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Periodontal disease and systemic health: An update for medical practitioners

Care for the oral cavity lies in the intersection of dentistry and medicine. As the oral cavity serves as an entry to the gastrointestinal...

Treating patients at home: A novel solution for old problems

Hospital-at-home (HaH) programmes deliver hospital-type treatments to patients located in their own homes, often in substitution for an acute inpatient admission or to support...

Is it Feasible to Use Magnesium Sulphate as a Hypotensive Agent in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery?

Although deliberate hypotension during surgery may potentially cause organ ischaemia, in particular of the myocardium and cerebrum, it is widely used as an adjuvant...

Recurrent Gigantic Pyogenic Granuloma Disturbing Speech and Mastication: A Case Report and Literature Review

Pyogenic granulomas are common benign fibrovascular growths of the oral cavity that are non-neoplastic in nature. They may also present as skin lesions. This article...

Clinical Predictors of Nephritis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Lupus nephritis is a common manifestation of lupus associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of cytotoxic agents has resulted in improved renal...

A Case Report of a Vital Replanted Tooth with Unfavourable Extra-alveolar Condition: A 10-Year Follow-up

Tooth avulsion, frequently of the maxillary central incisors, occurs most often in children from 7 to 9 years of age, when the periodontium surrounding...

Odontoameloblastoma: Report of a Case

Ameloblastoma is a benign but locally invasive tumour that affects the jaws. Although it is commonly regarded as a homogeneous group of tumours, detailed...

Oral Manifestations of Schimmelpenning Syndrome: Case Report and Review of Literature

Schimmelpenning syndrome (SS) is characterised by specific skin manifestations, skeletal defects, and central nervous system abnormalities, such as mental deficiency and seizures. Happle has...

Alveolar Bone Grafts: The Surgical/Orthodontic Management of the Cleft Maxilla

Secondary alveolar bone grafting, which was pioneered in Europe, was reported in the German literature at the beginning of this century. However, it was...

Pathogenesis and Morphogenesis of Craniofacial Developmental Anomalies

The current explosion of molecular biology encompassing genetics, morphogenesis, teratogenesis and pharmacogenomics for targeted drug therapy is about to have a profound impact upon...

A Review of Common Mucocutaneous Disorders Affecting the Mouth and Lips

Most of the mucocutaneous diseases are confined to the stratified squamous epithelia and thus may involve oral, genital and other mucosae and skin. Most...

Oral Rehabilitation Using Dental Implants and Guided Bone Regeneration

Form follows function and adaptation to physiologic demands dictates skeletal form. In the oro-facial region, tooth loss leads to atrophy of the alveolar arches...

Reconstruction of Cranial Bone Defects Using Alloplastic Implants Produced from a Stereolithographically-generated Cranial Model

Cranial bone defects can be a result of trauma, congenital defects, infection or iatrogenically induced by surgery. Even for patients with sufficient hair to...

A 5-Year Survey of Oral Biopsies in an Oral Surgical Unit in Singapore: 1993-1997

There are a variety of pathological conditions that present in the oral cavity. While clinical and radiographic examination will suggest a provisional diagnosis, histological...

The Role of Multiple Segment Osteotomies in Orthognathic Surgery

Multiple segment osteotomy (MSO) orthognathic surgery serves to combine total or segmental maxillary and mandibular correction of dentofacial deformities with concurrent diastematic procedures to...

Sutures, Growth Plates and the Craniofacial Base—Experimental Studies in the Toothless (tl-Osteopetrotic) Rat

Craniofacial development is a complex multidimensional process that depends in large part on growth in the cranial base at several growth centres posteriorly and...

Surface Laser Scanning of the Cleft Palate Deformity —Validation of the Method

Cleft palate morphology and palatal dimensional changes due to growth and treatment have been analysed by numerous quantitative techniques. Many of these methods, however,...

Intraoral Mandibular Distraction: Indications, Technique and Long-term Results

Distraction osteogenesis is rapidly becoming a mainstream treatment modality for the early management of the patient with mandibular hypoplasia. Following early clinical experience with...

Aetiology and Distribution of Mandibular Fractures in the National University Hospital, Singapore

Apart from the nasal bone, the mandible is the most commonly fractured bone in the face. It is also the 10th most often broken...

A Duty of Quality

The process of delivery of health care is complex and includes aspects which concern the clinician, the patient and the treatment process itself. Training...

Case Reports: The Use of Intermaxillary Screws to Achieve Intermaxillary Fixation in the Treatment of Mandibular Fractures

The mandible is a unique bone in the human skeleton and occupies a prominent position in the craniofacial region. Traumatic injury to the face,...

Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected Patients in Singapore

The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease has pursued a relentless course since it was first recognised in the early 1980s and if...

Evaluation of Problem-based Learning: A Lecturer’s Perspective

In the last decades, the exponential growth in the sophistication of the medical/dental knowledge and technologies has made the current dental curriculum more cramped...

Measuring Health-related Quality of Life in Singapore: Normal Values for the English and Chinese SF-36 Health Survey

Advances in diagnosis and therapy in the second half of the 20th century have lead to impressive improvements in survival for patients with many...

An Asian Perspective to the Problem of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is regarded as an important public health problem in many Caucasian populations. Much of the research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, genetic and molecular...

Craniofacial Anomalies: Clinical and Molecular Perspectives

Cleidocranial dysplasia is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder characterized by short stature, brachycephaly, delayed closure of the fontanelles and sutures, Wormian bones, midface hypoplasia,...

HIV/AIDS in Children

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in Asia has grown from a handful of cases to a major...

Adolescent Alcohol and Other Substance Use: Sharing the Australian Experience

The most common causes of morbidity in adolescence often have behavioural or social determinants, and can have enormous social and economic consequences for adolescent...

Case Report of a Dermoid Cyst at the Floor of the Mouth

A 19-year-old Indian male with a past history of “Ludwig’s angina” was seen at the Accident and Emergency Department of National University Hospital complaining...

Difficulties in Diagnosing Lesions in the Floor of the Mouth – Report of Two Rare Cases

The floor of the mouth takes form as early as in the fourth week of gestation with the downward growth and subsequent degeneration of...

MELAS: A Case Report

A 6-year-old Chinese boy presented at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery clinic with gingival bleeding due to poor oral hygiene, odontogenic pain due to...

Oral Pemphigus Vulgaris: A Case Report and Literature Update

Autoimmune blistering conditions are an uncommon cause of chronic ulceration of the oral mucosa. Nevertheless, it is important to diagnose these conditions early and...

Spontaneous Bone Regeneration after Mandible Resection in a Case of Ameloblastoma – A Case Report

Ameloblastoma is a true neoplasm of enamel organ type tissue which does not undergo differentiation to the point of enamel organ. This type of...

Clinico-Pathological Conference 2002

Six patients with unusual presentations of head and neck disease were presented for diagnosis by discussants at the conference. Images were accompanied by brief...

The Role of Internet and Personal Digital Assistant in Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology

The Internet is a global network of networks that connect computers all over the world, so that anyone from any point in the network...

Bisphosphonates – A Word of Caution

Bisphosphonates are commonly prescribed for the treatment (and prevention) of postmenopausal and corticosteroid induced osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, hypercalcemia associated with malignancy and osteolysis (and...

Low Frequency of Anti-Endomysial Antibodies in Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common condition of the oral mucosa of unknown aetiology. Several predisposing factors have been suggested including haematinic deficiencies,...

Oral Lesions and Conditions Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in 1000 South Indian Patients

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major global health problem. It is estimated that the number of people living with HIV infection in...

Oral Mucosal Immunology: An Overview

The primary function of the immune system of the mouth is to protect the teeth, jaws, gingivae and the rest of the oral mucosa...

Lymphomas Involving Waldeyer’s Ring: Placement, Paradigms, Peculiarities, Pitfalls, Patterns and Postulates

As the histopathological diagnosis of any lymphoma still largely hinges upon the demonstration of lymphoid architectural abnormality, the pathologist must first be cognizant of...

Melanocytic Lesions of the Face: Diagnostic Pitfalls

Cutaneous melanocytic lesions are amongst the commonest tumours in all races but are more common in Caucasians with fair skin. Although most are benign...

Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology and Medicine – A Dental Specialty Issue Whose Time Has Come?

The practice of Dentistry in Singapore has advanced rapidly, with the development and recognition of several specialty practices, coupled with the support of established...

Spectrum of Dentofacial Deformities: A Retrospective Survey

Deformity refers to distortion of any part of the body. The term dentofacial is related to the dental arches and their effects on facial...

Clinical PET Imaging – An Asian Perspective

Positron emission tomography (PET) is distinct from other imaging modalities in its ability to probe the physiology and biochemistry of normal and abnormal tissues....

Diabetes as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease: Current Status and Future Considerations

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common and growing global health problem. It is highly prevalent in Asian communities. Hong Kong, Pakistan, and Singapore are...

A Rotavirus Vaccine for Infants: The Asian Experience

Of all the enteric pathogens that infect young children, rotavirus is recognised as the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis worldwide. Rotavirus accounts for 20%...

Effect of Orthognathic Surgery on the Posterior Airway Space (PAS)

During the growth and development of a person, the facial structures are primarily dependent on the genetic makeup and secondarily on the environmental factors....

Airway and Craniofacial Changes With Mandibular Advancement Device in Chinese With Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

The mandibular advancement device (MAD) consists of upper and lower splints attached to the teeth and postures the mandible forward. The rationale for use...

Role of Urinary Screening Programmes in Children in the Prevention of Chronic Kidney Disease

Singapore has an estimated annual incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) of 158 per million population.1 However, the number of children who develop renal...

Consequences of Right Siting of Endocrinology Patients – A Financial and Caseload Simulation

Right siting, defined as “patients treated in the most appropriate locations by medically competent teams at the lower possible cost”, has been on the...

Sociodemographic Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Public Health Education – A Comparison of Two Studies in Singapore

Public health education is a cornerstone in the primary prevention of chronic diseases. In the United States, for example, studies have shown that cardiovascular...

A Brief History of the Chapter of Dental Surgeons

The idea of having an Academy of Medicine in Singapore was first proposed by some 20 medical specialists on 19 July 1957 and was...

Lack of Awareness amongst Community Patients with Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy: The Singapore Malay Eye Study

Diabetes is a major public health problem, and diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people.1 Previous studies have documented poor...

Pain Prevalence in Singapore

Population studies on pain prevalence are useful in determining the impact that chronic pain has on the society. It draws the attention of healthcare...

Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) Patterns in Bariatric Surgical Practice and Response of OSA to Weight Loss after Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (LAGB)

The incidence of OSA in severely obese Asians is poorly documented. This is also compounded by a varied racial profile across Asia. Singapore, with...

Liver Transplantation in Asia: Past, Present and Future

Liver transplantation is the best treatment modality for patients with end-stage liver diseases. It has been landmarked as one of the most important advances...

Enlargement of the Right Maxilla – Report of an Unusual Peripheral Osteoma

Osteomas are benign, slow-growing tumours of the bone which may be classified as solitary or multiple. Multiple osteomas are mainly associated with Gardner’s syndrome...

Are New Resuscitation Guidelines Better? Experience of an Asian Metropolitan Hospital

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a substantial public health burden that has poor prognosis. Patients who receive “good” and “high-quality” cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have...

Childhood Food Allergy: A Singaporean Perspective

Food allergy is defined as reaction to a food which has an immunologic mechanism. If immunoglobulin E (IgE) is involved in the reaction, the...

Asian Adaptation and Validation of an English Version of the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire (MusiQoL)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common disorders of the central nervous system with a lifetime risk of 1 in 400. In...

Overcoming Barriers to Mammography Screening: A Quasi-randomised Pragmatic Trial in a Community-based Primary Care Setting

Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women in Singapore, accounting for 29% of all cancers occurring in women between 2006 and 2010. Evidence...

Association of Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Social Support with Depressive Symptoms among the Elderly in Singapore

Depression in the elderly is a major public health issue. Associated morbidities such as higher risk of impairment in physical, mental and social functioning...

Precautions When Providing Dental Care During Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and was first reported to the World Health Organization...