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Functional improvement after inpatient rehabilitation in community hospitals following acute hospital care

Early inpatient rehabilitation therapy has been known to have beneficial impact on physical function and mobility, psychological status and cognitive function of patients following...

Abdominal Surgery in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infected Patients—Early Local Experience

The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is rising at an exponential rate in Singapore. The surgical experience with this disease remains limited. This...

Predictors of Long-term Outcome in Severe Head Injury

Injuries form the fifth commonest cause of death locally. They accounted for 27 out of 100 000 deaths in 1993. This article is available only...

Urinary 2/16α-hydroxyestrone Ratio: Correlation with Serum Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 and a Potential Biomarker of Breast Cancer Risk

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Singapore with age-standardised incidence rates increasing markedly from 26.8 to 38.7 per 100 000...

Clinical Predictors of Nephritis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Lupus nephritis is a common manifestation of lupus associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of cytotoxic agents has resulted in improved renal...

Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which could lead to visual impairment and blindness, is a recognised serious morbidity amongst surviving premature infants. The inverse relationship...

The Use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway in Post-Tonsillectomy Haemorrhage—A Case Report

A 53-year-old man with a history of hypertension and asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was admitted to the hospital for an elective uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, tonsillectomy and bilateral...

Correlation of Baseline Quantitative Plasma Human Immunodeficiency (HIV) Type 1 RNA Viral Load with Clinical Status and CD4+ T-cell Counts in Treatment-Naïve HIV-Positive Patients in Singapore

Quantitative plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) ribonucleic acid (RNA) viral load is used clinically as a predictor of progression of HIV-1 infection...

Deep Vein Thrombosis after Total Knee Replacement

Western literature reports a very high incidence of deep vein thrombosis in its population especially after orthopaedic surgery. In total knee replacement without prophylaxis,...

Case Reports of Nocardiosis in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

Nocardiosis is an infection caused by a soil-borne aerobic filamentous bacterium in the genus Nocardia and the order Actinomycetales. Within the genus Nocardia, N....

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Presenting with Chronic Actinic Dermatitis: A Case Report

A 40-year-old Chinese man of skin phototype III (Table I), formerly a welder in a shipyard, presented with pruritic papules on his face, neck...

Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected Patients in Singapore

The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease has pursued a relentless course since it was first recognised in the early 1980s and if...

Urinary Retention in Hospitalised Older Women

Voiding dysfunction is a relatively common problem in hospitalised older patients. Up to one-third of hospitalised elderly were reported to have post-void residual urine...

Abdominal Complications after Cardiac Surgery

Despite intensive therapeutic efforts, both the incidence and mortality of gastrointestinal complications after cardiac surgery employing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have not decreased during the...

A Twelve-year Review of Radical Cystectomies in Singapore General Hospital

Bladder carcinoma is the tenth most common cancer affecting men in Singapore. It is more common in men with an age-standardised incidence rate of...

Clinical Update on Deep Vein Thrombosis in Singapore

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and its acute complication–pulmonary embolism (PE), is one of the most important preventable causes of death in hospital patients. It...

Asthma in Light of Patient Documents. A Factor Analytic Study

The lack of uniform criteria for asthma handicaps the diagnosis, the systematic documentation of cases and the consistent reporting of studies addressing asthma. It...

Challenges in Perinatal Medicine

One of the significant milestones in the perinatal care in Singapore is the birth of the Perinatal Society of Singapore in March 1989. This...

HIV/AIDS in Children

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in Asia has grown from a handful of cases to a major...

Adolescent Alcohol and Other Substance Use: Sharing the Australian Experience

The most common causes of morbidity in adolescence often have behavioural or social determinants, and can have enormous social and economic consequences for adolescent...

Sexually Transmitted Infections in Singapore Teenagers

Adolescence can be a difficult period for many individuals who have to navigate their way through complicated emotional, psychological, physical and social demands and...

Guidelines on Cardiac CT in Singapore (2006)

The heart is difficult to image because of its complex wall motion and variability of the cardiac cycle. Recent advances in 16 and 64-slice...

Factors Associated With Functional Decline of Hospitalised Older Persons Following Discharge From an Acute Geriatric Unit

Hospitalisation is a stressful event for the older person. The physiological changes associated with ageing, such as decreased muscle strength and aerobic activity, reduced...

Multimodal Antiemetic Therapy and Emetic Risk Profiling

In the last few years, hundreds of papers exploring the issue of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) have been published. It has been estimated...

Factors Associated with Decompression and Strabismus Surgery in Thyroid Eye Disease

Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a visually and socially disabling condition. Newly diagnosed patients are often fearful of sight-threatening complications that include optic nerve...

Healthcare Workers and HIV Health Issues

This paper aims to present a comprehensive review of issues related to HIV testing in healthcare workers (HCWs) and proposes appropriate measures in response...

Concomitant Coronary Artery Disease Among Asian Ischaemic Stroke Patients

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality following ischaemic stroke. The annual risk for myocardial infarction following ischaemic stroke is approximately...

Sociodemographic Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Public Health Education – A Comparison of Two Studies in Singapore

Public health education is a cornerstone in the primary prevention of chronic diseases. In the United States, for example, studies have shown that cardiovascular...

The Association Between Parental Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Medical Students’ Personal and Professional Development

In order to commit to their mission and placement requirement efficiently and effectively, policy-makers need to decide which types of students their training units...

Risk Factors for Conversion to Open Surgery in Patients With Acute Cholecystitis Undergoing Interval Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become a routine surgical procedure in general surgical units all over the world. Its implementation has expanded dramatically and is considered...

Cerebral Microangiopathy in Patients with Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Cardiovascular complications account for the highest rate of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), type 1 and type 2, respectively. The...

Expanding the Scope of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection

The 2010 Global Report on AIDS contains some welcome news: the number of annual AIDS-related deaths has continued to decrease from a peak of...

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Singaporean Women Undergoing Termination of Pregnancy

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterially sexually transmitted infection (STI) in England and Wales.1 This infection if untreated can lead to pelvic inflammatory...

Peripheral Arterial Disease in Community-based Patients with Diabetes in Singapore: Results from a Primary Healthcare Study

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a significant complication of diabetes mellitus and accounts for the majority of amputations among these patients with diabetes. In...

Evaluation of Intensive Care Unit-acquired Urinary Tract Infections in Singapore

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common types of nosocomial infections encountered in the inpatient settings including intensive care unit (ICU)....

Outbreak of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1-2009) in Singapore, May to September 2009

The first cases of infection with a novel influenza A (H1N1) strain were reported in 6 cases in California and 2 cases in Texas...

Rationale for Redefining Obesity in Asians

Obesity is a condition characterised by an excess of body fats. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there were about 1.6 billion overweight...

The Risk Factors for Ultrasound-diagnosed Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Adolescents

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing recognised as one of the most important causes of chronic liver disease in Western countries. It encompasses...

Renal Cell Carcinoma in Young Patients is Associated with Poorer Prognosis

Recent studies show a steady rise in the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The increase had been attributed to screen-detected renal tumours in...

Biomedical Strategies for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention? A New Paradigm

The first 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic will be remembered by the way individuals, communities, nations and...

Presentation and Outcome Amongst Older Singaporeans Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS): Does Age Alone Drive Excess Mortality?

Singapore is a country of high income with a low level human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, the yearly incidence of disease currently standing at...

Causes of Death in Hospitalised Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected Patients at a National Referral Centre in Singapore: A Retrospective Review from 2008 to 2010

The advent of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era has greatly reduced the mortality and incidence of new diagnoses of acquired immune deficiency...

Effects of Age and Gender on Left Atrial Ejection Force and Volume from Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiograph

The left atrium (LA) plays the primary role in the filling of the left ventricle (LV). A number of studies have demonstrated that LA...

Diagnostic Value of Ultrasound-detected Calcification in Thyroid Nodules

Thyroid nodules which can be palpated are present in between 4% and 7% of the population. Solid nodules as small as 3 mm and...

Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

According to the National Health Survey, the percentage of Singapore residents with diabetes mellitus (DM) aged between 18 and 69 years has risen from...

The Greying Pandemic: Implications of Ageing Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Population in Singapore

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global public health issue. It is estimated that there are 37.9 million people living with HIV (PLHIV) today....