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Response to letters arising from publication of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore clinical guideline on the use of sedation by non-anaesthesiologists during gastrointestinal endoscopy in the hospital setting

Dear Editor, The Academy of Medicine, Singapore (AMS) guideline on the use of sedation by non-anaesthesiologists during gastrointestinal endoscopy in the hospital setting and an...

Sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy in Singapore

Dear Editor, I refer to the editorial “Ensuring safe sedation during gastroendoscopy”1 and the original article “Academy of Medicine, Singapore clinical guideline on the use...

Non-anaesthesiologists administering propofol in the Singapore context

Dear Editor, Propofol is a potent intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent. Its popularity for sedation has increased in the last 3 decades because of its smooth, rapid...

Sedation by non-anaesthesiologists in gastrointestinal endoscopy

Dear Editor, We read with interest the paper by Ang et al.1 on Singapore guidelines in the use of sedation by non-anaesthesiologists during gastrointestinal endoscopy...

Epidemiological trends and outcomes of children with aural foreign bodies in Singapore

Aural foreign bodies (FBs) commonly present to the emergency department (ED) worldwide. Children represent the majority of the population, believed to be due to...

The Lancet Commission on diagnostics: What it means for Singapore

Effective healthcare systems depend on a functioning healthcare value chain—defined as a care cascade comprising screening, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. The tremendous heterogeneity and...

Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress and coronavirus anxiety among hospital essential services workers in Singapore

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected almost all geographies in the world since 2020. Many countries have imposed strict isolation measures to contain...

Mesothelial Splenic Cyst—A Case Report

Non-parasitic cystic lesions of the spleen are unusual. They are classified essentially as primary (true, epithelial) and secondary (pseudo, non-epithelial) based on the presence...

The StuI Polymorphism on Exon 8 of the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor Gene: Prevalence and Impact on Serum Lipid Levels in an Asian Cohort

The low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in the plasma carry most of the cholesterol in circulation. High levels of plasma cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol are...

Survival after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the General Wards—The Results of a Dedicated “Code” Team

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is widely practised for cardiopulmonary arrests with variable success. The initial intention was to defibrillate patients with ventricular fibrillation after acute...

Non-diagnostic Smears in Aspiration Cytology of Palpable Breast Lumps

A wide variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions have been described in the breast. Breast tissue is also subjected to many physiologic changes such...

Disseminated Penicillium marneffei Infection: A Report of Five Cases in Singapore

Penicillium marneffei is a dimorphic fungus that can cause infection in immunocompromised hosts. Reports on infection with this organism were initially uncommon, but after...

Acoustic Neuroma: Outcome of Surgical Resection and Study on the Anatomy of Facial and Cochlear Nerves

Acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) patients have greatly benefited from technical advances in neurosurgery. In fact, the evolution of acoustic neuroma surgery is a microcosm...

Hypoglycaemia from Islet Cell Hyperplasia and Nesidioblastosis in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus—A Case Report

A 57-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for perforated left tubo-ovarian abscess and found to have newly diagnosed diabetes with an admission blood...

Clinical Drug Trials: Practical Problems of Phase III

There has been a rapid increase in clinical trial activity in Singapore and other parts of Asia. Randomised clinical trials are the “gold standard”...

Deep Vein Thrombosis after Total Knee Replacement

Western literature reports a very high incidence of deep vein thrombosis in its population especially after orthopaedic surgery. In total knee replacement without prophylaxis,...

Pathology of Ductal Carcinoma In situ of the Breast: A Heterogeneous Entity in Need of Greater Understanding

Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in Singapore women, with an age-standardised rate of 46.1 per 100,000 per year and an annual increase in...

Introduction of Problem-based Learning in a Traditional Medical Curriculum in Singapore—Students’ and Tutors’ Perspectives

The National University of Singapore was started in 1905. Since then, it has trained many generations of medical practitioners. This article is available only as...

A Retrospective Study of Melanocytic Naevi at the National Skin Centre

Melanocytic naevi are benign proliferation of melanocytes of congenital and acquired types which usually appear during adolescence or early adult life. Naevi are of...

Sudden Death Due to Granulomatous Myocarditis: A Case of Sarcoidosis?

Granulomatous myocarditis and sarcoidosis are considered uncommon entities in our local community and sudden death due to either condition has not been described in...

CerbB2 Status in Breast Cancer: Pathologic Issues

The cerbB2 gene, also known as Her2/neu, encodes a transmembrane cell receptor with tyrosine kinase activity and epidermal growth factor receptor homology. All normal...

Paediatric Orthopaedics in Singapore

The name “Orthopaedic Surgery” is derived from the words “orthos” (meaning straight or to straighten) and “paido” (meaning child). Thus, it is not unexpected...

Measuring Health-related Quality of Life in Singapore: Normal Values for the English and Chinese SF-36 Health Survey

Advances in diagnosis and therapy in the second half of the 20th century have lead to impressive improvements in survival for patients with many...

Epidemiology of Beta-haemolytic Group G Streptococcal Bacteraemia in Singapore (1996 to 1998)

Human isolates of group G streptococci (GGS) that form large colonies are similar to group A streptococci (GAS) in terms of virulence and cause...

Validity and Reliability of the EQ-5D Self-report Questionnaire in Chinese-speaking Patients with Rheumatic Diseases in Singapore

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) refers to patients’ perceptions of their own functioning and well-being. HRQoL is increasingly being used as a primary or...

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) — 150 Days On

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) has been identified as a new clinical entity in the year 2003. It was on 12 March 2003...

Nipah Encephalitis Outbreak in Malaysia

From September 1998 to June 1999, there was an outbreak of viral encephalitis in several pig farming villages in Malaysia. The outbreak, which started...

Eating Disorders in Singapore: A Review

Anorexia nervosa, bulimia and binge-eating disorder are the three best described ‘eating disorders’. All three are predominantly disorders of women with the core symptoms...

Youth Suicide and Parasuicide in Singapore

The World Health Organization defines suicide as an act with a fatal outcome that is deliberately initiated and performed by the person himself or...

An intensely pruritic disseminated skin eruption

A 64-year-old man presented to the dermatology outpatient clinic with a 4-month history of pruritic papules. He had a significant medical history of thyrotoxicosis,...

Lymphomas Involving Waldeyer’s Ring: Placement, Paradigms, Peculiarities, Pitfalls, Patterns and Postulates

As the histopathological diagnosis of any lymphoma still largely hinges upon the demonstration of lymphoid architectural abnormality, the pathologist must first be cognizant of...

Melanocytic Lesions of the Face: Diagnostic Pitfalls

Cutaneous melanocytic lesions are amongst the commonest tumours in all races but are more common in Caucasians with fair skin. Although most are benign...

Behcet’s Disease: Experience in a Tertiary Rheumatology Centre in Singapore and a Review of the Literature

The only published study on Behcet’s disease in Singapore by Tan E et al (34 patients at the National Skin Centre) found that only...

Contact Lens Microbial Keratitis and Prior Topical Steroid Use: A Disaster in the Making?

Topical steroid use in cornea ulcers is still a very contentious issue in ophthalmology. A recent review by Wilhelmus found that the use of...

The HercepTest and Routine C-erbB2 Immunohistochemistry in Breast Cancer: Any Difference?

The proto-oncogene c-erbB2 (also known as HER2/neu) is located on chromosome 17q21 and encodes a 185-kD transmembrane glycoprotein. It belongs to the human epidermal...

Characteristics and Acute Rehabilitation of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Singapore

The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute, frequently severe evolution of a demyelinating inflammatory polyradiculopathy with an autoimmune pathogenesis. In developed countries, GBS is...

Familial Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Atopic Dermatitis among Chinese Families in Singapore

Family history has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of allergic rhinitis (AR) and atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the increase...

Presumed Dapsone-induced Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome Causing Reversible Hypersensitivity Myocarditis and Thyrotoxicosis

A 22-year-old Malay soldier doing his National Service was warded with a 6-day history of an itchy generalised rash associated with fever and lymphadenopathy....

Study of Inherited Metabolic Disorders in Singapore – 13 Years Experience

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) described in the early 1900s by Garrod were due to a block in a metabolic pathway, arising from an...

Early Dengue Infection and Outcome Study (EDEN) – Study Design and Preliminary Findings

Dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) is a re-emerging disease that is endemic in the tropical world. It is caused by 4 closely-related dengue viruses...

3rd College of Physicians’ Lecture – Translational Research: From Bench to Bedside and From Bedside to Bench; Incorporating a Clinical Research Journey in IgA Nephritis (1976 to 2006)

In our quest to pursue knowledge regarding a patient’s illness or seek a cure for the disease, as doctors we have to derive the...

External Proficiency Testing Programmes in Laboratory Diagnoses of Inherited Metabolic Disorders

In order to monitor and ensure the quality of our laboratory diagnoses for inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs), our laboratory participated in the proficiency testing...

Bodies Recovered from Wells, Sewerage Systems and Pits: What is the Cause of Death?

It may be difficult to determine the identities, and cause and time of death in corpses found in wells, sewer systems and pits because...

Buprenorphine-associated Deaths in Singapore

Buprenorphine is a thebaine derivative that was developed in the 1970s for pain relief. It was approved for substitution therapy in France in 1996,...

Plasma and Urine Amino Acid Profiles in a Healthy Adult Population of Singapore

Analysis of blood plasma and urinary amino acids is required for the diagnosis and management of inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) affecting one or more...

SARS in Singapore – Predictors of Disease Severity

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a recently defined illness caused by a novel coronavirus. The outbreak in Singapore originated from Hong Kong via...

The Clinical Predictors of Hypertension and Sleepiness in an Asian Population with Sleep-disordered Breathing

Sleep physicians have only recently began to learn much about the epidemiology of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) from large, well conducted prospective community-based studies. These...

Wound Infections in Tsunami Survivors: A Commentary

The Indian Ocean tsunami on 26 December 2004 killed over 225,000 people,1 but it had an impact on far more than the 12 countries...

The Future of Medical Education: The Second 100 Years

This is a proud year for the medical profession in Singapore, as we celebrate 100 years of medical education. As the oldest faculty in...

The Medical Students’ Societies and Medical Students’ Publications

For a very long time, King Edward VII (endearingly abbreviated “KE”) was synonymous with the medical school and its associated hall of residence. The...

The Teaching of Radiology

A record of Diagnostic Radiology would be incomplete without reference to Wilheim Roentgen, who discovered the rays that he could not comprehend; hence, X-rays....

One Hundred Years of Orthopaedic Education in Singapore

In looking at the history of orthopaedic education in Singapore, one must place our local setting in the worldwide perspective. Officially, the academic Department...

The Evolution of Teaching and Learning Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at NUS

The Straits and Federated Malay States Government Medical School was founded in 1905. Dr Chen Su Lan, 1 of the 7 graduates in the...

In vitro Activities of Antifungal Drugs Against Yeasts Isolated from Blood Cultures and Moulds Isolated from Various Clinically Significant Sites in Singapore

Fungaemia carries with it high mortality rates and appropriate as well as timely antifungal therapy has been shown to be life saving. Amphotericin B...

One Hundred Years of Physiology Education in Singapore

Physiology is the study of normal function in the body and how genes, proteins, organ systems interact to maintain health. It provides a foundation...

Antimicrobial Resistance: A New Beginning and the Need for Action

In this issue, the articles (historical, original and review papers) highlight the extent and problem of antimicrobial resistance in Singapore. The authors should be...

The Media and Suicide

Suicide worldwide is estimated to represent 1.8% of the total global burden of disease in 1998, and 2.4% in countries with market and former...

Diabetic Retinopathy in Diabetics Referred to a Tertiary Centre from a Nationwide Screening Programme

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in Asia. Singapore has one of the highest prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus (DM)...

A Doctor’s Duty is to Heal the Unhealthy: The Story of Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad

Mahathir Mohamad was born in 1925 in Alor Setar, Kedah. In 1947, after living through the turbulent times of the Second World War, he...

Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy followed by Surgery in Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oesophagus: A Single Centre Experience

Carcinoma of the oesophagus is a relatively uncommon malignancy in Singapore and incidence rates have been declining since 1968. A total of 506 cases...

After the Indian Ocean Tsunami: Singapore’s Contribution to the International Disaster Victim Identification Effort in Thailand

The now much-discussed tsunami of 26 December 2004, attributed to a massive undersea earthquake (magnitude of 9 on the Richter scale) that occurred off...

Assessment of Vertigo

Vertigo has been said to be the greatest “heartsink” symptom in medicine. That certainly is a possibility but every specialty has its similar conditions,...

Acceptance of Prophylactic Surgery and Chemoprevention of Cancer in Singapore – A Survey

The Singapore healthcare philosophy aims to establish a healthy population through preventive healthcare programmes and public health education. Public education usually emphasises the adverse...

Twentieth Century Influenza Pandemics in Singapore

Tropical countries such as Singapore, although without well-defined influenza seasons, are also affected by influenza epidemics and pandemics. Twenty per cent of Singapore’s population...

Translating the Family Medicine Vision into Educational Programmes in Singapore

The core of the Family Medicine (FM) vision is patient-centred care, requiring specific education and vocational training. Modern day FM began its existence as...

Pericardial Thymoma: An Unusual Cause of Sudden Death

Thymomas are located in the normal location of the thymus, the anterior mediastinum. It is very rare for thymomas to arise primarily intrapericardialy. This article...

Concerns, Perceived Impact and Preparedness in an Avian Influenza Pandemic – a Comparative Study between Healthcare Workers in Primary and Tertiary Care

The danger posed by emerging infectious diseases has become greater in the past few years with the World Health Organization (WHO) warning that the...

Concomitant Use of Midazolam and Buprenorphine and its Implications Among Drug Users in Singapore

Benzodiazepines (BDZs) (commonly known as “sleeping pills”) are routinely and successfully used in the treatment of sleep and anxiety disorders. However, studies have indicated...

A Brief History of the Chapter of Dental Surgeons

The idea of having an Academy of Medicine in Singapore was first proposed by some 20 medical specialists on 19 July 1957 and was...

A Brief History of the College of Surgeons, Singapore (Formerly known as Chapter of Surgeons), Academy of Medicine, Singapore

The Academy of Medicine, Singapore was duly founded in 1957 as the professional corporate body of medical and dental specialists in Singapore. The Chapter...

From the Chapter of Physicians, Academy of Medicine, Singapore to the College of Physicians, Singapore

The transformation of the previous Chapter of Physicians, Academy of Medicine, Singapore to the current College of Physicians, Singapore in 2004 was the outcome...

Recent Development in Paediatrics: from Chapter to College

Paediatrics is among one of the earliest specialties to develop in Singapore and its early development has been documented on various occasions.1-4 At the...

From the Chapter of Anaesthetists to the College of Anaesthesiologists, Singapore

The arrival of Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 herald the birth of western medicine in Singapore. Doctors were then sent here from Britain. These...

Academy of Medicine, Singapore – The Next Twenty-Five Years (1982-2007)

The Academy of Medicine was founded in 1957 as the professional corporate body of medical and dental specialists in Singapore. From a modest beginning...

Epidemiology, Management and Treatment Outcome of Medulloblastoma in Singapore

Medulloblastoma (MBL) is the most common type of malignant brain tumour in childhood. It belongs to the group of tumours known as primitive neuroectodermal...

Timing of Hospital Presentation After Acute Cerebral Infarction and Patients’ Acceptance of Intravenous Thrombolysi

Intravenous thrombolysis in acute cerebral infarction has been proven to be efficacious in improving functional outcome if given within 3 hours from stroke onset.1...

Demographic and Clinical Features of 150 Pathological Gamblers Referred to a Community Addictions Programme

Pathological gambling has been defined as a persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behaviour that disrupts personal, family and work life. The diagnosis is not...

Successful Rehabilitation With Cochlear Implant in Post-irradiation Induced Hearing Loss in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patient

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common disease in Asia.1 Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. Following radiotherapy, complications like profound sensorineural hearing loss may...

Clinical Aspects and Management of Fibromyalgia Syndrome

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) has been referred to as a medically unexplained syndrome;1,2 a rheumatological entity described in rheumatology textbooks and taught to all training...

A Prospective Cohort Study on the Impact of a Modified Basic Military Training (mBMT) Programme Based on Pre-enlistment Fitness Stratification Amongst Asian Military Enlistees

Basic military training (BMT) is seen as a vital initiation phase into military service when new recruits are conditioned to the rigours of military...

Where the Elderly Die: The Influence of Socio-Demographic Factors and Cause of Death on People Dying at Home

The subject of place of death was brought to the forefront of the medical community in July 2004 when 2 important publications were released;...

Peritoneo-Cutaneous Fistula Secondary to Skin Excoriation from a Large Chronic Incisional Hernia

Incisional hernias are common complications following abdominal surgery with an incidence of 2% to 20% after midline laparotomy. Umbilical fluid discharge is, however, an...

Trends in Importation of Communicable Diseases into Singapore

Singapore is a city-state in Southeast Asia, with a total population in 2007 of 4,839,400, of which 3,642,700 (75.3%) are Singaporean residents. The remaining...

Acceptance of Information and Communication Technologies for Healthcare Delivery: A SingHealth Polyclinics Study

Information and communication technologies, such as internet portal and short message system (SMS), are increasingly used in healthcare delivery worldwide.1,2 Typically, these technologies are...

Primary Epithelioid Angiosarcoma of the Lung Presenting as Left-sided Shoulder Pain

Primary angiosarcoma of the lung is a rare, often difficult to diagnose disorder with non-specific respiratory manifestations. Angiosarcoma involving the lung is usually a...

Macronodular Tuberculosis: Imaging Resemblance of Cholangiocarcinoma

The ability of multiphasic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) studies in the diagnosis of liver tumours such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma...

Phosph-Akt1 Expression is Associated with a Favourable Prognosis in Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide with an estimated 34,290 deaths recorded in the United States in 2008....

Timing of Arrival to a Tertiary Hospital after Acute Ischaemic Stroke – A Follow-up Survey 5 Years Later

Intravenous tPA is a proven treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. However as it has to be given in a narrow time window from symptom...

Drug-induced Kidney Disease – Pathology and Current Concepts

Departing from the usual account of drug-induced renal disease according to the specific type of drug, we divide this discussion into 3 main areas...

Diagnostic Accuracy of Anthropometric Indices for Obesity Screening Among Asian Adolescents

Obesity or excess body fat is strongly associated with enhanced risks of morbidity and mortality, and its prevalence is rapidly escalating worldwide. Despite these...

Genome-wide Association Studies: Promises and Pitfalls

Genetic testing is an important means to confirm the diagnosis of an inheritable disease. For this to be feasible, genes that are associated with...

Health-related Quality of Life is Associated with Diabetic Complications, but not with Short-term Diabetic Control in Primary Care

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major chronic disease globally. With increasing life expectancy, long-term complications of diabetes mellitus leading to significant morbidity and...

Quality of Life in Pathological Gamblers in a Multiethnic Asian Setting

Pathological gambling is categorized under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TR) as an impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified....

Causes of Death in Hospitalised Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected Patients at a National Referral Centre in Singapore: A Retrospective Review from 2008 to 2010

The advent of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era has greatly reduced the mortality and incidence of new diagnoses of acquired immune deficiency...

Causes of Death and Factors Associated with Early Death Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Persons in Singapore: Pre-Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and Peri-HAART

Since the first case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was diagnosed in Singapore in May 1985, a total of 4845 cases and 1389 HIV/acquired...

Melanoma: Differences between Asian and Caucasian Patients

Cutaneous melanoma is the most common cause of mortality amongst skin cancer in Caucasian populations and incidence rates per 100,000 patient years vary between...

Overcoming Barriers to Mammography Screening: A Quasi-randomised Pragmatic Trial in a Community-based Primary Care Setting

Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women in Singapore, accounting for 29% of all cancers occurring in women between 2006 and 2010. Evidence...

Hoarding in an Asian Population: Prevalence, Correlates, Disability and Quality of Life

Hoarding is defined as the acquisition of, and inability to discard items even though they appear to others to have no value, leading to...

Clinical Outcome and Cost Comparison Between Laparoscopic and Open Appendicectomy

Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain requiring surgical intervention. The traditional operation of choice was the open...

Osteogenic Sarcoma in Children and Young Adults

Osteogenic sarcoma (OS) is a primary malignant tumour of the bone, derived from primitive bone-forming mesenchyme and characterised by the production of osteoid tissue...

Single Centre Experience of Transjugular Liver Biopsy in 152 Patients

The first reported case of liver biopsy was recorded in 1883 by Ehrlich. Since then, the technique of liver biopsy has been modified tremendously...

200 years of surgery at the General Hospital, Singapore

Western medicine in Singapore began with Sir Stamford Raffles’ arrival on 28 January 1819 with a sub-assistant surgeon, Dr Thomas Prendergast, providing medical care...

Projecting the Number of Older Singaporeans with Activity of Daily Living Limitations Requiring Human Assistance Through 2030

Similar to other developed countries in Asia, including Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, the population of Singapore is ageing rapidly. In 2011, 9.3% of...

Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life Among Community Dwelling Elderly

Singapore is experiencing an unprecedented age shift as the post-war baby boomers turn 65 years in 2012. Currently there are 378,700 people aged 65...

A Review of Back Injury Cases Notified to the Ministry of Manpower from 2011 to 2012

Work-related low back disorders consist of both low back pain (LBP) and low back injuries. They are a significant and increasing problem all over...

Academic Medicine Education Institute (AM∙EI): Transforming the Educational Culture of Health Professionals

In 2010, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School (Duke-NUS) and Singapore Healthcare Services (SingHealth) launched an initiative to improve the lives of patients by combining their...

Diagnosing Bacteraemia Early in Older Adults

Sepsis is a prevalent and important cause of morbidity and mortality in the general population. Approximately 750,000 patients in the United States alone develop...

Risk Factors for Severe Adenovirus Infection in Children during an Outbreak in Singapore

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are well known pathogens that cause a variety of human illnesses. They are non-enveloped, linear double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses. More...

24th Seah Cheng Siang Lecture: Seeing Better, Doing Better—Evolution and Application of Gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy

Man’s innate curiosity to study the internal organs of the human body dates back to the time of Hippocrates where basic speculums were invented...

Safety and Effectiveness of Improving Carbapenem Use via Prospective Review and Feedback in a Multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship Programme

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria coupled with a rapidly diminishing antimicrobial pipeline has made antimicrobial resistance an international public health problem. Control strategies of MDR bacteria...

Anaerobic Bacteraemia Revisited: Species and Susceptibilities

Over the last 2 decades, the importance of anaerobic bacteraemia has undergone various shifts in opinion. Early studies in the 1970s reported that anaerobes...

Evolution and trends in the adoption of laparoscopic liver resection in Singapore: Analysis of 300 cases

Over the past few decades, the introduction of laparoscopic surgery has been the biggest game changer in abdominal surgery.1 However, although the first laparoscopic...

Assessing the Content Validity of the EQ-5D Questionnaire Among Asians in Singapore: A Qualitative Study

EQ-5D is a tool to measure and value health status. It is a standardised questionnaire that comprises 2 components: a Descriptive System (DS) on...

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Singapore: Reflecting on the First Decade

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has markedly changed the way aortic valve stenosis is treated. It is 18 years since the first patient was...

Comparative Analysis of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children

Singapore confirmed its first case of COVID-19 on 23 January 2020 in a Chinese national from Wuhan, and its first paediatric case on February...

Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae carriage in polyclinic attendees and national servicemen presenting with diarrhoea

Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess is an invasive syndrome that mainly affects people living in East Asia. It especially affects adults with diabetes and is...

PLA2R1 and HLA-DQA1 gene variations in idiopathic membranous nephropathy in South China

Membranous nephropathy is an organ-specific autoimmune disease and is the most common cause of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome. The diagnosis of membranous nephropathy mainly depends...

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood presenting as recurrent apnoea in a term newborn infant

Recurrent apnoea in a term infant is usually pathologic, warranting a thorough aetiologic evaluation. An accurate diagnosis is essential in guiding subsequent management and...