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Glaucoma Pattern Amongst the Elderly Chinese in Singapore

Glaucoma is a major cause of world blindness in developing and developed nations. The WHO Global data on blindness show that over half of...

Frontal Sinus Mucoceles Causing Proptosis—Two Case Reports

Frontal mucoceles are collections of inspissated mucus which occur when there is obstruction to the outflow of the frontal sinuses. The obstruction may be...

A Case Report—Delayed Vesicocutaneous Fistula After Radiation Therapy for Advanced Vulvar Cancer

To our knowledge this is the first reported case of an isolated vesicocutaneous fistula related to previous radiation therapy for recurrent vulvar cancer. This article...

A Case Series of Ocular Disease as the Primary Manifestation in Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic, systemic, non-caseating, granulomatous disease with protean clinical manifestations. Although the first description of sarcoidosis was attributed to Hutchinson, its ocular...

Trends in the Pattern of Blindness and Major Ocular Diseases in Singapore and Asia

Singapore’s population has grown rapidly since 1965, the year in which it gained independence. The total population enumerated at its first census in 1970...

Orbital Lymphoma: Results of Radiation Therapy

Orbital lymphoma is a rare presentation of extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, accounting for less than 1% of the total. The role of radiotherapy in its...

A Case of Accelerated Development of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in a Woman with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus after Pregnancy

Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in persons between the age of 24 and 64 years both in the US and the...

Trilateral Retinoblastoma—A Case Report

Retinoblastoma is the third most common tumour in childhood. It is inherited genetically. This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download...

Excimer Laser Phototherapeutic Keratectomy for Recurrent Corneal Erosions

Recurrent cornea1 erosion (RCE) syndrome is a commonly encountered clinical condition which may be difficult to treat. Hansen first described it in 1872. This article...

Use of EMLA Cream or Alfentanil for Analgesia during Ophthalmic Nerve Blocks

Cataract surgery is performed mainly as day-case surgery, with the majority performed under regional anaesthesia. Retrobulbar block, combined with facial nerve block, provides good...

Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which could lead to visual impairment and blindness, is a recognised serious morbidity amongst surviving premature infants. The inverse relationship...

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes mellitus affects some 9% of Singaporeans. Studies had shown that virtually all insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1) and 85% of non-insulin dependent...

Cross-Sectional Study of Near-work and Myopia in Kindergarten Children in Singapore

Myopia is the commonest eye disease worldwide, and is especially prevalent in certain Asian countries such as Taiwan, Japan and Hong Kong. Physiologic myopia...

The Correction of Oriental Lower Lid Involutional Entropion Using the Combined Procedure

Involutional entropion is a frequent cause of ocular irritation in the local elderly patients. The inturning of the lid margin and the eyelashes result...

Myopia: Gene-environment Interaction

Myopia affects up to 70% of adults in Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Japan. The prevalence rates in these Asian countries are higher than...

Causes and Management of Descemet’s Membrane Detachment Associated with Cataract Surgery—Not Always a Benign Problem

It is well known that stripping of Descemet’s membrane (DM) occurs not infrequently during cataract surgery. In 1928, Samuels described frequent DM detachments of...

6th Yahya Cohen Lecture: Visual Experience During Cataract Surgery

What a patient can see during his or her surgery can be a cause of anxiety for the patient. It may cause additional stress...

Age-related Macular Degeneration: What’s New

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the developed western world, accounting for approximately 50% of all cases of...

Visual Rehabilitation with New-Age Rigid Gas-Permeable Scleral Contact Lenses—A Case Series

Advanced primary corneal ectasia presents a difficult problem in terms of visual rehabilitation. Soft contact lenses do not address the astigmatic aberrations in these...

Primary Meningococcal Arthritis and Endogenous Endophthalmitis: A Case Report

Primary meningococcal arthritis (PMA) and endogenous meningococcal endophthalmitis are both uncommon presentations of meningococcal infection that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of...

Gyrate Atrophy of the Choroid: Two Cases

Gyrate atrophy of the choroid (GA) is a rare choroidal dystrophy. It is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in progressive deterioration in peripheral...

Initial Experience of Macular Translocation in Singapore – One-year Results

Choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) is a devastating complication of macular degeneration and a major cause of irreversible vision loss in many developed countries. The most...

Ocular Surface Stem Cells and Disease: Current Concepts and Clinical Applications

The ocular surface is a complex biological continuum responsible for the maintenance of corneal clarity, elaboration of a stable tear film for clear vision,...

Re: Evidence for an “epidemic” of myopia

In the Annals January 2004 theme issue on Myopia, Park and Congdon have disputed the reality of the increases in prevalence of myopia in...

Contact Lens Microbial Keratitis and Prior Topical Steroid Use: A Disaster in the Making?

Topical steroid use in cornea ulcers is still a very contentious issue in ophthalmology. A recent review by Wilhelmus found that the use of...

Integrated Hydroxyapatite Implant and Non-integrated Implants in Enucleated Asian Patients

Much has been published on the complications of integrated and non-integrated implants. Most studies on integrated implants pertain to experience with the hydroxyapatite implant,...

Tailoring the Field and Indication of Adjuvant Pelvic Radiation for Patients with FIGO Stage Ib Lymph Nodes-Negative Cervical Carcinoma Following Radical Surgery Based on the GOG Score – A Pilot Study

Although no significant survival difference exists between primary surgery and radiotherapy (RT) for the treatment of FIGO stage Ib cervical cancer, radical surgery is...

The Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial: Lessons from the Study Design

“A properly planned and executed clinical trial is a powerful technique for assessing the effectiveness of an intervention”. While each new clinical trial involves...

Myopia Progression Among Preschool Chinese Children in Hong Kong

Myopia occurs when the image of distant objects, focused by the cornea and lens, falls in front of the retina. It is the commonest...

The Epidemiology of Myopia in Hong Kong

Myopia is a refractive condition in which the image of a distant object is formed anterior to the retina of the unaccommodated (relaxed) eye....

Prevalence of Myopia in Taiwanese Schoolchildren: 1983 to 2000

Today in Taiwan, with increasing level of educational and living standard, the prevalence and severity of myopia appear to be on an upward trend....

Evidence for an “Epidemic” of Myopia

A number of authors have recently proposed that myopia is increasing at an “epidemic” rate, particularly in East Asia, and especially among populations of...

Using Natural STOP Growth Signals to Prevent Excessive Axial Elongation and the Development of Myopia

Myopia in humans results from an imbalance between the refractive power of the cornea and lens and the axial length of the eye, such...

Ocular Shape and Myopia

Myopia develops from a mismatch of the eye’s anatomical axial length and its focal length, as determined by the combined optical powers of the...

Is it Possible to Slow the Progression of Myopia?

The rates of myopia, including high myopia , have been reported to be rising to epidemic proportions in Asia and solutions to this huge...

Issues and Challenges for Myopia Research

Myopia is an ocular disorder of major public health and socioeconomic significance in many East Asian urban cities. In Singapore, the prevalence of myopia...

Accommodative Stimulus Response Curve of Emmetropes and Myopes

There is a strong association between myopia and near work, and it has been reported that the rapid rise in the prevalence of myopia...

Electrophysiological Findings in Persons With Nyctalopia

Nyctalopia is a subjective sensation of poor vision under dark conditions. It may be clinically associated with retinal diseases affecting the rod photoreceptors or...

Neisseria meningitidis Keratitis in Adults: A Case Series

Neisseria meningitidis has been reported as a causative organism for conjunctivitis and endogenous endophthalmitis, more commonly in neonates and young children. A search of...

Visual Recovery Following Emergent Orbital Decompression in Traumatic Retrobulbar Haemorrhage

Acute retrobulbar haemorrhage is a potentially sight threatening condition that can occur spontaneously or following retrobulbar injections and trauma to the orbit. Visual loss...

Macular Carotenoids and Age-related Maculopathy

The macula lutea is an anatomic region of the posterior retina that measures approximately 5.5 mm in diameter, and is exquisitely specialised for sharp...

Book Review

Ophthalmologists today depend heavily on various investigative modalities such as fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for an...

Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (r-TPA) in Fibrin Dissolution due to Postoperative Endophthalmitis

Cataract surgery is one of the most successful surgical procedures performed. However, postoperative endophthalmitis, defined as severe inflammation involving both the anterior and posterior...

Orbital Metastatic Tumour as Initial Manifestation of Asymptomatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma

Metastatic orbital tumour from gastric cancer is rare. In a Japanese survey of metastatic orbital tumours seen over 95 years, gastric metastases accounted for...

Eye Injuries in Singapore – Don’t Risk It. Do More. A Prospective Study

The issue of ophthalmic trauma is a major cause for concern. An estimated 55 million eye injuries occur each year worldwide, leaving 1.6 million...

Retrospective Review of Eyes with Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration Treated with Photodynamic Therapy with Verteporfin and Intravitreal Triamcinolone

Among the variety of paradigms implicated in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV), an inflammatory component has been a recent focus of interest. The...

Rates of Posterior Capsule Rupture During Cataract Surgery Among Different Races in Singapore

Posterior capsule rupture (PCR) is a potentially serious intraoperative complication of cataract surgery. The anecdotal experience of some surgeons suggests that differences in the...

Surgically-induced Corneal Changes Following Macular Translocation with Punctate Retinotomies and Chorioscleral Infolding (Limited Macular Translocation)

Changes in corneal curvatures and astigmatism after retinal surgery are well documented. Although some of these changes are mild and transient, some have reported...

Updates on the Surgical Management of Paediatric Cataract with Primary Intraocular Lens Implantation

Paediatric cataract has a low incidence compared with adult cataract. The estimated incidence is about 1 to 6/ 10,000 births. This article is available only...

Efficacy of Measuring Visual Performance of LASIK Patients under Photopic and Mesopic Conditions

LASIK is routinely carried out to correct the refractive errors of myopic patients. A high percentage of patients have good high-contrast visual acuity after...

Role of Ultrasound Biomicroscopy (UBM) in the Detection and Localisation of Anterior Segment Foreign Bodies

The presence of an intraocular foreign body (IOFB) is a common complication of ocular trauma. For surgical planning, the localisation of IOFBs has to...

Diabetic Retinopathy in Type II Diabetics Detected by Targeted Screening Versus Newly Diagnosed in General Practice

The epidemic of type II diabetes mellitus is now recognised worldwide. In India, it has been estimated that the population with type II diabetes...

Ethical Issues in Ophthalmology and Vision Research

The importance of ethics in research was highlighted in the USA when a healthy volunteer subject, 24-year-old Ellen Roche, died in a Johns Hopkins...

Can Long-term Corticosteroids Lead to Blindness? A Case Series of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Induced by Corticosteroids

Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is an idiopathic disorder characterised by serous detachment of the macula, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) detachment and areas of RPE...

A Novel Locus for X-linked Retinitis Pigmentosa

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is characterised by initial night blindness followed by progressive loss of visual fields and eventually, loss of central vision. RP is...

Utility and Validity of the Self-administered SF-36: Findings From an Older Population

The shift towards broader health perspectives and the emphasis on patient preferences have led to the development of many health questionnaires and their inclusion...

The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in the Diagnosis and Management of Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation (RAP) in Patients with Age-related Macular Degeneration

Retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP), initially described as deep retinal vascular anomalous complex in 1992 by Hartnett et al, has been recently defined as a...

Axial Length: A Risk Factor for Cataractogenesis

There are several known risk factors for cataract formation, including older age, lower educational status, smoking, ultraviolet light exposure, trauma, dehydration, diabetes, uveitis and...

Clinical Features of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa Associated with a Rhodopsin Mutation

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most prevalent group of inherited retinopathies. This spectrum of diseases affects approximately 1 in 4800 individuals. This article is available...

A Novel Mutation of the VMD2 Gene in a Chinese Family with Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy

Best vitelliform macular dystrophy is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by an egg yolk-like appearance of the macula. The vitelliform “egg yolk” lesions result...

Characterisation of Human Tear Proteins Using High-resolution Mass Spectrometry

Over the last few years, with advances in mass spectrometry, there has been increasing interest in exploring the proteome of body fluids such as...

Scanning Laser Polarimetry in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients on Chemotherapy

Pulmonary tuberculosis is a worldwide disease. In Hong Kong, there are about 7000 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis each year and the prevalence remains...

Time to Raise Awareness of Blindness as Another Smoking-related Condition

Singapore currently has a comprehensive range of tobacco control policies and programmes. It started implementing legislative measures against cigarette smoking in the early 1970s,...

“Galaxy in My Eye”: An Artist’s View of Cataract Surgery from Behind the Crystalline Lens

Cataract surgery is the most commonly performed elective surgery in many countries. As a result of advances in surgical and anaesthetic techniques, most cataract...

Methodologies for Interventional Myopia Studies

Past studies on intervention in myopia progression have given conflicting results. For example, in the past, studies on (PMMA) hard contact lenses took researchers...

Ethambutol-associated Optic Neuropathy

Tuberculosis (TB) has been present since ancient times. Around 460 BC, Hippocrates identified phthisis, which is the Greek term for consumption (TB seemed to...

Concurrent Intermediate Uveitis and an Enhancing Intracranial Lesion as the Initial Manifestation of Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis remains an enigmatic disease with protean manifestations. It is a multi-system disorder of unknown cause characterised by an accumulation of T-lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes...

Retrobulbar Alcohol Injection for Orbital Pain Relief Under Difficult Circumstances: A Case Report

The management of pain in the orbital region, whether ocular or orbital in origin, is complex and lies at the margins of several subspecialty...

Book Review

In Retinal Vascular Disorders, Dr Mohan and co-authors cover common and important retinal vascular disorders in a series of short chapters which are written...

Vision 2020 and Prevention of Blindness: Is it Relevant or Achievable in the Modern Era?

This review article considers the universal definition of blindness, the causes of world/global blindness, and ongoing international efforts in blindness prevention. The prospects for...

Enhancement of the Mechanical and Biological Properties of a Biomembrane for Tissue Engineering the Ocular Surface

The most recent treatment for severe ocular surface disease is the transplantation of cultivated corneal and conjunctival epithelial stem cells, which makes use of...

Mycobacterium-related Ocular Inflammatory Disease: Diagnosis and Management

Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease that has been detected in 3000-year-old Egyptian mummies. Robert Koch’s discovery of the tubercle bacillus as the aetiologic...

Photodynamic Therapy for Choroidal Neovascularisation Secondary to Inflammatory Chorioretinal Disease

Photodynamic therapy using verteporfin (Visudyne, Novartis Ophthalmics) has been proven safe and effective for the treatment of predominantly classic, age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-related subfoveal...

Variables Determining Perceived Global Health Ranks: Findings from a Population-based Study

In 1982, Mossey and Shapiro first demonstrated that global self-rating of health was a better predictor of 7-year survival than medical records or self-reports...

Multivariate Analysis of Childhood Microbial Keratitis in South India

Corneal infection is the most common cause of profound ocular morbidity leading to blindness worldwide. Corneal infection in children is difficult to diagnose and...

Can the Sequential Use of Conventional Silicone Oil and Heavy Oil be a Strategy for the Management of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy?

Advances in vitreoretinal surgery have greatly increased the anatomical re-attachment rate in cases with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). The availability of perfluoro-carbon liquids, indirect viewing...

Surgical Outcomes of 25-Gauge Transconjunctival Vitrectomy Combined With Cataract Surgery for Vitreoretinal Diseases

The recent development of 25-gauge instrumentation for vitreous surgery has promoted a great interest in the transconjuctival sutureless vitrectomy system. Similar to the trend...

Ophthalmic Regional Block

Patient comfort, safety and low complication rates are the essentials of local anaesthesia. The anaesthetic requirements for ophthalmic surgery are dictated by the nature...

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Radiation-induced Optic Neuropathy

Radiation optic neuropathy (RON) is an infrequent but usually devastating consequence of radiation to the optic pathways. It is almost exclusively an iatrogenic phenomenon,...

The Natural History of Occult Choroidal Neovascularisation Associated With Age-related Macular Degeneration. A Systematic Review

Choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) is a leading cause of blindness in the western world. It causes 90% of the visual loss in age-related macular degeneration...

Retinal Prostheses for the Blind

Each year, thousands of people are afflicted with photoreceptor degenerative diseases that reduce vision to bare light perception or complete blindness. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP)...

Age-related Macular Degeneration: An Emerging Challenge for Eye Care and Public Health Professionals in the Asia Pacific Region

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a severe ocular disease characterised by progressive deterioration of the macula, the most sensitive central back portion of the...

Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide for the Treatment of Diffuse Diabetic Macular Oedema – A Case Report

Focal and grid laser photocoagulation are the primary surgical treatments for diabetic macular oedema. However, laser treatment of eyes with diffuse macular oedema has...

Bruch’s Membrane Abnormalities in Dome-shaped and Mushroom-shaped Choroidal Melanomas

Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and is diagnosed chiefly in the fifth to seventh decades of life. The choroid is...

Human Limbal Progenitor Cell Characteristics are Maintained in Tissue Culture

The surface of the eye is covered by 3 distinct forms of non-keratinising stratified squamous epithelium – transparent corneal epithelium overlying the corneal surface,...

Angiographic Characteristics of Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy in an Asian Population

Acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a condition of unknown origin characterised by a serous detachment of the macula. It afflicts young healthy adults,...

A Nationwide Survey on the Knowledge and Attitudes of Malaysian Optometry Students on Patients’ Visual Experiences During Cataract Surgery

Cataract is one of the most common causes of visual impairment in the elderly and its surgery is the most common major ophthalmic surgery,...

Towards 2020 Vision in Singapore

With the increasing demands of contemporary life, higher levels of visual performance are expected. In modern societies such as Singapore, many more adults will...

Fungal Pan-sinusitis with Severe Visual Loss in Uncontrolled Diabetes

Fungi are known opportunistic organisms, which potentially invade and infect a host with depressed immunity. Fungal pan-sinusitis complicated with orbital apex syndrome or cavernous...

Prevalence of Refractive Error in Malay Primary School Children in Suburban Area of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia

Refractive error remains one of the primary causes of visual impairment in children worldwide. Prevalence of visual impairment in children, is defined as uncorrected...

Opening Our Eyes to Guide Dogs for the Blind in Singapore

The concept of the modern guide dog first began in Germany after World War I in an effort to support veterans blinded in combat....

Diabetic Retinopathy in Diabetics Referred to a Tertiary Centre from a Nationwide Screening Programme

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in Asia. Singapore has one of the highest prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus (DM)...

Brachytherapy – One Man’s Meat, A Personal Journey in Radiation Oncology

Dr Tan Kim Ping, Chairman for the Dr FY Khoo Memorial Lecture, Ladies and Gentlemen – It is a signal honour for me to...

Progressive Hemi-facial Atrophy and Keratoconus

Progressive hemifacial atrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome, PHA) is characterised by slowly progressive atrophy, usually involving one side of the face, and may be associated with...

Effects on the Contralateral Eye After Intravitreal Bevacizumab and Ranibizumab Injections: A Case Report

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is recognised as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinal neovascularisation. Anti-VEGF therapies...

Current Understanding of the Treatment and Outcome of Acute Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma: An Asian Perspective

Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major cause of irreversible blindness in Asia and many parts of the world. It is a particularly serious...

Acute Concomitant Esotropia during Heroin Detoxification

Although acute concomitant esotropia following heroin detoxification or withdrawal has been described in a few case reports in Europe and Australia, it has not...

Intraocular Avastin (Bevacizumab) for Neovascularisation of the Iris and Neovascular Glaucoma

Neovascularisation of the iris is associated with many ischaemia retinal disorders and elevated levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor is found in patients...

Managing Breast Cancer Diagnosed in First Trimester Pregnancy: A Case Report

Cancer complicates approximately 1 per 1000 pregnancies and accounts for one third of maternal deaths during gestation.1,2 The reproductive system is affected by malignant...

Helping Learners in Difficulty – The Incidence and Effectiveness of Remedial Programmes of the Medical Radiation Sciences Programme at University of Toronto and the Michener Institute for Applied Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Since its founding in 1958, The Michener Institute (MI) for Applied Health Sciences has distinguished itself as one of Canada’s top post-secondary educational institutions...

Improvements in Quality of Care Resulting From a Formal Multidisciplinary Tumour Clinic in the Management of High-grade Glioma

Multidisciplinary care has now been established as the optimal management principle for the majority of malignancies.1,2 However, the model of multidisciplinary care, specifically the...

Optimising Radiation Therapy Techniques for Tumours of the Central Nervous System

Tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) are a diverse group of pathologies with varying natural histories and outcomes. The presence of adjacent sensitive...

Lack of Awareness amongst Community Patients with Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy: The Singapore Malay Eye Study

Diabetes is a major public health problem, and diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people.1 Previous studies have documented poor...

Cysticercosis of the Levator Palpebrae Superioris

Cysticercosis cellulosae, the larval form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, causes cysticercosis, in which humans serve as the intermediate hosts in the parasite life cycle. Cysticercosis...

Intraretinal Segmentation on Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an indispensable tool in the management of retinal and optic nerve diseases as well as in clinical trials....

Intravitreal Bevacizumab for the Treatment of Myopic Choroidal Neovascularisation in an Asian Population

Myopic choroidal neovascularisation (mCNV) is one of the most common causes of permanent central visual loss in patients with high myopia, and its natural...

Functional Outcomes of Cancer Patients in an Inpatient Rehabilitation Setting

Cancer is the leading cause of death and the second most common cause of hospitalisation in Singapore. Cancer rehabilitation aims to help the patient...

Inadvertent Use of Bevacizumab to Treat Choroidal Neovascularisation During Pregnancy: A Case Report

The recognition that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD) has led to...

12th Yahya Cohen Memorial Lecture – The Cellular and Molecular Basis of Radiation-induced Sensori-neural Hearing Loss

Radiation-induced sensori-neural hearing loss (SNHL) has long been recognised as a complication of radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck tumours, if the auditory pathways...

Atypical Presentation of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) typically presents with a retinal “cherry red spot”. In CRAO, infarction of the retinal nerve fibre layer renders the...

Bilateral Polychromatic Crystalline Keratopathy as the Initial Manifestation of IgG-Lambda Multiple Myeloma

Dear Editor, Multiple myeloma is a subgroup of plasma cell dyscrasias with neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells or their precursors. Crystalline keratopathy is a well-recognised...

Re: An Alternative Diagnosis: Bartonella Neuroretinitis

I would like to thank the authors for the reply to our case report. The differential diagnosis of Bartonella neuroretinitis in this patient was...

An Alternative Diagnosis: Bartonella Neuroretinitis

We refer to the letter ‘Lyme Neuroretinitis in Singapore: A Diagnostic Dilemma’ published in the April 2012 Vol. 41 No. 4 issue of the...

27-Gauge Vitrectomy for Primary Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment: Is it Feasible?

Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) using the 27-gauge transconjunctival approach is the last frontier of small gauge vitrectomy. Only 1 paper has been published so...

A Decade of Progress in the Understanding, Prevention and Treatment of Age-related Macular Degeneration in Singapore

The year 2014 had marked the 10th anniversary of the nationwide Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Awareness Week in Singapore.1 This public health campaign, organised...

Incidence and trends of ophthalmic cancer in Singapore: Data from Singapore Cancer Registry

Ophthalmic cancers are commonly encountered in clinical practice and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Globally, the incidence of ophthalmic cancers have...

Seeing through the eyes of patients with age-related macular degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a severe ocular disease characterised by progressive deterioration of the macula, the most sensitive central part of the retina....

Neuro-Behçet’s disease presenting as isolated intracranial hypertension

Behçet’s disease (BD) is a chronic multisystem inflammatory disease with a classic triad of painful oral ulcers, genital ulcers and uveitis. Neurological manifestations, though...

Teleophthalmology and its evolving role in a COVID-19 pandemic: A scoping review

The World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020. To control the outbreak,...