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Mesothelial Splenic Cyst—A Case Report

Non-parasitic cystic lesions of the spleen are unusual. They are classified essentially as primary (true, epithelial) and secondary (pseudo, non-epithelial) based on the presence...

The StuI Polymorphism on Exon 8 of the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor Gene: Prevalence and Impact on Serum Lipid Levels in an Asian Cohort

The low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in the plasma carry most of the cholesterol in circulation. High levels of plasma cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol are...

Non-diagnostic Smears in Aspiration Cytology of Palpable Breast Lumps

A wide variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions have been described in the breast. Breast tissue is also subjected to many physiologic changes such...

Hypoglycaemia from Islet Cell Hyperplasia and Nesidioblastosis in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus—A Case Report

A 57-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for perforated left tubo-ovarian abscess and found to have newly diagnosed diabetes with an admission blood...

Pathology of Ductal Carcinoma In situ of the Breast: A Heterogeneous Entity in Need of Greater Understanding

Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in Singapore women, with an age-standardised rate of 46.1 per 100,000 per year and an annual increase in...

Sudden Death Due to Granulomatous Myocarditis: A Case of Sarcoidosis?

Granulomatous myocarditis and sarcoidosis are considered uncommon entities in our local community and sudden death due to either condition has not been described in...

CerbB2 Status in Breast Cancer: Pathologic Issues

The cerbB2 gene, also known as Her2/neu, encodes a transmembrane cell receptor with tyrosine kinase activity and epidermal growth factor receptor homology. All normal...

Epidemiology of Beta-haemolytic Group G Streptococcal Bacteraemia in Singapore (1996 to 1998)

Human isolates of group G streptococci (GGS) that form large colonies are similar to group A streptococci (GAS) in terms of virulence and cause...

Nipah Encephalitis Outbreak in Malaysia

From September 1998 to June 1999, there was an outbreak of viral encephalitis in several pig farming villages in Malaysia. The outbreak, which started...

An intensely pruritic disseminated skin eruption

A 64-year-old man presented to the dermatology outpatient clinic with a 4-month history of pruritic papules. He had a significant medical history of thyrotoxicosis,...

Lymphomas Involving Waldeyer’s Ring: Placement, Paradigms, Peculiarities, Pitfalls, Patterns and Postulates

As the histopathological diagnosis of any lymphoma still largely hinges upon the demonstration of lymphoid architectural abnormality, the pathologist must first be cognizant of...

Melanocytic Lesions of the Face: Diagnostic Pitfalls

Cutaneous melanocytic lesions are amongst the commonest tumours in all races but are more common in Caucasians with fair skin. Although most are benign...

The HercepTest and Routine C-erbB2 Immunohistochemistry in Breast Cancer: Any Difference?

The proto-oncogene c-erbB2 (also known as HER2/neu) is located on chromosome 17q21 and encodes a 185-kD transmembrane glycoprotein. It belongs to the human epidermal...

Presumed Dapsone-induced Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome Causing Reversible Hypersensitivity Myocarditis and Thyrotoxicosis

A 22-year-old Malay soldier doing his National Service was warded with a 6-day history of an itchy generalised rash associated with fever and lymphadenopathy....

Study of Inherited Metabolic Disorders in Singapore – 13 Years Experience

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) described in the early 1900s by Garrod were due to a block in a metabolic pathway, arising from an...

External Proficiency Testing Programmes in Laboratory Diagnoses of Inherited Metabolic Disorders

In order to monitor and ensure the quality of our laboratory diagnoses for inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs), our laboratory participated in the proficiency testing...

Bodies Recovered from Wells, Sewerage Systems and Pits: What is the Cause of Death?

It may be difficult to determine the identities, and cause and time of death in corpses found in wells, sewer systems and pits because...

Buprenorphine-associated Deaths in Singapore

Buprenorphine is a thebaine derivative that was developed in the 1970s for pain relief. It was approved for substitution therapy in France in 1996,...

Plasma and Urine Amino Acid Profiles in a Healthy Adult Population of Singapore

Analysis of blood plasma and urinary amino acids is required for the diagnosis and management of inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) affecting one or more...

A Brief History of Pathology and the Chapter of Pathologists

A history of the Chapter of Pathologists would be incomplete without a history of the specialty of Pathology in Singapore. Pathology is in fact...

Peritoneo-Cutaneous Fistula Secondary to Skin Excoriation from a Large Chronic Incisional Hernia

Incisional hernias are common complications following abdominal surgery with an incidence of 2% to 20% after midline laparotomy. Umbilical fluid discharge is, however, an...

Primary Epithelioid Angiosarcoma of the Lung Presenting as Left-sided Shoulder Pain

Primary angiosarcoma of the lung is a rare, often difficult to diagnose disorder with non-specific respiratory manifestations. Angiosarcoma involving the lung is usually a...

Macronodular Tuberculosis: Imaging Resemblance of Cholangiocarcinoma

The ability of multiphasic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) studies in the diagnosis of liver tumours such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma...

Phosph-Akt1 Expression is Associated with a Favourable Prognosis in Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide with an estimated 34,290 deaths recorded in the United States in 2008....

Drug-induced Kidney Disease – Pathology and Current Concepts

Departing from the usual account of drug-induced renal disease according to the specific type of drug, we divide this discussion into 3 main areas...

Genome-wide Association Studies: Promises and Pitfalls

Genetic testing is an important means to confirm the diagnosis of an inheritable disease. For this to be feasible, genes that are associated with...

Diagnosing Bacteraemia Early in Older Adults

Sepsis is a prevalent and important cause of morbidity and mortality in the general population. Approximately 750,000 patients in the United States alone develop...

Risk Factors for Severe Adenovirus Infection in Children during an Outbreak in Singapore

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are well known pathogens that cause a variety of human illnesses. They are non-enveloped, linear double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses. More...

Safety and Effectiveness of Improving Carbapenem Use via Prospective Review and Feedback in a Multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship Programme

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria coupled with a rapidly diminishing antimicrobial pipeline has made antimicrobial resistance an international public health problem. Control strategies of MDR bacteria...

Anaerobic Bacteraemia Revisited: Species and Susceptibilities

Over the last 2 decades, the importance of anaerobic bacteraemia has undergone various shifts in opinion. Early studies in the 1970s reported that anaerobes...

Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae carriage in polyclinic attendees and national servicemen presenting with diarrhoea

Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess is an invasive syndrome that mainly affects people living in East Asia. It especially affects adults with diabetes and is...

PLA2R1 and HLA-DQA1 gene variations in idiopathic membranous nephropathy in South China

Membranous nephropathy is an organ-specific autoimmune disease and is the most common cause of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome. The diagnosis of membranous nephropathy mainly depends...

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood presenting as recurrent apnoea in a term newborn infant

Recurrent apnoea in a term infant is usually pathologic, warranting a thorough aetiologic evaluation. An accurate diagnosis is essential in guiding subsequent management and...