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Cardiac sarcoidosis: Difficulties in diagnosis and treatment

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem, granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. It affects the lungs in 90% of cases, but is also known to affect other...

Circular RNAs in the pathogenesis of sepsis and their clinical implications: A narrative review

Sepsis is a condition with life-threatening organ dysfunction, resulting from abnormal responses of the host to various infections.1 The underlying pathogenic mechanisms include an...

Cryptococcal Prostatic Abscess in an Immunocompromised Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Cryptococcosis is a well-recognised infection in immunocompromised patients, although its prevalence varies with the type of immune defect. We report a patient with myasthenia...

The Role of Cytokines and Cytokine Gene Polymorphism in T-cell Activation and Allograft Rejection

Cytokines are peptide molecules that are responsible for intercellular signalling during immune activation events. Cytokines are responsible, in large part, for the regulation of...

15th Seah Cheng Siang Memorial Lecture: Liver Transplantation – Lessons Learnt and Future Horizons

It is a great honour to be giving this lecture – the 15th, in memory of Professor Seah, who by all accounts was truly...

Cyclosporin-induced Sebaceous Hyperplasia in Renal Transplant Patients

There are several reports in the literature of sebaceous hyperplasia being induced by cyclosporin in immuno-suppression of organ transplant patients. The condition was only...

Tuberculosis Post-Liver Transplantation: A Rare but Complicated Disease

Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious opportunistic infection in transplant recipients, with an incidence in organ transplant recipients ranging from 0.35% in developed countries to...

The Eye Institute–Bausch & Lomb Research Prize

This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on "Download PDF" to view the full article.

Vision Restoration Therapy: New Hope for Stroke Patients with Visual Field Loss

Patients suffering from visual field defects caused by optic nerve or post-chiasmatic injury commonly experience many limitations in their daily activities. The generally accepted...

Report of the National Myopia Prevention and Control Workgroup 2006: A Summary

The prevalence rates of myopia, including high myopia (spherical equivalent at least –6.0 diopters), are rising to epidemic proportions in Asia. Singapore has one...

Art and the Eye: The Impact of Ocular Pathology on Their Artistic Legacy

The review articles in this journal represent the advancing frontier of the dynamic specialty of ophthalmology. In the cacophony of advancing scientific opinion, we...

Recent Developments of Informed Consent in Eye Research

Two recent court rulings1 have underlined the global trend of relying on the principles of medical ethics of autonomy or self-determination of the individual...

Endoscopic Cyclophotocoagulation: An Overview and Asian Perspective

The heterogeneous group of conditions resulting in glaucomatous optic neuropathy have been treated with a combination of medical and surgical therapies. The advent of...

Is There a Role for Nutritional Supplements in Dry Eye?

The possible role of nutritional supplementation in preventing or halting the progression of ocular disease is of interest to healthcare professionals and patients. Nutritional...

Prophylaxis Against Endopthalmitis in Cataract Surgery

Endophthalmitis is an uncommon but potentially devastating complication of cataract surgery and often carries a poor prognosis. Due to variations in study design and...

The Role of Advancement Flaps in Peri-ocular Reconstructive Surgery

The advancement flap is a modality of skin defect closure via mobilisation of tissue along a linear direction. It is one of the most...

The Role of Muller’s Muscle-Conjunctiva Resection (MCR) in the Treatment of Ptosis

The Muller’s muscle (MM) is a sympathetically innervated upper eyelid muscle that elevates the eyelid besides the levator palpebral superioris. The MM resembles smooth...

Age-related Macular Degeneration – An Asian Perspective

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a group of non-Mendellian disorders which share the common manifestation of chronic progressive degeneration of the macula involving changes...

The Emerging Challenge of Age-related Eye Diseases in Singapore

Singapore has one of the fastest ageing populations in the world today. The current elderly population, defined as persons 65 years or older, comprises...

Retinal and Cardiovascular Diseases: The “Common Soil” Theory

There is increasing evidence that retinal and cardiovascular diseases share a “common soil”. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and...

Prevention of Blindness in Singapore: No Room for Complacency

It is now a well-known fact that Singapore’s population is greying dramatically due to the ageing of the “baby boomers” – defined as those...

The Role of Research in Transplantation

Organ and bone marrow transplantation have been extraordinary success stories in medicine during the past 50 years. A large and important clinical service has...

Herpes Zoster as a Useful Clinical Marker of Underlying Cell-mediated Immune Disorders

Herpes zoster (HZ) occurs when latent virus in the dorsal-root ganglia becomes reactivated and causes a vesicular and often painful rash with a dermatomal...

Incidence and Risk Factors for Development of New-onset Diabetes after Kidney Transplantation

The development of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a serious metabolic complication of kidney transplantation that predisposes patients to graft dysfunction, cardiovascular disease...