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Response to letters arising from publication of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore clinical guideline on the use of sedation by non-anaesthesiologists during gastrointestinal endoscopy in the hospital setting

Dear Editor, The Academy of Medicine, Singapore (AMS) guideline on the use of sedation by non-anaesthesiologists during gastrointestinal endoscopy in the hospital setting and an...

Sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy in Singapore

Dear Editor, I refer to the editorial “Ensuring safe sedation during gastroendoscopy”1 and the original article “Academy of Medicine, Singapore clinical guideline on the use...

Non-anaesthesiologists administering propofol in the Singapore context

Dear Editor, Propofol is a potent intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent. Its popularity for sedation has increased in the last 3 decades because of its smooth, rapid...

Sedation by non-anaesthesiologists in gastrointestinal endoscopy

Dear Editor, We read with interest the paper by Ang et al.1 on Singapore guidelines in the use of sedation by non-anaesthesiologists during gastrointestinal endoscopy...

Perception of disease, well-being and financial burden by patients with chronic hepatitis B: A self-reported assessment

Dear Editor, Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection affects approximately 248 million individuals in the world1 and 3.6% of the Singapore population.2 Given the natural history...

Attitude towards screening for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in newborns in Singapore

Dear Editor, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common congenital infection.1 A systematic review that included 77 studies from 36 countries reported that the overall...

Epidemiological trends and outcomes of children with aural foreign bodies in Singapore

Aural foreign bodies (FBs) commonly present to the emergency department (ED) worldwide. Children represent the majority of the population, believed to be due to...

Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress and coronavirus anxiety among hospital essential services workers in Singapore

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected almost all geographies in the world since 2020. Many countries have imposed strict isolation measures to contain...

Glaucoma Pattern Amongst the Elderly Chinese in Singapore

Glaucoma is a major cause of world blindness in developing and developed nations. The WHO Global data on blindness show that over half of...

Frontal Sinus Mucoceles Causing Proptosis—Two Case Reports

Frontal mucoceles are collections of inspissated mucus which occur when there is obstruction to the outflow of the frontal sinuses. The obstruction may be...

Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix

It is clear from studies in Canada, Scandinavia, and more recently the United Kingdom, that routine Pap smear screening has not only reduced the...

A Case Series of Ocular Disease as the Primary Manifestation in Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic, systemic, non-caseating, granulomatous disease with protean clinical manifestations. Although the first description of sarcoidosis was attributed to Hutchinson, its ocular...

Trends in the Pattern of Blindness and Major Ocular Diseases in Singapore and Asia

Singapore’s population has grown rapidly since 1965, the year in which it gained independence. The total population enumerated at its first census in 1970...

Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit for Poisoning

The study of poisoning has been relatively neglected in Singapore. A check through the Infogate database of the National University of Singapore Library revealed...

Survival after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the General Wards—The Results of a Dedicated “Code” Team

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is widely practised for cardiopulmonary arrests with variable success. The initial intention was to defibrillate patients with ventricular fibrillation after acute...

A Case Series of Paget’s Disease of Bone: Diagnosing a Rather Uncommon Condition in Singapore

Sir James Paget’s description in 1877 of “a form of chronic inflammation of bones” which now bears his name was based entirely on clinical...

A Case of Accelerated Development of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in a Woman with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus after Pregnancy

Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in persons between the age of 24 and 64 years both in the US and the...

Trilateral Retinoblastoma—A Case Report

Retinoblastoma is the third most common tumour in childhood. It is inherited genetically. This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download...

Population-based Mammographic Screening in Singapore: What are Participants’ Views?

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Singapore and has been increasing in incidence since 1968. This rise is particularly marked...

9th Seah Cheng Siang Memorial Lecture: Gastric Cancer—Where are we now?

The last two decades have witnessed dramatic changes in the understanding of gastric cancer: a rapid decline in global incidence, its association with Helicobacter...

One-year Review of Pityriasis Rosea at the National Skin Centre, Singapore

Pityriasis rosea is a common, self-limited disorder of unknown but suspected viral aetiology, that develops abruptly with few or no prodromal symptoms. Classically, the...

Excimer Laser Phototherapeutic Keratectomy for Recurrent Corneal Erosions

Recurrent cornea1 erosion (RCE) syndrome is a commonly encountered clinical condition which may be difficult to treat. Hansen first described it in 1872. This article...

Use of EMLA Cream or Alfentanil for Analgesia during Ophthalmic Nerve Blocks

Cataract surgery is performed mainly as day-case surgery, with the majority performed under regional anaesthesia. Retrobulbar block, combined with facial nerve block, provides good...

Disseminated Penicillium marneffei Infection: A Report of Five Cases in Singapore

Penicillium marneffei is a dimorphic fungus that can cause infection in immunocompromised hosts. Reports on infection with this organism were initially uncommon, but after...

Use of Ligase Chain Reaction and Polymerase Chain Reaction on Urine Specimens to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic in Singapore

Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are amongst the most common bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the world, causing substantial morbidity in young sexually-active...

Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which could lead to visual impairment and blindness, is a recognised serious morbidity amongst surviving premature infants. The inverse relationship...

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes mellitus affects some 9% of Singaporeans. Studies had shown that virtually all insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1) and 85% of non-insulin dependent...

Cross-Sectional Study of Near-work and Myopia in Kindergarten Children in Singapore

Myopia is the commonest eye disease worldwide, and is especially prevalent in certain Asian countries such as Taiwan, Japan and Hong Kong. Physiologic myopia...

Granuloma Annulare: A Review of 41 Cases at the National Skin Centre

Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign, inflammatory disorder of the skin that has no proven aetiology or widely accepted theory of pathogenesis. There are...

Clinical Drug Trials: Practical Problems of Phase III

There has been a rapid increase in clinical trial activity in Singapore and other parts of Asia. Randomised clinical trials are the “gold standard”...

The Correction of Oriental Lower Lid Involutional Entropion Using the Combined Procedure

Involutional entropion is a frequent cause of ocular irritation in the local elderly patients. The inturning of the lid margin and the eyelashes result...

Spectrum of Abnormal Mammographic Findings and Their Predictive Value for Malignancy in Singaporean Women from a Population Screening Trial

While screening mammography can detect early breast cancers, a significant proportion of asymptomatic women are subject to unnecessary workup and surgery when biopsies for...

Deep Vein Thrombosis after Total Knee Replacement

Western literature reports a very high incidence of deep vein thrombosis in its population especially after orthopaedic surgery. In total knee replacement without prophylaxis,...

Myopia: Gene-environment Interaction

Myopia affects up to 70% of adults in Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Japan. The prevalence rates in these Asian countries are higher than...

Incidence of Ischaemic Heart Disease and Stroke in Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore: Singapore Cardiovascular Cohort Study

Comparisons of disease frequency in different ethnic groups help to unravel the contributions of nature and nurture in their aetiology and to identify environmental...

Isolated Non-compaction of Ventricular Myocardium: A Report of Three Cases

Non-compaction of ventricular myocardium is a rare morphogenic arrest of compaction of the ventricular myocardial fibres during intrauterine life. Usually, the left ventricle is...

Causes and Management of Descemet’s Membrane Detachment Associated with Cataract Surgery—Not Always a Benign Problem

It is well known that stripping of Descemet’s membrane (DM) occurs not infrequently during cataract surgery. In 1928, Samuels described frequent DM detachments of...

Introduction of Problem-based Learning in a Traditional Medical Curriculum in Singapore—Students’ and Tutors’ Perspectives

The National University of Singapore was started in 1905. Since then, it has trained many generations of medical practitioners. This article is available only as...

A Retrospective Study of Melanocytic Naevi at the National Skin Centre

Melanocytic naevi are benign proliferation of melanocytes of congenital and acquired types which usually appear during adolescence or early adult life. Naevi are of...

6th Yahya Cohen Lecture: Visual Experience During Cataract Surgery

What a patient can see during his or her surgery can be a cause of anxiety for the patient. It may cause additional stress...

Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the Older Population in Singapore

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in persons older than 50 years are rarely studied because STDs are more common in young people. There is very...

Age-related Macular Degeneration: What’s New

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the developed western world, accounting for approximately 50% of all cases of...

Measuring Health-related Quality of Life in Singapore: Normal Values for the English and Chinese SF-36 Health Survey

Advances in diagnosis and therapy in the second half of the 20th century have lead to impressive improvements in survival for patients with many...

Current Understanding of Pre-eclampsia

Pre-eclampsia is a major cause of adverse obstetric outcome. It remains one of the leading causes of maternal mortality1 and continues to contribute significantly...

Visual Rehabilitation with New-Age Rigid Gas-Permeable Scleral Contact Lenses—A Case Series

Advanced primary corneal ectasia presents a difficult problem in terms of visual rehabilitation. Soft contact lenses do not address the astigmatic aberrations in these...

Paediatric Extracranial Germ Cell Tumours: A Retrospective Review

Germ cell tumours (GCTs) in children account for 2% to 3% of childhood malignancies. They arise from primordial germ cells and constitute a heterogeneous...

Bullous Pemphigoid Seen at the National Skin Centre: A 2-year Retrospective Review

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering disorder affecting mainly the elderly. It is characterised by autoantibodies to the basement membrane zone (BMZ),...

Clinical Update on Osteoporosis

Fractures, the most serious complication of osteoporosis, are increasing and constitute an evolving public health problem in terms of disability, mortality and cost. A...

Osteoporosis Risk Factor Assessment and Bone Densitometry—Current Status and Future Trends

Osteoporosis affects predominantly elderly women; although younger women and men may also be affected. Demographically, the number and proportion of the elderly (aged 65...

An Asian Perspective to the Problem of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is regarded as an important public health problem in many Caucasian populations. Much of the research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, genetic and molecular...

Primary Meningococcal Arthritis and Endogenous Endophthalmitis: A Case Report

Primary meningococcal arthritis (PMA) and endogenous meningococcal endophthalmitis are both uncommon presentations of meningococcal infection that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of...

Validity and Reliability of the EQ-5D Self-report Questionnaire in Chinese-speaking Patients with Rheumatic Diseases in Singapore

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) refers to patients’ perceptions of their own functioning and well-being. HRQoL is increasingly being used as a primary or...

Gyrate Atrophy of the Choroid: Two Cases

Gyrate atrophy of the choroid (GA) is a rare choroidal dystrophy. It is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in progressive deterioration in peripheral...

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) — 150 Days On

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) has been identified as a new clinical entity in the year 2003. It was on 12 March 2003...

Eating Disorders in Singapore: A Review

Anorexia nervosa, bulimia and binge-eating disorder are the three best described ‘eating disorders’. All three are predominantly disorders of women with the core symptoms...

Youth Suicide and Parasuicide in Singapore

The World Health Organization defines suicide as an act with a fatal outcome that is deliberately initiated and performed by the person himself or...

Patterns and predictors of sound levels in hospital rooms

Dear Editor,      Excessive sound levels in the hospital can impair the work performance of healthcare professionals and affect patient well-being.1 Previous studies have also...

Initial Experience of Macular Translocation in Singapore – One-year Results

Choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) is a devastating complication of macular degeneration and a major cause of irreversible vision loss in many developed countries. The most...

Ocular Surface Stem Cells and Disease: Current Concepts and Clinical Applications

The ocular surface is a complex biological continuum responsible for the maintenance of corneal clarity, elaboration of a stable tear film for clear vision,...

Re: Evidence for an “epidemic” of myopia

In the Annals January 2004 theme issue on Myopia, Park and Congdon have disputed the reality of the increases in prevalence of myopia in...

Behcet’s Disease: Experience in a Tertiary Rheumatology Centre in Singapore and a Review of the Literature

The only published study on Behcet’s disease in Singapore by Tan E et al (34 patients at the National Skin Centre) found that only...

Contact Lens Microbial Keratitis and Prior Topical Steroid Use: A Disaster in the Making?

Topical steroid use in cornea ulcers is still a very contentious issue in ophthalmology. A recent review by Wilhelmus found that the use of...

Integrated Hydroxyapatite Implant and Non-integrated Implants in Enucleated Asian Patients

Much has been published on the complications of integrated and non-integrated implants. Most studies on integrated implants pertain to experience with the hydroxyapatite implant,...

Characteristics and Acute Rehabilitation of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Singapore

The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute, frequently severe evolution of a demyelinating inflammatory polyradiculopathy with an autoimmune pathogenesis. In developed countries, GBS is...

Twin Births in Singapore: A Population-Based Study Using the National Birth Registry

Twin studies are regarded as one of the better ways to study the effects and significance of gene, environment and interactions of both. The...

Familial Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Atopic Dermatitis among Chinese Families in Singapore

Family history has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of allergic rhinitis (AR) and atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the increase...

The Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial: Lessons from the Study Design

“A properly planned and executed clinical trial is a powerful technique for assessing the effectiveness of an intervention”. While each new clinical trial involves...

Myopia Progression Among Preschool Chinese Children in Hong Kong

Myopia occurs when the image of distant objects, focused by the cornea and lens, falls in front of the retina. It is the commonest...

The Epidemiology of Myopia in Hong Kong

Myopia is a refractive condition in which the image of a distant object is formed anterior to the retina of the unaccommodated (relaxed) eye....

Prevalence of Myopia in Taiwanese Schoolchildren: 1983 to 2000

Today in Taiwan, with increasing level of educational and living standard, the prevalence and severity of myopia appear to be on an upward trend....

Evidence for an “Epidemic” of Myopia

A number of authors have recently proposed that myopia is increasing at an “epidemic” rate, particularly in East Asia, and especially among populations of...

Using Natural STOP Growth Signals to Prevent Excessive Axial Elongation and the Development of Myopia

Myopia in humans results from an imbalance between the refractive power of the cornea and lens and the axial length of the eye, such...

Ocular Shape and Myopia

Myopia develops from a mismatch of the eye’s anatomical axial length and its focal length, as determined by the combined optical powers of the...

Is it Possible to Slow the Progression of Myopia?

The rates of myopia, including high myopia , have been reported to be rising to epidemic proportions in Asia and solutions to this huge...

Issues and Challenges for Myopia Research

Myopia is an ocular disorder of major public health and socioeconomic significance in many East Asian urban cities. In Singapore, the prevalence of myopia...

Accommodative Stimulus Response Curve of Emmetropes and Myopes

There is a strong association between myopia and near work, and it has been reported that the rapid rise in the prevalence of myopia...

Electrophysiological Findings in Persons With Nyctalopia

Nyctalopia is a subjective sensation of poor vision under dark conditions. It may be clinically associated with retinal diseases affecting the rod photoreceptors or...

Neisseria meningitidis Keratitis in Adults: A Case Series

Neisseria meningitidis has been reported as a causative organism for conjunctivitis and endogenous endophthalmitis, more commonly in neonates and young children. A search of...

Visual Recovery Following Emergent Orbital Decompression in Traumatic Retrobulbar Haemorrhage

Acute retrobulbar haemorrhage is a potentially sight threatening condition that can occur spontaneously or following retrobulbar injections and trauma to the orbit. Visual loss...

Macular Carotenoids and Age-related Maculopathy

The macula lutea is an anatomic region of the posterior retina that measures approximately 5.5 mm in diameter, and is exquisitely specialised for sharp...

Early Dengue Infection and Outcome Study (EDEN) – Study Design and Preliminary Findings

Dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) is a re-emerging disease that is endemic in the tropical world. It is caused by 4 closely-related dengue viruses...

Book Review

Ophthalmologists today depend heavily on various investigative modalities such as fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for an...

Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (r-TPA) in Fibrin Dissolution due to Postoperative Endophthalmitis

Cataract surgery is one of the most successful surgical procedures performed. However, postoperative endophthalmitis, defined as severe inflammation involving both the anterior and posterior...

Orbital Metastatic Tumour as Initial Manifestation of Asymptomatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma

Metastatic orbital tumour from gastric cancer is rare. In a Japanese survey of metastatic orbital tumours seen over 95 years, gastric metastases accounted for...

Eye Injuries in Singapore – Don’t Risk It. Do More. A Prospective Study

The issue of ophthalmic trauma is a major cause for concern. An estimated 55 million eye injuries occur each year worldwide, leaving 1.6 million...

Retrospective Review of Eyes with Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration Treated with Photodynamic Therapy with Verteporfin and Intravitreal Triamcinolone

Among the variety of paradigms implicated in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV), an inflammatory component has been a recent focus of interest. The...

Rates of Posterior Capsule Rupture During Cataract Surgery Among Different Races in Singapore

Posterior capsule rupture (PCR) is a potentially serious intraoperative complication of cataract surgery. The anecdotal experience of some surgeons suggests that differences in the...

Surgically-induced Corneal Changes Following Macular Translocation with Punctate Retinotomies and Chorioscleral Infolding (Limited Macular Translocation)

Changes in corneal curvatures and astigmatism after retinal surgery are well documented. Although some of these changes are mild and transient, some have reported...

Updates on the Surgical Management of Paediatric Cataract with Primary Intraocular Lens Implantation

Paediatric cataract has a low incidence compared with adult cataract. The estimated incidence is about 1 to 6/ 10,000 births. This article is available only...

Efficacy of Measuring Visual Performance of LASIK Patients under Photopic and Mesopic Conditions

LASIK is routinely carried out to correct the refractive errors of myopic patients. A high percentage of patients have good high-contrast visual acuity after...

Role of Ultrasound Biomicroscopy (UBM) in the Detection and Localisation of Anterior Segment Foreign Bodies

The presence of an intraocular foreign body (IOFB) is a common complication of ocular trauma. For surgical planning, the localisation of IOFBs has to...

Diabetic Retinopathy in Type II Diabetics Detected by Targeted Screening Versus Newly Diagnosed in General Practice

The epidemic of type II diabetes mellitus is now recognised worldwide. In India, it has been estimated that the population with type II diabetes...

Ethical Issues in Ophthalmology and Vision Research

The importance of ethics in research was highlighted in the USA when a healthy volunteer subject, 24-year-old Ellen Roche, died in a Johns Hopkins...

Can Long-term Corticosteroids Lead to Blindness? A Case Series of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Induced by Corticosteroids

Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is an idiopathic disorder characterised by serous detachment of the macula, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) detachment and areas of RPE...

Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Overview and Local Situation

The emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from the community that are distinct from their archetypal healthcare-associated counterparts (HA-MRSA) marked a...

A Novel Locus for X-linked Retinitis Pigmentosa

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is characterised by initial night blindness followed by progressive loss of visual fields and eventually, loss of central vision. RP is...

Utility and Validity of the Self-administered SF-36: Findings From an Older Population

The shift towards broader health perspectives and the emphasis on patient preferences have led to the development of many health questionnaires and their inclusion...

The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in the Diagnosis and Management of Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation (RAP) in Patients with Age-related Macular Degeneration

Retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP), initially described as deep retinal vascular anomalous complex in 1992 by Hartnett et al, has been recently defined as a...

Axial Length: A Risk Factor for Cataractogenesis

There are several known risk factors for cataract formation, including older age, lower educational status, smoking, ultraviolet light exposure, trauma, dehydration, diabetes, uveitis and...

Clinical Features of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa Associated with a Rhodopsin Mutation

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most prevalent group of inherited retinopathies. This spectrum of diseases affects approximately 1 in 4800 individuals. This article is available...

A Novel Mutation of the VMD2 Gene in a Chinese Family with Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy

Best vitelliform macular dystrophy is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by an egg yolk-like appearance of the macula. The vitelliform “egg yolk” lesions result...

Characterisation of Human Tear Proteins Using High-resolution Mass Spectrometry

Over the last few years, with advances in mass spectrometry, there has been increasing interest in exploring the proteome of body fluids such as...

Scanning Laser Polarimetry in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients on Chemotherapy

Pulmonary tuberculosis is a worldwide disease. In Hong Kong, there are about 7000 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis each year and the prevalence remains...

Time to Raise Awareness of Blindness as Another Smoking-related Condition

Singapore currently has a comprehensive range of tobacco control policies and programmes. It started implementing legislative measures against cigarette smoking in the early 1970s,...

SARS in Singapore – Predictors of Disease Severity

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a recently defined illness caused by a novel coronavirus. The outbreak in Singapore originated from Hong Kong via...

“Galaxy in My Eye”: An Artist’s View of Cataract Surgery from Behind the Crystalline Lens

Cataract surgery is the most commonly performed elective surgery in many countries. As a result of advances in surgical and anaesthetic techniques, most cataract...

Methodologies for Interventional Myopia Studies

Past studies on intervention in myopia progression have given conflicting results. For example, in the past, studies on (PMMA) hard contact lenses took researchers...

Ethambutol-associated Optic Neuropathy

Tuberculosis (TB) has been present since ancient times. Around 460 BC, Hippocrates identified phthisis, which is the Greek term for consumption (TB seemed to...

Concurrent Intermediate Uveitis and an Enhancing Intracranial Lesion as the Initial Manifestation of Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis remains an enigmatic disease with protean manifestations. It is a multi-system disorder of unknown cause characterised by an accumulation of T-lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes...

Retrobulbar Alcohol Injection for Orbital Pain Relief Under Difficult Circumstances: A Case Report

The management of pain in the orbital region, whether ocular or orbital in origin, is complex and lies at the margins of several subspecialty...

Modelling the Utility of Body Temperature Readings From Primary Care Consults for SARS Surveillance in an Army Medical Centre

There has been increasing interest in building surveillance systems capable of detecting outbreaks of infectious diseases, at the stage where clinical presentation would still...

Book Review

In Retinal Vascular Disorders, Dr Mohan and co-authors cover common and important retinal vascular disorders in a series of short chapters which are written...

Vision 2020 and Prevention of Blindness: Is it Relevant or Achievable in the Modern Era?

This review article considers the universal definition of blindness, the causes of world/global blindness, and ongoing international efforts in blindness prevention. The prospects for...

Enhancement of the Mechanical and Biological Properties of a Biomembrane for Tissue Engineering the Ocular Surface

The most recent treatment for severe ocular surface disease is the transplantation of cultivated corneal and conjunctival epithelial stem cells, which makes use of...

Mycobacterium-related Ocular Inflammatory Disease: Diagnosis and Management

Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease that has been detected in 3000-year-old Egyptian mummies. Robert Koch’s discovery of the tubercle bacillus as the aetiologic...

Photodynamic Therapy for Choroidal Neovascularisation Secondary to Inflammatory Chorioretinal Disease

Photodynamic therapy using verteporfin (Visudyne, Novartis Ophthalmics) has been proven safe and effective for the treatment of predominantly classic, age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-related subfoveal...

Variables Determining Perceived Global Health Ranks: Findings from a Population-based Study

In 1982, Mossey and Shapiro first demonstrated that global self-rating of health was a better predictor of 7-year survival than medical records or self-reports...

Multivariate Analysis of Childhood Microbial Keratitis in South India

Corneal infection is the most common cause of profound ocular morbidity leading to blindness worldwide. Corneal infection in children is difficult to diagnose and...

Can the Sequential Use of Conventional Silicone Oil and Heavy Oil be a Strategy for the Management of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy?

Advances in vitreoretinal surgery have greatly increased the anatomical re-attachment rate in cases with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). The availability of perfluoro-carbon liquids, indirect viewing...

Surgical Outcomes of 25-Gauge Transconjunctival Vitrectomy Combined With Cataract Surgery for Vitreoretinal Diseases

The recent development of 25-gauge instrumentation for vitreous surgery has promoted a great interest in the transconjuctival sutureless vitrectomy system. Similar to the trend...

New Concepts in the Management of Optic Nerve Sheath Meningiomas

Optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSMs) account for one-third of primary optic nerve tumours, are the second most common optic nerve tumours after gliomas, and...

Ophthalmic Regional Block

Patient comfort, safety and low complication rates are the essentials of local anaesthesia. The anaesthetic requirements for ophthalmic surgery are dictated by the nature...

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Radiation-induced Optic Neuropathy

Radiation optic neuropathy (RON) is an infrequent but usually devastating consequence of radiation to the optic pathways. It is almost exclusively an iatrogenic phenomenon,...

The Natural History of Occult Choroidal Neovascularisation Associated With Age-related Macular Degeneration. A Systematic Review

Choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) is a leading cause of blindness in the western world. It causes 90% of the visual loss in age-related macular degeneration...

Retinal Prostheses for the Blind

Each year, thousands of people are afflicted with photoreceptor degenerative diseases that reduce vision to bare light perception or complete blindness. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP)...

Age-related Macular Degeneration: An Emerging Challenge for Eye Care and Public Health Professionals in the Asia Pacific Region

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a severe ocular disease characterised by progressive deterioration of the macula, the most sensitive central back portion of the...

Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide for the Treatment of Diffuse Diabetic Macular Oedema – A Case Report

Focal and grid laser photocoagulation are the primary surgical treatments for diabetic macular oedema. However, laser treatment of eyes with diffuse macular oedema has...

Bruch’s Membrane Abnormalities in Dome-shaped and Mushroom-shaped Choroidal Melanomas

Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and is diagnosed chiefly in the fifth to seventh decades of life. The choroid is...

Human Limbal Progenitor Cell Characteristics are Maintained in Tissue Culture

The surface of the eye is covered by 3 distinct forms of non-keratinising stratified squamous epithelium – transparent corneal epithelium overlying the corneal surface,...

Angiographic Characteristics of Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy in an Asian Population

Acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a condition of unknown origin characterised by a serous detachment of the macula. It afflicts young healthy adults,...

A Nationwide Survey on the Knowledge and Attitudes of Malaysian Optometry Students on Patients’ Visual Experiences During Cataract Surgery

Cataract is one of the most common causes of visual impairment in the elderly and its surgery is the most common major ophthalmic surgery,...

The Clinical Predictors of Hypertension and Sleepiness in an Asian Population with Sleep-disordered Breathing

Sleep physicians have only recently began to learn much about the epidemiology of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) from large, well conducted prospective community-based studies. These...

Towards 2020 Vision in Singapore

With the increasing demands of contemporary life, higher levels of visual performance are expected. In modern societies such as Singapore, many more adults will...

Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: Universal or Selective Ultrasound Screening?

This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download PDF” on top to view the full article.

Financing Newborn Screening Systems: US Experience

This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download PDF” on top to view the full article.

Legal Issues in Neonatal Screening

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Neuroblastoma Screening in Japan: Population-based Cohort Study and Future Aspects of Screening

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Establishing a Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Programme

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Impact of the National Hearing Screening Programme in China

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Neuro-developmental Deficits in Early-treated Congenital Hypothyroidism

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Considerations in Choosing Screening Conditions: One (US) Approach

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Towards Universal Newborn Screening in Developing Countries: Obstacles and the Way Forward

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Fungal Pan-sinusitis with Severe Visual Loss in Uncontrolled Diabetes

Fungi are known opportunistic organisms, which potentially invade and infect a host with depressed immunity. Fungal pan-sinusitis complicated with orbital apex syndrome or cavernous...

Prevalence of Refractive Error in Malay Primary School Children in Suburban Area of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia

Refractive error remains one of the primary causes of visual impairment in children worldwide. Prevalence of visual impairment in children, is defined as uncorrected...

A Review of Clinical Pathway Data of 1663 Total Knee Arthroplasties in a Tertiary Institution in Singapore

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been established as an effective treatment modality for patients with symptomatic knee arthritis. It provides predictable decrement in pain,...

The Future of Medical Education: The Second 100 Years

This is a proud year for the medical profession in Singapore, as we celebrate 100 years of medical education. As the oldest faculty in...

The Medical Students’ Societies and Medical Students’ Publications

For a very long time, King Edward VII (endearingly abbreviated “KE”) was synonymous with the medical school and its associated hall of residence. The...

The Teaching of Radiology

A record of Diagnostic Radiology would be incomplete without reference to Wilheim Roentgen, who discovered the rays that he could not comprehend; hence, X-rays....

In vitro Activities of Antifungal Drugs Against Yeasts Isolated from Blood Cultures and Moulds Isolated from Various Clinically Significant Sites in Singapore

Fungaemia carries with it high mortality rates and appropriate as well as timely antifungal therapy has been shown to be life saving. Amphotericin B...

Antimicrobial Resistance: A New Beginning and the Need for Action

In this issue, the articles (historical, original and review papers) highlight the extent and problem of antimicrobial resistance in Singapore. The authors should be...

Opening Our Eyes to Guide Dogs for the Blind in Singapore

The concept of the modern guide dog first began in Germany after World War I in an effort to support veterans blinded in combat....

The Media and Suicide

Suicide worldwide is estimated to represent 1.8% of the total global burden of disease in 1998, and 2.4% in countries with market and former...

A Doctor’s Duty is to Heal the Unhealthy: The Story of Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad

Mahathir Mohamad was born in 1925 in Alor Setar, Kedah. In 1947, after living through the turbulent times of the Second World War, he...

Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy followed by Surgery in Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oesophagus: A Single Centre Experience

Carcinoma of the oesophagus is a relatively uncommon malignancy in Singapore and incidence rates have been declining since 1968. A total of 506 cases...

Acceptance of Prophylactic Surgery and Chemoprevention of Cancer in Singapore – A Survey

The Singapore healthcare philosophy aims to establish a healthy population through preventive healthcare programmes and public health education. Public education usually emphasises the adverse...

Progressive Hemi-facial Atrophy and Keratoconus

Progressive hemifacial atrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome, PHA) is characterised by slowly progressive atrophy, usually involving one side of the face, and may be associated with...

Effects on the Contralateral Eye After Intravitreal Bevacizumab and Ranibizumab Injections: A Case Report

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is recognised as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinal neovascularisation. Anti-VEGF therapies...

Current Understanding of the Treatment and Outcome of Acute Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma: An Asian Perspective

Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major cause of irreversible blindness in Asia and many parts of the world. It is a particularly serious...

Screening Tools for Bacteraemia in a Selected Population of Febrile Children

Bacteraemia refers to the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. The presence or absence of toxicity differentiates occult bacteraemia, which is relatively asymptomatic, from...

Concerns, Perceived Impact and Preparedness in an Avian Influenza Pandemic – a Comparative Study between Healthcare Workers in Primary and Tertiary Care

The danger posed by emerging infectious diseases has become greater in the past few years with the World Health Organization (WHO) warning that the...

Acute Concomitant Esotropia during Heroin Detoxification

Although acute concomitant esotropia following heroin detoxification or withdrawal has been described in a few case reports in Europe and Australia, it has not...

Intraocular Avastin (Bevacizumab) for Neovascularisation of the Iris and Neovascular Glaucoma

Neovascularisation of the iris is associated with many ischaemia retinal disorders and elevated levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor is found in patients...

Concomitant Use of Midazolam and Buprenorphine and its Implications Among Drug Users in Singapore

Benzodiazepines (BDZs) (commonly known as “sleeping pills”) are routinely and successfully used in the treatment of sleep and anxiety disorders. However, studies have indicated...

A Brief History of Pathology and the Chapter of Pathologists

A history of the Chapter of Pathologists would be incomplete without a history of the specialty of Pathology in Singapore. Pathology is in fact...

From the Chapter of Physicians, Academy of Medicine, Singapore to the College of Physicians, Singapore

The transformation of the previous Chapter of Physicians, Academy of Medicine, Singapore to the current College of Physicians, Singapore in 2004 was the outcome...

From the Chapter of Anaesthetists to the College of Anaesthesiologists, Singapore

The arrival of Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 herald the birth of western medicine in Singapore. Doctors were then sent here from Britain. These...

Academy of Medicine, Singapore – The Next Twenty-Five Years (1982-2007)

The Academy of Medicine was founded in 1957 as the professional corporate body of medical and dental specialists in Singapore. From a modest beginning...

Epidemiology, Management and Treatment Outcome of Medulloblastoma in Singapore

Medulloblastoma (MBL) is the most common type of malignant brain tumour in childhood. It belongs to the group of tumours known as primitive neuroectodermal...

Timing of Hospital Presentation After Acute Cerebral Infarction and Patients’ Acceptance of Intravenous Thrombolysi

Intravenous thrombolysis in acute cerebral infarction has been proven to be efficacious in improving functional outcome if given within 3 hours from stroke onset.1...

Survival of Small-cell Lung Cancer and its Determinants of Outcome in Singapore

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality around the world.1 Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) constitutes about 15% to 25% of all lung...

Demographic and Clinical Features of 150 Pathological Gamblers Referred to a Community Addictions Programme

Pathological gambling has been defined as a persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behaviour that disrupts personal, family and work life. The diagnosis is not...

Successful Rehabilitation With Cochlear Implant in Post-irradiation Induced Hearing Loss in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patient

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common disease in Asia.1 Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. Following radiotherapy, complications like profound sensorineural hearing loss may...

Prevalence of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis among Female School Children in Singapore

Scoliosis screening in schools is still widely practised worldwide despite some countries abandoning the practise in recent years. Screening usually consists of visual inspection...

Lack of Awareness amongst Community Patients with Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy: The Singapore Malay Eye Study

Diabetes is a major public health problem, and diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people.1 Previous studies have documented poor...

Pain Prevalence in Singapore

Population studies on pain prevalence are useful in determining the impact that chronic pain has on the society. It draws the attention of healthcare...

A Prospective Cohort Study on the Impact of a Modified Basic Military Training (mBMT) Programme Based on Pre-enlistment Fitness Stratification Amongst Asian Military Enlistees

Basic military training (BMT) is seen as a vital initiation phase into military service when new recruits are conditioned to the rigours of military...

An Update of Paediatric Intussusception Incidence in Singapore: 1997-2007, 11 Years of Intussusception Surveillance

This is an update to the previously published paper by Boudville et al1 on 8 years of intussusception (IS) surveillance in Singapore. IS is...

Where the Elderly Die: The Influence of Socio-Demographic Factors and Cause of Death on People Dying at Home

The subject of place of death was brought to the forefront of the medical community in July 2004 when 2 important publications were released;...

Cysticercosis of the Levator Palpebrae Superioris

Cysticercosis cellulosae, the larval form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, causes cysticercosis, in which humans serve as the intermediate hosts in the parasite life cycle. Cysticercosis...

Trends in Importation of Communicable Diseases into Singapore

Singapore is a city-state in Southeast Asia, with a total population in 2007 of 4,839,400, of which 3,642,700 (75.3%) are Singaporean residents. The remaining...

Acceptance of Information and Communication Technologies for Healthcare Delivery: A SingHealth Polyclinics Study

Information and communication technologies, such as internet portal and short message system (SMS), are increasingly used in healthcare delivery worldwide.1,2 Typically, these technologies are...

Venous Thromboembolism at the National Healthcare Group, Singapore

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially fatal disease which includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). About 30% of patients with VTE...

Evaluation on the Effectiveness of the National Childhood Immunisation Programme in Singapore, 1982-2007

Singapore has a comprehensive National Childhood Immunisation Programme (NCIP) which first covered smallpox (1862), followed by diphtheria (1938), tuberculosis (TB) (1957), poliomyelitis (1958), pertussis...

Intraretinal Segmentation on Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an indispensable tool in the management of retinal and optic nerve diseases as well as in clinical trials....

Timing of Arrival to a Tertiary Hospital after Acute Ischaemic Stroke – A Follow-up Survey 5 Years Later

Intravenous tPA is a proven treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. However as it has to be given in a narrow time window from symptom...

Intravitreal Bevacizumab for the Treatment of Myopic Choroidal Neovascularisation in an Asian Population

Myopic choroidal neovascularisation (mCNV) is one of the most common causes of permanent central visual loss in patients with high myopia, and its natural...

Outbreak of Novel Influenza A (H1N1-2009) Linked to a Dance Club

Influenza A (H1N1-2009) is a novel strain of influenza virus. The infection is thought to have first occurred in Mexico in March 2009, and...

An Epidemiological Study of 1348 Cases of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Admitted to Singapore Hospitals from July to September 2009

On 17 April 2009, the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) determined that febrile respiratory illness occurring in 2 children residing in adjacent counties...

Outbreak of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1-2009) in Singapore, May to September 2009

The first cases of infection with a novel influenza A (H1N1) strain were reported in 6 cases in California and 2 cases in Texas...

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome by the Adult Treatment Panel III, International Diabetes Federation, and World Health Organization Definitions and their Association with Coronary Heart Disease in an Elderly Iranian Population

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in different communities.1,2 Despite the lack of accurate data,...

Inadvertent Use of Bevacizumab to Treat Choroidal Neovascularisation During Pregnancy: A Case Report

The recognition that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD) has led to...

Diagnostic Accuracy of Anthropometric Indices for Obesity Screening Among Asian Adolescents

Obesity or excess body fat is strongly associated with enhanced risks of morbidity and mortality, and its prevalence is rapidly escalating worldwide. Despite these...

Atypical Presentation of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) typically presents with a retinal “cherry red spot”. In CRAO, infarction of the retinal nerve fibre layer renders the...

Health-related Quality of Life is Associated with Diabetic Complications, but not with Short-term Diabetic Control in Primary Care

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major chronic disease globally. With increasing life expectancy, long-term complications of diabetes mellitus leading to significant morbidity and...

Quality of Life in Pathological Gamblers in a Multiethnic Asian Setting

Pathological gambling is categorized under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TR) as an impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified....

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Pregnancy: A Review of the Guidelines for Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission in Malaysia

Pregnancy, whether actual or anticipated, has been a critical driver for the diagnosis, treatment and care of women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Unlike...

Causes of Death in Hospitalised Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected Patients at a National Referral Centre in Singapore: A Retrospective Review from 2008 to 2010

The advent of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era has greatly reduced the mortality and incidence of new diagnoses of acquired immune deficiency...

Causes of Death and Factors Associated with Early Death Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Persons in Singapore: Pre-Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and Peri-HAART

Since the first case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was diagnosed in Singapore in May 1985, a total of 4845 cases and 1389 HIV/acquired...

Supplementary Breast Ultrasound Screening in Asian Women with Negative But Dense Mammograms—A Pilot Study

Mammogram has been the gold standard for breast cancer screening and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been advocated for screening of high- risk individuals....

National Health Survey on the Prevalence of Urinary Abnormalities in the Population: then and now (1975 to 2012)

In the planning of a tuberculosis prevalence survey in Singapore in 1975, it was decided to include a urine examination of the respondents using...

Policy Implications of The Singapore Mental Health Study

Mental health issues have taken on greater importance with the growing awareness among policy makers of the importance of mental health for the development...

Melanoma: Differences between Asian and Caucasian Patients

Cutaneous melanoma is the most common cause of mortality amongst skin cancer in Caucasian populations and incidence rates per 100,000 patient years vary between...

Overcoming Barriers to Mammography Screening: A Quasi-randomised Pragmatic Trial in a Community-based Primary Care Setting

Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women in Singapore, accounting for 29% of all cancers occurring in women between 2006 and 2010. Evidence...

Hoarding in an Asian Population: Prevalence, Correlates, Disability and Quality of Life

Hoarding is defined as the acquisition of, and inability to discard items even though they appear to others to have no value, leading to...

Clinical Outcome and Cost Comparison Between Laparoscopic and Open Appendicectomy

Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain requiring surgical intervention. The traditional operation of choice was the open...

Hearing Loss in Newborns with Cleft Lip and/or Palate

Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is one of the commonest congenital malformations. A recent update collating data from international organisations for the years 2002...

Osteogenic Sarcoma in Children and Young Adults

Osteogenic sarcoma (OS) is a primary malignant tumour of the bone, derived from primitive bone-forming mesenchyme and characterised by the production of osteoid tissue...

Bilateral Polychromatic Crystalline Keratopathy as the Initial Manifestation of IgG-Lambda Multiple Myeloma

Dear Editor, Multiple myeloma is a subgroup of plasma cell dyscrasias with neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells or their precursors. Crystalline keratopathy is a well-recognised...

Single Centre Experience of Transjugular Liver Biopsy in 152 Patients

The first reported case of liver biopsy was recorded in 1883 by Ehrlich. Since then, the technique of liver biopsy has been modified tremendously...

Projecting the Number of Older Singaporeans with Activity of Daily Living Limitations Requiring Human Assistance Through 2030

Similar to other developed countries in Asia, including Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, the population of Singapore is ageing rapidly. In 2011, 9.3% of...

Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life Among Community Dwelling Elderly

Singapore is experiencing an unprecedented age shift as the post-war baby boomers turn 65 years in 2012. Currently there are 378,700 people aged 65...

A Review of Back Injury Cases Notified to the Ministry of Manpower from 2011 to 2012

Work-related low back disorders consist of both low back pain (LBP) and low back injuries. They are a significant and increasing problem all over...

Re: An Alternative Diagnosis: Bartonella Neuroretinitis

I would like to thank the authors for the reply to our case report. The differential diagnosis of Bartonella neuroretinitis in this patient was...

An Alternative Diagnosis: Bartonella Neuroretinitis

We refer to the letter ‘Lyme Neuroretinitis in Singapore: A Diagnostic Dilemma’ published in the April 2012 Vol. 41 No. 4 issue of the...

27-Gauge Vitrectomy for Primary Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment: Is it Feasible?

Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) using the 27-gauge transconjunctival approach is the last frontier of small gauge vitrectomy. Only 1 paper has been published so...

Academic Medicine Education Institute (AM∙EI): Transforming the Educational Culture of Health Professionals

In 2010, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School (Duke-NUS) and Singapore Healthcare Services (SingHealth) launched an initiative to improve the lives of patients by combining their...

A Decade of Progress in the Understanding, Prevention and Treatment of Age-related Macular Degeneration in Singapore

The year 2014 had marked the 10th anniversary of the nationwide Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Awareness Week in Singapore.1 This public health campaign, organised...

Risk Factors for Severe Adenovirus Infection in Children during an Outbreak in Singapore

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are well known pathogens that cause a variety of human illnesses. They are non-enveloped, linear double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses. More...

Evolution and trends in the adoption of laparoscopic liver resection in Singapore: Analysis of 300 cases

Over the past few decades, the introduction of laparoscopic surgery has been the biggest game changer in abdominal surgery.1 However, although the first laparoscopic...

Impact of unemployment on mental disorders, physical health and quality of life: Findings from the Singapore Mental Health Study

Several reviews and meta-analyses have established an association between unemployment and psychological distress. This relationship between unemployment and mental health is complex and likely...

Health-seeking behaviour of foreign workers in Singapore: Insights from emergency department visits

Singapore employs a large foreign worker (FW) population, defined as non-Singapore citizens and non-permanent residents working locally. Holders of “work permit” (WP), the work...

Accuracy of self-reported height, weight and BMI in a multiethnic Asian population

Overweight and obesity continue to be one of the most critical public health issues worldwide. Body mass index (BMI) derived from height and weight...

Incidence and trends of ophthalmic cancer in Singapore: Data from Singapore Cancer Registry

Ophthalmic cancers are commonly encountered in clinical practice and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Globally, the incidence of ophthalmic cancers have...

Seeing through the eyes of patients with age-related macular degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a severe ocular disease characterised by progressive deterioration of the macula, the most sensitive central part of the retina....

Assessing the Content Validity of the EQ-5D Questionnaire Among Asians in Singapore: A Qualitative Study

EQ-5D is a tool to measure and value health status. It is a standardised questionnaire that comprises 2 components: a Descriptive System (DS) on...

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Singapore: Reflecting on the First Decade

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has markedly changed the way aortic valve stenosis is treated. It is 18 years since the first patient was...

COVID-19 and Singapore: From Early Response to Circuit Breaker

The COVID-19 pandemic first broke out in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, where a cluster of pneumonia cases was reported and the novel coronavirus...

Comparative Analysis of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children

Singapore confirmed its first case of COVID-19 on 23 January 2020 in a Chinese national from Wuhan, and its first paediatric case on February...

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): The Singapore Experience. A Review of the First Eight Months

Singapore reported its first imported case of COVID-19 on 23 January 20201 and its first COVID-19 deaths on 21 March 2020.2 The WHO declared...

Neuro-Behçet’s disease presenting as isolated intracranial hypertension

Behçet’s disease (BD) is a chronic multisystem inflammatory disease with a classic triad of painful oral ulcers, genital ulcers and uveitis. Neurological manifestations, though...

Teleophthalmology and its evolving role in a COVID-19 pandemic: A scoping review

The World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020. To control the outbreak,...