,...

Recurrent Group B Streptococcal Septicemia in a Very Low Birth Weight Infant with Infective Endocarditis and Submandibular Cellulitis

Maternal Group B streptococcal colonisation can lead to neonatal pneumonia, meningitis or sepsis. Neonatal Group B Streptococcal (GBS) sepsis is common, but infective endocarditis...

Morbidity of Parainfluenza 3 Outbreak in Preterm Infants in a Neonatal Unit

Parainfluenza type 3 virus (PIV-3) is an important nosocomial pathogen. It closely mimics respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in its clinical presentations, and in infants....

The Natural History and Prognosticative Factors of Adult Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcomas: An Asian Perspective

Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are extremely rare tumours, making up about 1% of all malignancies. In Singapore, they accounted for 0.7% of all cancers...

Temporary Tattoo Associated Type IV Delayed Hypersensitivity Dermatitis in a Child – A Case Report and Call for Parental Caution in Singapore

A 5-year-old, previously healthy French Caucasian boy was seen at a Paediatric Emergency Department for a skin rash over his left forearm. This article is...

A Case of Congenital Haemolytic Anaemia and Thrombocytopenia

A 20-month-old boy came from Bangladesh to Singapore for medical consultation. He presented with progressive pallor, easy bruising, intermittent dark-coloured urine, and failure to...

An Exanthem with An Annular Pattern in a 2-year-old Girl

A 2-year-old Chinese girl was seen in clinic with an erythematous annular itchy rash which began on the thighs and had spread to the...

Clinical Features Differentiating Biliary Atresia from Other Causes of Neonatal Cholestasis

Causes of neonatal cholestasis (NC) are long and diverse but the responses of newborn liver, either physiological or anatomical, are limited. This is because...

Comparison of Clinical Outcomes and Cost Between Surgical and Transcatheter Device Closure of Atrial Septal Defects in Singapore Children

Congenital heart defects (CHD), with an incidence of approximately 1 in 100 live births, are the most important and frequent congenital malformations. It can...

Effect of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Biological Healing of Allografts in Critical-sized Tibial Defects Simulated in Adult Rabbits

Bridging of large bone defects is a challenging problem in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery. Options include vascularised bone autografts, non-vascularised bone autografts, allografts, bioceramics...

Bannayan Riley Ruvalcaba Syndrome

Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS) classically presents with macrocephaly, subcutaneous and visceral lipomata, haemangiomata, hamartomatous intestinal polyps and pigmented macules involving the genitalia. This autosomal dominant...

Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome

An 8-year-old boy presented with uncontrolled seizures. He was born as the second child to non-consanguineous parents. He had significant perinatal asphyxia in the...

The Need for a System of Prognostication in Skeletal Metastasis to Decide Best End-of-life Care – A Call to Arms

Decisions regarding potential surgery for metastatic disease are influenced by estimates of patient survival. For example, patients with long life expectancy may be appropriately...

Childhood Food Allergy: A Singaporean Perspective

Food allergy is defined as reaction to a food which has an immunologic mechanism. If immunoglobulin E (IgE) is involved in the reaction, the...

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is Expressed During Articular Cartilage Growth and Re-expressed in Osteoarthritis

Growth factors are polypeptides that direct cells to proliferate, differentiate, migrate or produce matrix. They exert their effects by interacting with specific receptors on...

Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defects – Is Balloon Sizing Still Necessary?

Device closure of atrial septal defects through the transcatheter approach has now been well accepted as an option to surgical treatment. A range of...

Effectiveness of Vacuum-assisted Closure (VAC) Therapy in the Healing of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Diabetes mellitus is a common problem in Singapore, with an incidence of 8.2% in the local population aged between 18 and 69 in 2004....

Survey of Healthcare Workers’ Attitudes, Beliefs and Willingness to Receive the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccine and the Impact of Educational Campaigns

Since the first positive 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) case was reported in Singapore on 26 May 2009, the country saw an exponential rise...

Reply from Author: Is It Time to Revise the Definition of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

We would like to thank the author for suggesting that the definition of ADHD should be revised. This is an important consideration in the...

Is It Time to Revise the Definition of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

I read with interest the article published in the Annals entitled “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Coping or Curing?”, which concluded that coping rather than...

Dedicated Cytogenetics Factor is Critical for Improving Karyotyping Results for Childhood Leukaemias – Experience in the National University Hospital, Singapore 1989-2006

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) make up the bulk of childhood leukaemia cases. With risk stratified therapy being one of...

Epidemiological Surveillance and Control of Rubella in Singapore, 1991-2007

Rubella is a mild febrile viral exanthematous disease transmitted through droplets or direct contact with the nasopharyngeal secretion of an infected person. It is...

Emerging Trends in Breastfeeding Practices in Singaporean Chinese Women: Findings from a Population-based Study

The health benefits of breast milk have been well documented, with positive implications for infants’ metabolic, immunologic, respiratory and digestive health. The World Health...

A Missed Bilateral Choanal Atresia

What do you see in the image? a) Deviated posterior nasal septum b) Nasopharyngeal tumour c) Rhinolith with mucous plug d) Bilateral choanal atresia e) Nasal pyriform aperture stenosis This...

Chronic Achilles Tendon Rupture Treated with Two Turndown Flaps and Flexor Hallucis Longus Augmentation – Two-year Clinical Outcome

Chronic Achilles tendon rupture is a disabling condition resulting in ankle pain, weakened ankle plantarflexion and abnormal gait. Management of chronic ruptures is technically...

Health-related Quality of Life in Children with Cancer Undergoing Treatment: A First Look at the Singapore Experience

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been progressively acknowledged as an essential health outcome measure in clinical trials and health services research and evaluation....

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Preschoolers in Singapore

The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity and its associated adverse health outcomes have become an important health issue. Childhood obesity can persist...

Lemierre’s Syndrome: An Unusual Cause of Calf Abscess

Dear Editor, Lemierre’s syndrome is a rare disease caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacillus that is associated with oropharyngeal infections. We describe a...

Electrocardiograph Changes, Troponin Levels and Cardiac Complications After Orthopaedic Surgery

Following orthopaedic surgery, approximately 5% of patients sustain cardiac complications which leads to increased morbidity and mortality. The mortality rate after hip fracture is...

Short- and Long-Term Outcomes at 2, 5 and 8 Years Old for Neonates at Borderline Viability—An 11-Year Experience

Singapore was listed consistently among the top 3 countries in the world with the lowest infant mortality rate. In particular, Asia had seen its...

Unipolar versus Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures in the Elderly: Is There a Difference?

Hip hemiarthoplasties are commonly performed for displaced femoral neck fractures. The advantages of hemiarthroplasty over internal fixation include earlier mobility, less reoperations and better...

Use of the Sole Flap to Convert an Above Knee Amputation to a Below Knee Amputation in Trauma

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) are performed for decompression of the spine when the primary compressive...

Single-level Anterior Corpectomy with Fusion versus 2-level Anterior Cervical Decompression with Fusion: A Prospective Controlled Study with 2-year Follow-up Using Cages for Fusion

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) are performed for decompression of the spine when the primary compressive...

Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in Malaysian infants

Vitamin D deficiency, a worldwide health problem, is also prevalent in tropical countries. It is estimated that 15% of the world’s population are either...

Impact of true fetal mosaicism on prenatal screening and diagnosis

Over the past decade, the non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) has increasingly been used as a method for prenatal screening for trisomy 21 (T21) and...

Optimum early orthopaedic surgery in COVID-19 patients

Multiple guidelines have been established regarding the management of COVID-19 patients. However, there remains a paucity regarding specific guidelines on the optimal timing for...

Paediatric emergency department attendances during COVID-19 and SARS in Singapore

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020, with over 110 million cumulative cases...

Epidemiology and risk stratification of minor head injuries in school-going children

Head injuries are common childhood injuries that present to paediatric emergency departments. Falls are the most common cause in young children, while contact sports...