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Periodontal disease and systemic health: An update for medical practitioners

Care for the oral cavity lies in the intersection of dentistry and medicine. As the oral cavity serves as an entry to the gastrointestinal...

Is it Feasible to Use Magnesium Sulphate as a Hypotensive Agent in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery?

Although deliberate hypotension during surgery may potentially cause organ ischaemia, in particular of the myocardium and cerebrum, it is widely used as an adjuvant...

Occult Virilizing Ovarian Tumours in Postmenopausal Women: Problems in Evaluation with Reference to a Case

A remarkable variety of endocrinologic disorders may cause virilization syndromes. This can pose a diagnostic dilemma to even the most experienced clinicians. This article is...

Occult Virilizing Ovarian Tumours in Postmenopausal Women: Problems in Evaluation with Reference to a Case

A remarkable variety of endocrinologic disorders may cause virilization syndromes. This can pose a diagnostic dilemma to even the most experienced clinicians. This article is...

Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix

It is clear from studies in Canada, Scandinavia, and more recently the United Kingdom, that routine Pap smear screening has not only reduced the...

A Review of Patients with High-risk Carcinoma of the Cervix Treated with Combined Surgery and Postoperative Radiotherapy

It is generally accepted that early stage invasive carcinoma of the cervix, stage I to stage IIA disease, can be treated with equal effectiveness...

Bronchoscopy in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU)

Flexible fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FFB) has become an indispensable tool in the optimal management of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with both diagnostic and therapeutic...

Use of Central Venous Lines in Paediatrics—A Local Experience

Peripheral access by venous cut down, once popular in the 1950s and 1960s, has almost become obsolete with the introduction of the Seldinger technique...

Recurrent Gigantic Pyogenic Granuloma Disturbing Speech and Mastication: A Case Report and Literature Review

Pyogenic granulomas are common benign fibrovascular growths of the oral cavity that are non-neoplastic in nature. They may also present as skin lesions. This article...

Soft Tissue Cover in Compound and Complicated Tibial Fractures Using Microvascular Flaps

Compound tibial fractures are high-energy traumatic injuries, which are frequently associated with high incidence of complications like infection and failure of bony union leading...

Rheumatoid Arthritis—A Review

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis which is occasionally associated with extraarticular manifestations. Although the first good clinical description was by Landre-Beauvais...

Excimer Laser Phototherapeutic Keratectomy for Recurrent Corneal Erosions

Recurrent cornea1 erosion (RCE) syndrome is a commonly encountered clinical condition which may be difficult to treat. Hansen first described it in 1872. This article...

A Case Report of a Vital Replanted Tooth with Unfavourable Extra-alveolar Condition: A 10-Year Follow-up

Tooth avulsion, frequently of the maxillary central incisors, occurs most often in children from 7 to 9 years of age, when the periodontium surrounding...

Odontoameloblastoma: Report of a Case

Ameloblastoma is a benign but locally invasive tumour that affects the jaws. Although it is commonly regarded as a homogeneous group of tumours, detailed...

Oral Manifestations of Schimmelpenning Syndrome: Case Report and Review of Literature

Schimmelpenning syndrome (SS) is characterised by specific skin manifestations, skeletal defects, and central nervous system abnormalities, such as mental deficiency and seizures. Happle has...

Alveolar Bone Grafts: The Surgical/Orthodontic Management of the Cleft Maxilla

Secondary alveolar bone grafting, which was pioneered in Europe, was reported in the German literature at the beginning of this century. However, it was...

Pathogenesis and Morphogenesis of Craniofacial Developmental Anomalies

The current explosion of molecular biology encompassing genetics, morphogenesis, teratogenesis and pharmacogenomics for targeted drug therapy is about to have a profound impact upon...

A Review of Common Mucocutaneous Disorders Affecting the Mouth and Lips

Most of the mucocutaneous diseases are confined to the stratified squamous epithelia and thus may involve oral, genital and other mucosae and skin. Most...

Oral Rehabilitation Using Dental Implants and Guided Bone Regeneration

Form follows function and adaptation to physiologic demands dictates skeletal form. In the oro-facial region, tooth loss leads to atrophy of the alveolar arches...

Reconstruction of Cranial Bone Defects Using Alloplastic Implants Produced from a Stereolithographically-generated Cranial Model

Cranial bone defects can be a result of trauma, congenital defects, infection or iatrogenically induced by surgery. Even for patients with sufficient hair to...

A 5-Year Survey of Oral Biopsies in an Oral Surgical Unit in Singapore: 1993-1997

There are a variety of pathological conditions that present in the oral cavity. While clinical and radiographic examination will suggest a provisional diagnosis, histological...

The Role of Multiple Segment Osteotomies in Orthognathic Surgery

Multiple segment osteotomy (MSO) orthognathic surgery serves to combine total or segmental maxillary and mandibular correction of dentofacial deformities with concurrent diastematic procedures to...

Sutures, Growth Plates and the Craniofacial Base—Experimental Studies in the Toothless (tl-Osteopetrotic) Rat

Craniofacial development is a complex multidimensional process that depends in large part on growth in the cranial base at several growth centres posteriorly and...

Surface Laser Scanning of the Cleft Palate Deformity —Validation of the Method

Cleft palate morphology and palatal dimensional changes due to growth and treatment have been analysed by numerous quantitative techniques. Many of these methods, however,...

Intraoral Mandibular Distraction: Indications, Technique and Long-term Results

Distraction osteogenesis is rapidly becoming a mainstream treatment modality for the early management of the patient with mandibular hypoplasia. Following early clinical experience with...

Aetiology and Distribution of Mandibular Fractures in the National University Hospital, Singapore

Apart from the nasal bone, the mandible is the most commonly fractured bone in the face. It is also the 10th most often broken...

A Duty of Quality

The process of delivery of health care is complex and includes aspects which concern the clinician, the patient and the treatment process itself. Training...

Re-expansion Pulmonary Oedema Following One-lung Ventilation —A Case Report

A 15-year-old female patient weighing 40 kg with asymptomatic but severe scoliosis was admitted for correction of a skeletal deformity via a thoracoscopic anterior...

Otogenic Lateral Sinus Thrombosis—A Case Report

A 16-year-old boy, with a background history of beta-thalassaemia intermedia, splenectomy and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, was referred to our otolaryngological clinic for right otalgia following...

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes mellitus affects some 9% of Singaporeans. Studies had shown that virtually all insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1) and 85% of non-insulin dependent...

Case Reports: The Use of Intermaxillary Screws to Achieve Intermaxillary Fixation in the Treatment of Mandibular Fractures

The mandible is a unique bone in the human skeleton and occupies a prominent position in the craniofacial region. Traumatic injury to the face,...

Subcutaneous Emphysema and Pneumomediastinum after Endotracheal Anaesthesia

Pneumomediastinum is a well-recognised clinical entity. It may present either intraoperatively or postoperatively from a number of possible causes. This article is available only as...

The Predictive Value of Intraoperative ST-segment Monitoring as a Marker of Myocardial Injury

Patients with ischaemic heart disease have a high incidence of perioperative ischaemia resulting in an increased risk of cardiac events in the post-surgical period.1...

Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected Patients in Singapore

The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease has pursued a relentless course since it was first recognised in the early 1980s and if...

Evaluation of Problem-based Learning: A Lecturer’s Perspective

In the last decades, the exponential growth in the sophistication of the medical/dental knowledge and technologies has made the current dental curriculum more cramped...

46, XY Female—A Case Report

The phenotypic sex of an individual is usually male if that person’s genotype is 46, XY since the SRY gene on the Y chromosome,...

A Review of Cutaneous Granulomas and Lupus Vulgaris Following BCG Vaccination in a Skin Hospital in Singapore

BCG vaccines are live vaccines derived from a strain of Mycobacterium bovis that was attenuated by Calmette and Guerin at the Pasteur Institute in...

A Twelve-year Review of Radical Cystectomies in Singapore General Hospital

Bladder carcinoma is the tenth most common cancer affecting men in Singapore. It is more common in men with an age-standardised incidence rate of...

Subdural Block—From a Spinal? A Case Report

There have been multiple reports of accidental subdural blocks published in the last 20 years. Majority of these have been the result of an...

Problems Related to Epidural Analgesia for Postoperative Pain Control

Epidural analgesia has been shown to provide excellent pain relief following thoracotomy, abdominal and other surgery. Studies have shown improvement in specific variables with...

Audit of Total Parenteral Nutrition in an Adult Surgical Intensive Care

Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may contribute to good outcome in selected groups of patients. Parenteral nutrition is highly effective in reversing effects attributable to...

Current Understanding of Pre-eclampsia

Pre-eclampsia is a major cause of adverse obstetric outcome. It remains one of the leading causes of maternal mortality1 and continues to contribute significantly...

Craniofacial Anomalies: Clinical and Molecular Perspectives

Cleidocranial dysplasia is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder characterized by short stature, brachycephaly, delayed closure of the fontanelles and sutures, Wormian bones, midface hypoplasia,...

Adolescent Alcohol and Other Substance Use: Sharing the Australian Experience

The most common causes of morbidity in adolescence often have behavioural or social determinants, and can have enormous social and economic consequences for adolescent...

Case Report of a Dermoid Cyst at the Floor of the Mouth

A 19-year-old Indian male with a past history of “Ludwig’s angina” was seen at the Accident and Emergency Department of National University Hospital complaining...

Difficulties in Diagnosing Lesions in the Floor of the Mouth – Report of Two Rare Cases

The floor of the mouth takes form as early as in the fourth week of gestation with the downward growth and subsequent degeneration of...

Spontaneous Bone Regeneration after Mandible Resection in a Case of Ameloblastoma – A Case Report

Ameloblastoma is a true neoplasm of enamel organ type tissue which does not undergo differentiation to the point of enamel organ. This type of...

Clinico-Pathological Conference 2002

Six patients with unusual presentations of head and neck disease were presented for diagnosis by discussants at the conference. Images were accompanied by brief...

The Role of Internet and Personal Digital Assistant in Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology

The Internet is a global network of networks that connect computers all over the world, so that anyone from any point in the network...

Bisphosphonates – A Word of Caution

Bisphosphonates are commonly prescribed for the treatment (and prevention) of postmenopausal and corticosteroid induced osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, hypercalcemia associated with malignancy and osteolysis (and...

Low Frequency of Anti-Endomysial Antibodies in Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common condition of the oral mucosa of unknown aetiology. Several predisposing factors have been suggested including haematinic deficiencies,...

Oral Lesions and Conditions Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in 1000 South Indian Patients

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major global health problem. It is estimated that the number of people living with HIV infection in...

Epidemiology of Betel Quid Usage

Betel quid/areca nut use has been common in South and Southeast Asia and the Asia Pacific region for a long time and is common...

Oral Mucosal Immunology: An Overview

The primary function of the immune system of the mouth is to protect the teeth, jaws, gingivae and the rest of the oral mucosa...

Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology and Medicine – A Dental Specialty Issue Whose Time Has Come?

The practice of Dentistry in Singapore has advanced rapidly, with the development and recognition of several specialty practices, coupled with the support of established...

Transurethral Resection of Prostate (TURP) Through The Decades – A Comparison of Results Over the Last Thirty Years in a Single Institution in Asia

Over the last 70 years, transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) has been used in the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and is...

Acute Isolated Sphenoid Sinusitis

Isolated infection of the sphenoid sinus is uncommon. It usually occurs in conjunction with infection of the other paranasal sinuses. Acute isolated sphenoid sinusitis...

Audit of Diagnostic and Interventional Craniocervical Catheter Angiographic Procedures at the Singapore General Hospital

Catheter angiography has long been considered the diagnostic standard by which the accuracy of other vascular imaging modalities are compared, given its superior contrast...

Delusional Parasitosis: Case Series of 8 Patients and Review of the Literature

Delusional parasitosis (DP), or delusional infestation, is a condition in which a person has the unshakeable and mistaken belief of being infested with parasites....

A Study on the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Southeast Asian Dermatologists in the Management of Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and pruritic inflammatory skin disorder that occurs worldwide. Several guidelines on the management of AD have been published...

Diabetes as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease: Current Status and Future Considerations

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common and growing global health problem. It is highly prevalent in Asian communities. Hong Kong, Pakistan, and Singapore are...

Can Long-term Corticosteroids Lead to Blindness? A Case Series of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Induced by Corticosteroids

Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is an idiopathic disorder characterised by serous detachment of the macula, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) detachment and areas of RPE...

Ethambutol-associated Optic Neuropathy

Tuberculosis (TB) has been present since ancient times. Around 460 BC, Hippocrates identified phthisis, which is the Greek term for consumption (TB seemed to...

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: A Five-year Review at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odourless, tasteless and toxic gas and is the most abundant pollutant in the lower atmosphere. It is produced largely...

Swallowed Foreign Bodies in Children: Report of Four Unusual Cases

Foreign body (FB) ingestion in children is a frequent and frightening experience to the patients and caregivers. It is a common paediatric problem necessitating...

A Multidisciplinary Approach to Paediatric Hearing Loss: Programme at the Centre for Hearing Intervention and Language Development, National University Hospital, Singapore

This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download PDF” on top to view the full article.

Diagnosis and Management Support for an Expanded Newborn Screening Programme

This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download PDF” on top to view the full article.

A Review of Clinical Pathway Data of 1663 Total Knee Arthroplasties in a Tertiary Institution in Singapore

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been established as an effective treatment modality for patients with symptomatic knee arthritis. It provides predictable decrement in pain,...

Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Hypopnoea Syndrome in Singapore Children

Obesity is becoming a problem of epidemic proportions and is perhaps, the most pervasive medical problem faced by medical providers today. It is a...

Effect of Orthognathic Surgery on the Posterior Airway Space (PAS)

During the growth and development of a person, the facial structures are primarily dependent on the genetic makeup and secondarily on the environmental factors....

Airway and Craniofacial Changes With Mandibular Advancement Device in Chinese With Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

The mandibular advancement device (MAD) consists of upper and lower splints attached to the teeth and postures the mandible forward. The rationale for use...

The Relationship between Postoperative Complications and Outcomes after Hip Fracture Surgery

Hip fractures constitute a major health concern for older persons and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with 1-year mortality rates ranging from...

Advanced Burkitt’s Lymphoma Presenting With Jejunal Perforation

Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) is a high grade B-cell neoplasm under the umbrella of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. It is predominantly seen in children but may also...

Arteriovenous Fistula Aneurysm – Plicate, Not Ligate

Arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) are created for haemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal failure. While AVF is a lifeline for these patients, its creation is...

A Brief History of the Chapter of Dental Surgeons

The idea of having an Academy of Medicine in Singapore was first proposed by some 20 medical specialists on 19 July 1957 and was...

Lessons Learnt from Two Women with Morbidly Adherent Placentas and a Review of Literature

Pathologically adherent placenta occurs when there is a defect of the decidua basalis, resulting in abnormally invasive implantation of the placenta into the substance...

Perforated Appendicitis in Children: Benefits of Early Laparoscopic Surgery

Despite perforated appendicitis (PA) being a common surgical emergency in childhood, controversy still exists with regard to its management in this era of minimal...

Peritoneo-Cutaneous Fistula Secondary to Skin Excoriation from a Large Chronic Incisional Hernia

Incisional hernias are common complications following abdominal surgery with an incidence of 2% to 20% after midline laparotomy. Umbilical fluid discharge is, however, an...

Epidemiology and Management of Surgical Upper Limb Infections in Patients with End-stage Renal Failure

Hand infections are common in the general population, and their management is usually uncomplicated. Several papers have noted that patients with diabetes mellitus have...

Enlargement of the Right Maxilla – Report of an Unusual Peripheral Osteoma

Osteomas are benign, slow-growing tumours of the bone which may be classified as solitary or multiple. Multiple osteomas are mainly associated with Gardner’s syndrome...

Brachial Approach for Coronary Angiography and Intervention: Totally Obsolete, or a Feasible Alternative When Radial Access is Not Possible?

The possible methods of reaching the coronary vasculature using a percutaneous technique are limitless: the radial, femoral, brachial, ulnar, subclavian and axillary arteries, and...

The Singapore National Healthcare Group Diabetes Registry – Descriptive Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most challenging global health problems in the 21st century. It is associated with excess mortality and significant morbidity...

Functional Outcomes of Cancer Patients in an Inpatient Rehabilitation Setting

Cancer is the leading cause of death and the second most common cause of hospitalisation in Singapore. Cancer rehabilitation aims to help the patient...

Clinical Outcome and Cost Comparison Between Laparoscopic and Open Appendicectomy

Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain requiring surgical intervention. The traditional operation of choice was the open...

Singapore Chapter of Rheumatologists Consensus Statement on the Eligibility for Government Subsidy of Biologic Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Agents for Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting 0.3% to 0.8% of the population worldwide, and is the most common inflammatory arthritis in...

Neonatal and Paediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) in a Single Asian Tertiary Centre

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a cardiopulmonary bypass technique (CPB) introduced by Bartlett in 1972, which provides life-saving support in patients with refractory yet...

Risk Factors for Severe Adenovirus Infection in Children during an Outbreak in Singapore

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are well known pathogens that cause a variety of human illnesses. They are non-enveloped, linear double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses. More...

Precautions When Providing Dental Care During Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and was first reported to the World Health Organization...

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): The Singapore Experience. A Review of the First Eight Months

Singapore reported its first imported case of COVID-19 on 23 January 20201 and its first COVID-19 deaths on 21 March 2020.2 The WHO declared...