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Challenges in genetic screening for inherited endocrinopathy affecting the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands in Singapore

In the current landscape of medicine, it is well known that most diseases incorporate a genetic component to some degree. Genetic testing of human...

Illicit drug consumption in Singapore: Where are we in the fight against drugs?

Illicit drug consumption is associated with significant negative health, financial and social consequences. Yet, illicit drug consumption remains highly prevalent and continues to be...

HLA-B*5801 testing: Is it time to consider mandatory testing prior to prescribing allopurinol in Singapore?

Dear Editor, Stevens-Johnsons Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) are severe, life- threatening mucocutaneous reactions that most commonly occur as drug-related reactions.1 In recent...

Call for a Singapore National Action Plan for Sepsis (SNAPS): Stop sepsis, save lives

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction syndrome caused by a dysregulated host response to an infection.1 It affects up to 48.9 million people globally...

Polycystic ovary syndrome v.2023: Simplified diagnostic criteria for an East Asian phenotype

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition affecting 6–19% of women of reproductive age, depending on the reference population and definition used.1,2...

Enhancing the accuracy of polycystic ovary syndrome diagnosis

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder, experienced by 1 in 10 women of childbearing age. Its aetiology is multifactorial and...

Value the patient as a person: Answering the call for a person-centred model of care

There has been a change in patients’ attitudes towards healthcare professionals in recent decades, coupled with an increasingly evident shift in the care paradigm....

Singapore’s experience in managing the COVID-19 pandemic: Key lessons from the ground

In the early days of the pandemic when information on COVID-19 infection was lacking, all COVID-19 positive patients were admitted into acute hospitals for...

Transforming radiology to support population health

The recent launch of Healthier SG—a national initiative by Singapore’s Ministry of Health (MOH) focusing on preventive health—will have far-reaching effects on the delivery...

Perinatal mental health in Singapore: Implementation opportunities and relevance of gender-carer roles in screening

In this issue of the Annals, the consensus statement on perinatal mental health by Chen et al. covers the handling of depression and anxiety...

Evaluation on the adoption of eHealth App for electronic health record sharing system in Hong Kong

Dear Editor, In Hong Kong, the eHealth App was launched in January 2021, as part of Stage Two development of the Electronic Health Record Sharing...

Managing and preventing severe hand injuries among sugarcane juicer operators

Dear Editor, Of all hand injuries encountered at an emergency department, 54% are sustained in the workplace,1 in part contributed by occupational injuries among food...

Impact of pre-existing depression on severe COVID-19 outcomes

The outbreak of the COVID-19 virus in 2019 had rapidly developed into a global pandemic, causing more than 6.8 million deaths and impacting the...

Leveraging ChatGPT to aid patient education on coronary angiogram

Natural-language artificial intelligence (AI) is a promising technological advancement poised to revolutionise the delivery of healthcare.1 Traditionally, inclusion of technology in the augmentation of...

Preferences for oral anticoagulant medications for managing atrial fibrillation

Dear Editor, Stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) using anticoagulants involves weighing the benefits of reduced ischemic stroke1,2 against the elevated risks of...

Evaluation of a return to work coordination programme for injured workers in a public hospital in Singapore

Workers who have sustained an injury at work often face difficulties returning to work, according to a study showing that over 40% of injured workers...

Comparison of existing methods of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol estimation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). A reduction in LDL-C levels...

Proactive steps to population health: Starting early, starting right

The global burden of non-communicable diseases is rising, with continued projected increases in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the future. This epidemic,...

Risk and protective factors of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study in Singapore

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted people’s well-being globally.1 Individuals faced several stressors during the pandemic, including fear of contracting the disease, experiencing severe...

Artificial intelligence innovation in healthcare: Relevance of reporting guidelines for clinical translation from bench to bedside

Artificial intelligence (AI) and digital innovation have revolutionised many sectors and industries, prominently including healthcare during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.1 For example,...

Benefits of leisure-related physical activity and association between sedentary time and risk for hypertension and type 2 diabetes

Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are serious public health issues. Approximately 451 million individuals worldwide aged 18–99 years were living with diabetes in 2017, and...

Promoting physical activity for population health

The chronic disease burden has risen globally. In Singapore, between 2007 and 2021, the crude prevalence of hyperlipidaemia (8.2–13.9%), hypertension (12.7–15.7%) and diabetes (4.9–6.9%)...

Factors associated with deep infiltrating endometriosis, adenomyosis and ovarian endometrioma

Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory gynaecologic disease marked by the presence of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterus.1 Debilitating chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhoea, and subfertility...

Concordance of self-reporting of diabetes compared with medical records: A comparative study using polyclinic data in Singapore

Approximately 422 million people worldwide have diabetes and 1.6 million deaths are attributed to diabetes each year,1 contributing to high economic costs worldwide. Diabetes...

Diabetes: Know thy foe

During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2022, Singapore’s Minister for Health Ong Ye Kung mentioned, “After the COVID-19 pandemic has passed, we need to tackle...

Combating a resurgence of poliomyelitis through public health surveillance and vaccination

Singapore was certified poliomyelitis (polio)-free by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 29 October 2000, together with 36 other countries in the Western Pacific...

Clinical efficacy and long-term immunogenicity of an early triple dose regimen of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in cancer patients

The spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to the ongoing worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. Initial studies have reported an increased vulnerability of patients with...

Early COVID-19 booster is beneficial in cancer patients

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and its corresponding coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first reported as a cluster of pneumonia cases in...

Vaccination and surveillance: Two basic tools for a final poliomyelitis eradication

Over the past 3 decades, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has strived to achieve a poliomyelitis (polio)-free world. Wild poliovirus (WPV) types 2...

Meeting today’s healthcare needs: Medicine at the interface

The demographic of Singapore has undergone dramatic changes. Historically, younger patients with communicable diseases predominated; however, patients are now older with chronic multimorbidity and...

A strategy to make COVID-19 vaccination more accessible to the elderly

Dear Editor, Singapore embarked on the COVID-19 National Vaccination Programme in early 2021. The main modality employed to achieve the mass vaccinations has been the...

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease screening in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cost-effectiveness and price threshold analysis

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing epidemic and has become a major cause of liver-related mortality and indication for liver transplantations globally....

Prevalence of perceived weight-based stigmatisation in a multiethnic Asian population

Dear Editor, People with obesity contend with obesity-related stigmas, in addition to health complications.1 In contrast to the West, literature documenting the prevalence of such...

Cost analysis of a Patient-Centred Medical Home for community-dwelling older adults with complex needs in Singapore

The Patient-Centred Medical Home (PCMH) is a model of chronic care that replaces episodic primary care, with the delivery of primary care to patients,...

From Astana to Singapore: Primary Health Care is key to the long-term success of Singapore’s health system

The Ministry of Health, Singapore (MOH) has launched a wide-ranging and ambitious initiative for a life-course approach to drive the population’s health.1 This approach...

Frequent attenders to multiple emergency departments in Singapore

The problem of overcrowding, of which access block is one of the main causes, continues to plague emergency departments (EDs) worldwide.1 Some of its...

Treating acutely ill patients at home: Data from Singapore

Inpatient hospitalisation is the conventional strategy to care for acutely ill patients. However, demand for hospital beds and clinical manpower is escalating as populations...

Attitude towards screening for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in newborns in Singapore

Dear Editor, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common congenital infection.1 A systematic review that included 77 studies from 36 countries reported that the overall...

COVID-19 vaccination acceptance of healthcare workers in Singapore

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in 511.0 million cases of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and almost 6.2 million deaths globally as of end...

The Lancet Commission on diagnostics: What it means for Singapore

Effective healthcare systems depend on a functioning healthcare value chain—defined as a care cascade comprising screening, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. The tremendous heterogeneity and...

Diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome: Perspectives of clinicians in Singapore

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder estimated to affect 4–21% of women, depending on the diagnostic criteria used.1 Clinical manifestations of the...

A Randomized Trial of the Use of Print Material and Personal Contact to Improve Mammography Uptake Among Screening Non-attenders in Singapore

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females in Singapore. Although lower than incidence rates in North America and the United Kingdom the...

Thyroid Storm Presenting as Jaundice and Complete Heart Block

Thyroid storm is defined as a severe and often life-threatening exacerbation of thyrotoxicosis which is usually characterised by hyperthermia, tachycardia, severe agitation and altered...

Hyperthyroidism with Gynaecomastia as the Initial Complaint: A Case Report

Gynaecomastia is not a commonly recognised feature among the myriad symptoms and signs associated with hyperthyroidism. A review of the literature disclosed only eight...

Serum Selenium in the General Population of Singapore, 1993 to 1995

The current disease pattern in Singapore (an island state of 3.3 million people composed of 76% Chinese, 14% Malays, 7% Asian Indians and 3%...

Serum Ferritin and Iron Status in the General Population of Singapore, 1993 to 1995

Iron, a dietary constituent, is an essential element. Body iron stores can be measured by haemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and erythrocyte protoporphyrin. This article...

Epidemiological Surveillance of Melioidosis in Singapore

Melioidosis was first described in 1911 among vagrants and morphine addicts brought into the mortuary in Rangoon, Burma. However, the disease received little attention...

Urinary 2/16α-hydroxyestrone Ratio: Correlation with Serum Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 and a Potential Biomarker of Breast Cancer Risk

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Singapore with age-standardised incidence rates increasing markedly from 26.8 to 38.7 per 100 000...

A Case Series of Paget’s Disease of Bone: Diagnosing a Rather Uncommon Condition in Singapore

Sir James Paget’s description in 1877 of “a form of chronic inflammation of bones” which now bears his name was based entirely on clinical...

A Case Report of a Patient with Bronchial Carcinoid Tumour and Late Presentation of Cushing’s Syndrome

Cushing’s syndrome is usually easy to recognise clinically. Determining the cause of non-iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome is, on the other hand, often a diagnostic enigma. This...

Population-based Mammographic Screening in Singapore: What are Participants’ Views?

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Singapore and has been increasing in incidence since 1968. This rise is particularly marked...

Plasma Vitamins A, C and E in the General Population of Singapore, 1993 to 1995

The current disease pattern in Singapore (an island state of 3.3 million people composed of 76% Chinese, 14% Malays, 7% Asian Indians and 3%...

Measurement of Obesity by Anthropometry and Bioelectric Impedance Analysis: Correlation with Fasting Lipids and Insulin Resistance in an Asian Population

Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This risk is partially mediated by the correlation between obesity and other coronary artery disease risk...

A Study to Assess the Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Soluble Fibre (Minolest®) on Lipid Levels in Normal Subjects with Hypercholesterolaemia

Hypercholesterolaemia is one of the major risk factors in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). In recent years, many non-prescription treatments have become...

Regulation of Insulin Secretion by Nerves and Neuropeptides

The pancreatic islets of Langerhans were described by Paul Langerhans in 1869. They are distributed throughout the entire pancreas forming in adults approximately 1%...

Hypoglycaemia from Islet Cell Hyperplasia and Nesidioblastosis in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus—A Case Report

A 57-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for perforated left tubo-ovarian abscess and found to have newly diagnosed diabetes with an admission blood...

Orlistat (Xenical) in the Management of Obesity

The term “obesity” implies an excess of adipose tissue (fat) and excess adiposity is a health risk. In most cases it develops in the...

The Molecular Pathogenesis of Obesity: An Unfinished Jigsaw Puzzle

Obesity is one of the most common health problems in Singapore with escalating prevalence, affecting about 6% of the Singapore population above 18 years...

1990-2000: Progress in Determining High Blood Pressure Genes

Essential hypertension and its complications, coronary heart disease, stroke and renal failure are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in western societies.1 While the...

Cardiovascular Disease: Genes and Public Health

The excitement surrounding the Human Genome Project and its impending completion has raised expectations of the possibilities for genetics in common disease. It is...

A Rational Alternative for the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus in High Risk Individuals

The “gold standard” for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus has all along been the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). As diabetes mellitus defines a...

Evaluation of a Rapid Screening Test for Microalbuminuria with a Spot Measurement of Urine Albumin-Creatinine Ratio

In 1989, the St Vincent Declaration was formulated by all European countries to address the growing problem of diabetes, with the general goals of...

Graves’ disease after COVID-19 vaccination

Dear Editor, Case 1 was a 41-year-old man with a history of primary hyperthyroidism. At the time of diagnosis, thyroglobulin antibodies were elevated although no...

Severe Diabetes in Remission: A Singapore’s Perspective

Diabetic ketoacidosis is generally believed to be the result of an acute and severe degree of insulin insufficiency, classically occurring at the presentation of...

Obesity in Singapore

The word obesity implies an excess of adipose tissue (fat) and not merely an excess of body weight. An increase in body weight may...

A Rare Cause of Syncope in a Patient with Diabetes Mellitus—A Case Report

Hypoglycaemia is a common medical emergency. It presents either with symptoms of neuroglycopaenia, such as episodes of visual blurring, confusion, convulsions and sometimes coma...

Body Mass Index and Its Related Factors in the Elderly

Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in developed countries, especially among the elderly. In Taiwan, cardiovascular disease is...

Problem-based Learning (PBL) as an Approach in the Teaching of Biochemistry of the Endocrine System at the Angeles University College of Medicine

The Angeles University College of Medicine (AUCOM) was established in 1983 with a curriculum that is conventionally teacher-centred. Biochemistry is a basic science subject...

46, XY Female—A Case Report

The phenotypic sex of an individual is usually male if that person’s genotype is 46, XY since the SRY gene on the Y chromosome,...

A Case Report of Primary Hyperparathyroidism with Severe Bony Involvement and Nephrolithiasis

Primary hyperparathyroidism is said to have evolved from a disease of “bones, stones and groans”, to one that is largely asymptomatic with a relatively...

Current Therapeutic Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is now recognised as a metabolic syndrome and although the treatment paradigm has shifted from one that focuses solely on...

Evidence-based Health Promotion: Applying it in Practice

There has been a growing interest in health promotion among health professionals and policy makers in Singapore. This is partly in response to the...

Treating Thyrotoxicosis with Radioiodine

Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormone and is actively taken up by thyroid follicles. This is the physiological basis for the use...

Subdural Block—From a Spinal? A Case Report

There have been multiple reports of accidental subdural blocks published in the last 20 years. Majority of these have been the result of an...

A Preliminary Evaluation of a Disease Management Programme for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension in a Primary Healthcare Setting

Chronic diseases are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. In most developed countries, the problems of a rising prevalence of...

Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy

Abnormalities of thyroid function associated with pregnancy encompass both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. These may have been present before the onset of pregnancy, or occurred...

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Call for Systematic Tracing

The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. In Singapore, the prevalence of diabetes has increased dramatically from 4.7% in 1984 to 8.6% in 1998....

Statins and Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: New Pathways in Bone Formation

Osteoporosis is a major public health problem causing considerable morbidity and mortality in Asian women. It is estimated that half of the world’s hip...

Allopurinol Hypersensitivity Syndrome and Acute Myocardial Infarction—Two Case Reports

Allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome is an idiosyncratic drug reaction characterised by an acute and severe multiorgan disease. It usually begins 2 to 6 weeks (up...

Comparing Fasting Plasma Glucose against Two-hour Post-load Glucose Concentrations for the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Glucose Intolerance in Singaporean Hospital Patients

Prior to 1997, the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in asymptomatic individuals was based upon the 1985 World Health Organisation (WHO) diagnostic criteria in which,...

Clinical Update on Osteoporosis

Fractures, the most serious complication of osteoporosis, are increasing and constitute an evolving public health problem in terms of disability, mortality and cost. A...

The Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010: For Prevention and Treatment of Musculoskeletal Disease

The theme of this issue of the Annals, Academy of Medicine at the beginning of the year is suitably on osteoporosis. Osteoporosis, with its...

Osteoporosis—A Worldwide Problem and the Implications in Asia

Osteoporosis is a condition characterised by low bone mineral density, microarchitectural deterioration of bony tissue, and a consequent increase in fracture risk. With rapid...

Bone Fragility in Asian and Caucasian Men

Bone fragility in men has been receiving greater attention during the last few years. Epidemiological studies have been done in Caucasian and Asian populations. This...

Steroid-induced Osteoporosis

Corticosteroids are known to affect bone through multiple pathways (Fig. 1), influencing both bone formation and bone resorption, and these mechanisms have been reviewed....

Medical Treatment of Osteoporosis—Increasing Options

The current practice and management of osteoporosis differs greatly from even the recent past. Up to 15 years ago, bone mineral density (BMD) measurements...

Osteoporosis Risk Factor Assessment and Bone Densitometry—Current Status and Future Trends

Osteoporosis affects predominantly elderly women; although younger women and men may also be affected. Demographically, the number and proportion of the elderly (aged 65...

Osteoporosis in Relation to Menopause

Singapore has a rapidly ageing population. In 1990, only 6% of the population was above the age of 65 years but this percentage of...

An Asian Perspective to the Problem of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is regarded as an important public health problem in many Caucasian populations. Much of the research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, genetic and molecular...

Osteoporosis: A Treatable Disease

Osteoporosis twenty years ago was a very different disease from what we know of it today. At that time a diagnosis of osteoporosis was...

Is Healthcare Competition Healthy?

There are many problems which all Health Ministers worry about. But we can generally boil them down to one common problem: “money no enough”. This...

Public Disclosure of Healthcare Performance Information and Its Application to the Singapore Context

It has been said that apart from the prevention of diseases, the best chance of improving health is through improving the quality of care...

Measuring Quality of Life in Chinese Cancer Patients: A New Version of the Functional Living Index for Cancer (Chinese)

Health-related quality of life (QOL) is recognised as an important aspect of patient care. In oncology studies, it may stand as the primary end-point....

The Diagnosis and Management of Hypercalcaemia

Hypercalcaemia is a relatively common clinical problem with the widespread use of routine biochemical screening. Population studies have suggested a prevalence of 3% in...

The Perils of Puberty

Adolescence is a biopsychosocial maturational process, with the biological changes including completion of linear growth and sexual maturation (puberty), maturation of enzyme systems such...

Patterns and predictors of sound levels in hospital rooms

Dear Editor,      Excessive sound levels in the hospital can impair the work performance of healthcare professionals and affect patient well-being.1 Previous studies have also...

The Role of Public Health and Occupational Physicians in the New Millennium

I want to thank the Chapter and organisers for honouring me with this kind invitation to speak to you. This millennium is only 4...

A Study on SARS Awareness and Health-seeking Behaviour – Findings from a Sampled Population Attending National Healthcare Group Polyclinics

There was a worldwide outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) caused by the novel coronavirus between November 2002 and July 2003. Singapore was...

How Much do Diabetic Patients Know About Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications?

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common and growing healthcare problem in Singapore with a prevalence of 9% in 1998. Since the 1990s, the Ministry...

The Epidemiology of Myopia in Hong Kong

Myopia is a refractive condition in which the image of a distant object is formed anterior to the retina of the unaccommodated (relaxed) eye....

Issues and Challenges for Myopia Research

Myopia is an ocular disorder of major public health and socioeconomic significance in many East Asian urban cities. In Singapore, the prevalence of myopia...

Unravelling the Mystery in a Case of Persistent ACTH-independent Cushing’s Syndrome

A Malaysian Chinese male patient, CMO, first presented at the age of 22 years with a 2-week history of severe spontaneous low backache with...

Identification of a Common Genetic Risk Variant (LRRK2 Gly2385Arg) in Parkinson’s Disease

For diseases with complex inheritance, the age-old debate regarding the relative contribution of gene-environment interaction never fails to generate interest, discussion and hypothesis within...

Environmental Planning and Urban Health

Environmental exposures to the adverse effects from climate change are expected to increase for many urban populations in the United States during the next...

A Hyperthyroid Patient with Measurable Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Concentration – A Trap for the Unwary

Free thyroxine (FT4), total tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyrotropin (TSH) are the commonly measured biochemical indices in the assessment of thyroid function in a patient...

SARS Revisited: Managing “Outbreaks” With “Communications”

In the short span of 3 years since SARS first appeared on the Asian landscape, terms like “risk communications” and “outbreak communications” have assumed...

SARS and Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Challenge to Place Global Solidarity above National Sovereignty

The majority of the world’s information about infectious disease outbreaks no longer comes from voluntary reporting by countries, the willingness of which is influenced...

SARS in Singapore – Key Lessons from an Epidemic

The 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak represented the most severe communicable disease challenge to the public health system and the government and...

Clinical Assessment of Absence of the Palmaris Longus and its Association With Other Anatomical Anomalies – A Chinese Population Study

The prevalence of absence of the palmaris longus (PL) has been extensively studied following the first report of its absence in 1559 by Colombos...

Rising Trends of STIs and HIV Infection in Singapore – A Review of Epidemiology Over the last 10 Years (1994 to 2003)

A review of the epidemiology and trends of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Singapore from 1977 to 1996 showed a declining number of all...

Variables Determining Perceived Global Health Ranks: Findings from a Population-based Study

In 1982, Mossey and Shapiro first demonstrated that global self-rating of health was a better predictor of 7-year survival than medical records or self-reports...

Public Healthcare – Welfare, Market Share or Laissez-faire? – A Sentosa Carlsberg Skytower View

Recently, two doctor-administrators commented to me separately, “Singapore probably has the best public healthcare system in the world.” While I understand the basis for...

Disaster Relief and Initial Response to the Earthquake and Tsunami in Meulaboh, Indonesia

A massive earthquake and tsunami hit the South Asian region on 26 December 2004, killing more than 200,000 people and displacing countless more.1 The...

Graduate Public Health Education – Singapore’s Contribution to Strengthening Capacity in the Region and Beyond

The effectiveness with which the world tackles its most pressing public health problems depends crucially on the calibre of its public health workforce. Institutions...

Diabetes Outcomes in Specialist and General Practitioner Settings in Singapore: Challenges of Right-Siting

The long lasting debate on the role of generalists and specialists in the management of diabetes is still ongoing. Nonetheless, the last 3 decades...

Diabetes in Asia – From Understanding to Action

In the present pandemic of diabetes and obesity, 60% of the affected population will come from Asia. Between India and China, these two most...

The Metabolic Syndrome in Hypertensive and Normotensive Subjects: The Isfahan Healthy Heart Programme

The metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterised by a clustering of metabolic risk factors and an insulin-resistant state.1 Its prevalence is high in Western, as...

The Emerging Challenge of Age-related Eye Diseases in Singapore

Singapore has one of the fastest ageing populations in the world today. The current elderly population, defined as persons 65 years or older, comprises...

Magnesium, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, and Selenium Levels in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis. Can Magnesium Play a Key Role in Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a condition in which an increased risk of fracture takes place due to a reduction of bone mineral content. It occurs as...

Risk Communications: In Search of a Pandemic

The first decade of the new millennium has seen a string of disasters worldwide – earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, typhoons and acts of terrorism –...

Prevention and Control of Avian Influenza in Singapore

Avian influenza (AI) or “bird flu” is a highly infectious disease of birds. AI viruses are negative single-stranded enveloped RNA viruses that belong to...

Preparing for an Influenza Pandemic in Singapore

The last influenza pandemics occurred in 1957 and 1968. Few remember the pandemic in 1968 in Singapore as it was relatively mild. This article is...

Avian Influenza and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness in Hong Kong

In 1997, Hong Kong became reputed by identifying the first instance of human infection with avian influenza H5N1. A total of 18 cases occurred...

Towards Mutual Trust, Transparency and Equity in Virus Sharing Mechanism: The Avian Influenza Case of Indonesia

Since July 2005 to December 2007, Indonesia has reported the highest number of influenza A (H5N1) human cases in the world, i.e., 116 cases...

A Global Perspective on Avian Influenza

The world is confronted by many important public health challenges, some of which constitute potentially devastating global threats. Prime among these is the threat...

Twentieth Century Influenza Pandemics in Singapore

Tropical countries such as Singapore, although without well-defined influenza seasons, are also affected by influenza epidemics and pandemics. Twenty per cent of Singapore’s population...

A Cross-sectional Study of Primary-care Physicians in Singapore on Their Concerns and Preparedness for an Avian Influenza Outbreak

Outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) caused by the H5N1 subtype in several Asian countries have raised concern all over the world. AI is endemic...

Risk Factor Profile and Treatment Patterns of Patients with Atherothrombosis in Singapore: Insight from the REACH Registry

Atherothrombosis is a global problem that affects every ethnic group. It can lead to ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction or vascular death. This article is available...

Singapore and the Tobacco Pandemic

The World Health Organization, in its 2008 Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, has framed the problem in almost apocalyptic terms, in stating that...

The Relation Between Insulin Resistance Determined by Haemostatic Modelling and Slow Coronary Flow

Slow coronary flow (SCF) is a well recognised clinical entity, characterised by delayed opacification of coronary arteries in the presence of normal coronary angiogram....

Consequences of Right Siting of Endocrinology Patients – A Financial and Caseload Simulation

Right siting, defined as “patients treated in the most appropriate locations by medically competent teams at the lower possible cost”, has been on the...

Concerns, Perceived Impact and Preparedness in an Avian Influenza Pandemic – a Comparative Study between Healthcare Workers in Primary and Tertiary Care

The danger posed by emerging infectious diseases has become greater in the past few years with the World Health Organization (WHO) warning that the...

Public Perceptions of Healthcare in Singapore

Healthcare is increasingly dominating the policy agenda in developed countries. In the United States, healthcare has been ranked only behind the war in Iraq...

Phaeochromocytoma the Great Mimicker: A Case Report

Phaeochromocytomas are catecholamine producing neuroendocrine tumours that can manifest a variety of symptoms which mimic other diseases. They are also known for their “rule...

Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Correlates Weakly with Patient Adherence to Oral Hypoglycaemic Treatment

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases affecting Singaporeans. In 2004, 8.2% of the population was afflicted, placing a significant burden...

Public Misperceptions About Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus in Singapore

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is an important global health problem, with more than 350 million individuals affected worldwide. CHB is particularly important in Asia,...

A History of the Chapter of Public Health and Occupational Physicians

The history of the Chapter of Public Health and Occupational Physicians began with the founding of the Academy of Medicine in 1957. It was...

Elevated Level of Carbonyl Compounds Correlates with Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes

With rapid development of therapy, the mortality from acute complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) has decreased, but mortality from chronic complications like diabetic nephropathy...

The Evolving Role of the Community Pharmacist in Chronic Disease Management – A Literature Review

Pharmacy has matured as a clinical profession and is presently well positioned to transform itself from a product and task oriented (dispensing) to a...

Pathological Video-Gaming among Singaporean Youth

Video-gaming and internet use are a part of the lives of children and adolescents today. Among countries that are highly wired with high speed...

Psychological Symptoms in People Presenting for Weight Management

Multiple factors contribute to the genesis and maintenance of obesity which is a difficult condition to treat and weight loss is often not maintained....

Trends in Importation of Communicable Diseases into Singapore

Singapore is a city-state in Southeast Asia, with a total population in 2007 of 4,839,400, of which 3,642,700 (75.3%) are Singaporean residents. The remaining...

Validity and Reliability of the Zarit Burden Interview in Assessing Caregiving Burden

Dementia is a growing public health issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The number of people with dementia in the Asia-Pacific region will increase from...

Multi-disease Health Screening in an Urban Low-income Setting: A Community-based Study

With the burden of chronic disease rising amongst rapidly urbanising Asian populations, active participation in health screening would allow for early detection and management...

The Pedagogical Value of a Student-run Community-based Experiential Learning Project: The Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine Public Health Screening

Experiential learning brings medical students out of the comfort zone of learning in their classrooms to acquire and apply knowledge and skills in an...

Comparison of Clinical Outcomes and Cost Between Surgical and Transcatheter Device Closure of Atrial Septal Defects in Singapore Children

Congenital heart defects (CHD), with an incidence of approximately 1 in 100 live births, are the most important and frequent congenital malformations. It can...

Acceptability of Medical Students by Patients from Private and Public Family Practices and Specialist Outpatient Clinics

In recent decades, medical advances and economic pressures have shifted medical student training from hospital inpatient to ambulatory settings such as hospital outpatient and...

Peripheral Arterial Disease in Community-based Patients with Diabetes in Singapore: Results from a Primary Healthcare Study

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a significant complication of diabetes mellitus and accounts for the majority of amputations among these patients with diabetes. In...

Foot Screening for Diabetics

Prevalence of diabetes is high in Singapore (8.2%). Five per cent to 15% of diabetics developed foot ulcers. In fact, the lifetime risk for...

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of the Advance Medical Directive in a Residential Estate in Singapore

The Advance Medical Directive (AMD) Act was passed in Parliament in May 1996. The AMD is a legal document that an individual can sign...

The Singapore National Healthcare Group Diabetes Registry – Descriptive Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most challenging global health problems in the 21st century. It is associated with excess mortality and significant morbidity...

Attitudes of Patients, Visitors and Healthcare Workers at a Tertiary Hospital Towards Influenza A (H1N1) Response Measures

Following the announcement by the World Health Organization (WHO) that outbreaks of a novel influenza virus had occurred in Mexico and several parts of...

Research on Psychoneuroimmunology: Does Stress Influence Immunity and Cause Coronary Artery Disease?

In recent decades, there has been increasing interest in exploring the relationship between psychological stress and various health conditions. An enlarging body of evidence...

Trends in Long-term Cancer Survival in Singapore: 1968-2002

With increasing health awareness and the greater extent of healthcare provision over the years, the life expectancy of Singaporeans has increased from 75.3 in...

The Role of Leptin-Melanocortin System and Human Weight Regulation: Lessons from Experiments of Nature

Obesity predisposes to significant morbidities and premature mortality, and the increasing obesity prevalence all over the world has been attributed to industrialisation and modernisation...

Knowledge and Practice of Household Mosquito Breeding Control Measures between a Dengue Hotspot and Non-Hotspot in Singapore

Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in the world and its severity is reflected by a 30-fold increase over the last 50...

The Role of Genes in the Current Obesity Epidemic

Obesity is a global pandemic and a major health concern because of the consequent morbidity and premature mortality; obesity predisposes to serious morbidities such...

The Relevance of the Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome describes a constellation of interrelated metabolic risk factors, in which components coexist more frequently in a given individual than could be expected...

Development of Bariatric Surgery: The Effectiveness of a Multi-disciplinary Weight Management Programme in Hong Kong

Obesity is one of the most common chronic illnesses in the Western World with a frequency of 10% to 15%. It causes or exacerbates...

Epidemiological Surveillance and Control of Rubella in Singapore, 1991-2007

Rubella is a mild febrile viral exanthematous disease transmitted through droplets or direct contact with the nasopharyngeal secretion of an infected person. It is...

Comparison of Oral Glucose Insulin Sensitivity with Other Insulin Sensitivity Surrogates from Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests in Chinese

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases leading to higher morbidity and mortality. These...

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Patients with Schizophrenia in Singapore

Schizophrenia has been linked to metabolic disturbances such as obesity, dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. It has also been associated with a more than 3-fold increase...

Kidney Cancer and Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Taiwan

Kidney cancer accounts for 3% to 4% of all cancers. In a systematic review by Mathew and et al,2 the incidence of kidney cancer...

Sleep, Public Health and Wellness: The Elephant in the Room

The rising cost of health care and the burden of chronic illness are perennial concerns. Remarkably, there exists a measure that around 30% of...

Healthcare cost of patients with multiple chronic diseases in Singapore public primary care setting

The rising occurrence of individuals suffering from multiple chronic diseases, namely multimorbidity, is of public health concern globally.1 The current prevalence of multimorbidity in...

Prevention and management of multimorbidity to ensure healthcare sustainability

Singapore has a healthcare system that is distinguished by its ability to achieve top health outcomes at very low healthcare expenditures.1 Yet one of...

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Preschoolers in Singapore

The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity and its associated adverse health outcomes have become an important health issue. Childhood obesity can persist...

Is Cost-Effective Healthcare Compatible with Publicly Financed Academic Medical Centres?

Nearly all legislation involves a weighing of public needs as against private desires; and likewise a weighing of relative social values. —Louis D Brandeis As a...

A Review of Back Injury Cases Notified to the Ministry of Manpower from 2011 to 2012

Work-related low back disorders consist of both low back pain (LBP) and low back injuries. They are a significant and increasing problem all over...

How do English-speaking Cancer Patients Conceptualise Personhood?

Understanding the way personhood or “what makes you, you” is conceptualised is pivotal to the practice of medicine. Conceptions of personhood determine the moral...

Too Much Medicine: Time to Stop Indiscriminate Cancer Screening

Like most industrialised countries in the world, cancer has now become the leading cause of mortality in Singapore. Approximately 1 in 3 deaths in...

MERS-CoV: Where Are We Now?

Prior to 2002, coronaviruses were known mainly for causing mild human upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and enteric and respiratory infections in many animals....

An External Independent Validation of APACHE IV in a Malaysian Intensive Care Unit

Over the past 30 years, different versions of severity of illness scoring systems and prognostic models have been developed for prediction of patient outcomes...

Anaerobic Bacteraemia Revisited: Species and Susceptibilities

Over the last 2 decades, the importance of anaerobic bacteraemia has undergone various shifts in opinion. Early studies in the 1970s reported that anaerobes...

Factors and experiences associated with unscheduled 30-day hospital readmission: A mixed method study

Readmission leads to a greater demand for healthcare services, especially hospital beds, and contributes to the rising healthcare costs.1,2 With estimated one-third of the...

Potentially avoidable readmissions: Understanding drivers and technology-enabled solutions

Hospital admissions places high resource demands on the health system, and is a major cost-driver in Singapore and globally.1-3 Admissions have and will continue...

Health professions education in pandemics and epidemics: A proposed framework for educators

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare systems and health professions education (HPE). There are few frameworks to help educators manage HPE before, during and...

The “Jeff Cut”: A simple innovation to minimise up-riding sleeves of protective gown

Personal protective equipment (PPE) including the N95 mask, face shield, cap, splash-resistant gown and gloves are worn by frontline healthcare workers for various duties...

Merits of a harmonised system to classify drug-related problems in Singapore

A drug-related problem (DRP) is commonly defined as an event or circumstance involving drug treatment that actually or potentially interferes with the optimal outcome...

New-onset cardiovascular risk factors following liver transplantation: A cohort analysis in Singapore

Malnutrition is well described in liver cirrhosis. The hyperdynamic circulation and altered metabolism in cirrhosis result in a hypercatabolic state which accelerates tissue breakdown....

Factors influencing protective behaviours during haze episodes in Singapore: A population-based study

Southeast Asia suffers from recurrent episodic air pollution from biomass smoke known as haze, which is mainly caused by human activities such as the...

Seasonal haze: Knowledge gaps and risk perception behaviours

The seasonal haze in Southeast Asia has been a recurrent concern whenever we enter the southwest monsoon season (June–September). This phenomenon, caused by agricultural...

Impact of unemployment on mental disorders, physical health and quality of life: Findings from the Singapore Mental Health Study

Several reviews and meta-analyses have established an association between unemployment and psychological distress. This relationship between unemployment and mental health is complex and likely...

Health-seeking behaviour of foreign workers in Singapore: Insights from emergency department visits

Singapore employs a large foreign worker (FW) population, defined as non-Singapore citizens and non-permanent residents working locally. Holders of “work permit” (WP), the work...

Accuracy of self-reported height, weight and BMI in a multiethnic Asian population

Overweight and obesity continue to be one of the most critical public health issues worldwide. Body mass index (BMI) derived from height and weight...

Vulnerability to rumours during the COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore

The global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has come with increased psychological burden. In several meta-analyses, depression and anxiety symptoms have been found...

Behavioural changes during the COVID-19 pandemic: Results of a nationwide survey in Singapore

In response to the global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Singapore undertook a multipronged approach to contain the pandemic. Of note, when community...

The Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Pandemic

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic began in early December in Wuhan, the 7th most populous city in Mainland China, and...

Comparative Analysis of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children

Singapore confirmed its first case of COVID-19 on 23 January 2020 in a Chinese national from Wuhan, and its first paediatric case on February...

Managing a Renal Transplant Programme During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Practical Experience from a Singapore Transplant Centre

As infrastructure and policies were being put in place to combat COVID-19, we recognised that specialty-specific policies and protocols had to be drawn up...

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): The Singapore Experience. A Review of the First Eight Months

Singapore reported its first imported case of COVID-19 on 23 January 20201 and its first COVID-19 deaths on 21 March 2020.2 The WHO declared...

Adipsic diabetes insipidus and SGLT2 inhibitor: A perplexing conundrum

A 70-year-old man with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and alcohol dependence presented intoxicated, with occipital scalp lacerations after a...

Metformin use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease: An evidence-based review

Diabetes is a chronic disease characterised by elevated levels of blood glucose. The most common type of diabetes is type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)....

Chronic disease self-management competency and care satisfaction between users of public and private primary care in Singapore

Primary care in Singapore is set to face challenges in managing a rapidly ageing population. The expected population of older adults aged 65 years...

Paediatric emergency department attendances during COVID-19 and SARS in Singapore

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020, with over 110 million cumulative cases...