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Cardiac sarcoidosis: Difficulties in diagnosis and treatment

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem, granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. It affects the lungs in 90% of cases, but is also known to affect other...

Circular RNAs in the pathogenesis of sepsis and their clinical implications: A narrative review

Sepsis is a condition with life-threatening organ dysfunction, resulting from abnormal responses of the host to various infections.1 The underlying pathogenic mechanisms include an...

Cryptococcal Prostatic Abscess in an Immunocompromised Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Cryptococcosis is a well-recognised infection in immunocompromised patients, although its prevalence varies with the type of immune defect. We report a patient with myasthenia...

Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Continuous Blood Purification in the Intensive Care Unit

The last decade has seen a progressive change in the style of management of severe acute renal failure (acute renal failure which requires the...

The Role for Preoperative Localisation Techniques in Surgery for Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is well recognised as a clinical problem that has a myriad of presentation. The classical presenting symptoms of hypercalcaemia have been well documented...

Outcome of Tunnelled Central Venous Haemodialysis Catheters Inserted by Radiologists

In end-stage renal failure patients, maintaining adequate vascular access continues to be an ongoing challenge. Native arteriovenous fistulas or synthetic arteriovenous grafts are satisfactory...

A Case Series of Falciparum Malaria-induced Acute Renal Failure

Predominantly a disease of hot and humid climates, malaria affects 270 million people worldwide annually, and has a mortality rate of 1%. The increasing...

Renal Cell Carcinoma in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

Dunnil and associates first described the association of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) and end stage renal disease. The...

Inferior Vena Cava Thrombectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma with Thrombus

A characteristic feature of renal cell carcinoma is the development of tumour thrombus extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC). This takes place in...

Current Therapeutic Strategies in Glomerulonephritis

Twenty years ago, the therapy of glomerulonephritis (GN) was relatively simple as it was believed that treatment with prednisolone should be confined to patients...

Preliminary Results of Heart-beating and Non-heart-beating Donor Kidney Transplants—The Singapore Experience

End stage renal failure (ESRF) is the most common end stage organ disease treated with transplantation in Singapore. Though renal transplantation is the preferred...

Proteinuria and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Gene Polymorphism

Proteinuria is considered a marker of renal disease. Traditionally it has been thought that proteinuria is the result of diseased glomeruli. This article is available...

Genetics of Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy

Immunoglobulin (Ig) A nephropathy is the most common primary glomerulonephritis in various parts of the world, and it was detected in 25% of biopsy...

Case Reports of Low Dose Cyclosporine A Therapy in Adult Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome

There have been many reports on the use of conventional doses of cyclosporine A (CsA) in inducing remission among adults with minimal change nephrotic...

The Course of Pregnancy in a Patient with Nail-Patella Syndrome

The nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder defined by the association of nail dysplasia, bone abnormalities and, frequently, renal disease. We...

Pregnancy after Renal Transplantation: Experience in Singapore General Hospital

Successful renal transplantation significantly improves the sexual and reproductive functions of women with end-stage renal disease and offers the best hope for those who...

Seasonal Variations of Clinical and Biochemical Parameters in Chronic Haemodialysis

Seasonal variations in the general population in some body functions and diseases incidences have been well-established (e.g., vitamin D levels, allergic rhinitis, blood pressure,...

Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS)

Liver failure is clinically heterogeneous in aetiology, pathophysiology, clinical severity and prognoses. It can be divided into the following categories: acute liver failure (ALF),...

Hand-assisted Laparoscopic Living Donor Nephrectomy

Minimally invasive donor nephrectomy using laparoscopic techniques has become a very attractive method of procuring kidneys from live donors, compared to the traditional standard...

3rd College of Physicians’ Lecture – Translational Research: From Bench to Bedside and From Bedside to Bench; Incorporating a Clinical Research Journey in IgA Nephritis (1976 to 2006)

In our quest to pursue knowledge regarding a patient’s illness or seek a cure for the disease, as doctors we have to derive the...

Commercial Renal Transplantation – Body Parts for Sale

A 45-year-old Singaporean was seen for review by a nephrologist at a restructured hospital. She had been on follow up by a private nephrologist...

15th Seah Cheng Siang Memorial Lecture: Liver Transplantation – Lessons Learnt and Future Horizons

It is a great honour to be giving this lecture – the 15th, in memory of Professor Seah, who by all accounts was truly...

Cyclosporin-induced Sebaceous Hyperplasia in Renal Transplant Patients

There are several reports in the literature of sebaceous hyperplasia being induced by cyclosporin in immuno-suppression of organ transplant patients. The condition was only...

Tuberculosis Post-Liver Transplantation: A Rare but Complicated Disease

Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious opportunistic infection in transplant recipients, with an incidence in organ transplant recipients ranging from 0.35% in developed countries to...

Current Biologic Agents in the Treatment of Uveitis

Uveitis is a general term describing inflammation of one or all parts of the uveal tract. Deleterious effects on vision, either by acute ocular...

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor versus Angiotensin 2 Receptor Antagonist Therapy and the Influence of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism in IgA Nephritis

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ATRA) are both well established drugs utilised to help retard the progression of chronic...

ANCA-negative Pauci-immune Crescentic Glomerulonephritis with Thrombotic Microangiopathy

Pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis (Pauci-immune CGN) is the most common cause of CGN. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) defines a clinicopathological syndrome consisting of intraluminal platelet thrombosis...

Urotensin 2 and Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha (RARA) Gene Expression in IgA Nephropathy

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis in Singapore1 and in many parts of the world, contributing significantly to the pool of...

Epidemiology and Management of Surgical Upper Limb Infections in Patients with End-stage Renal Failure

Hand infections are common in the general population, and their management is usually uncomplicated. Several papers have noted that patients with diabetes mellitus have...

The Role of Research in Transplantation

Organ and bone marrow transplantation have been extraordinary success stories in medicine during the past 50 years. A large and important clinical service has...

Novel Trends in Haemodialysis: Where Are We Heading?

Despite advances in haemodialysis technology over the past 40 years and rapid proliferation of clinical guidelines over the last decade promoting evidence-based practices, the...

Triplicate Ureter with Contralateral Duplicate Ureter

What do you see in this intravenous urogram? 1. Left lower ureteric calculus with proximal hydroureteronephrosis 2. Left duplicated ureter with lower ureteric calculus 3. Right triplicate...

Herpes Zoster as a Useful Clinical Marker of Underlying Cell-mediated Immune Disorders

Herpes zoster (HZ) occurs when latent virus in the dorsal-root ganglia becomes reactivated and causes a vesicular and often painful rash with a dermatomal...

Profile of Hospitalisation and Death in the First Year after Diagnosis of End-stage Renal Disease in a Multi-ethnic Asian Population

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is reaching epidemic proportions and is increasingly a public health issue due to the cost of providing care to these...

Primary Hyperoxaluria

An 18-year-old male presented with complaints of abdominal pain. He had history of previous episodes of renal colic and passage of stones in urine....

Incidence and Risk Factors for Development of New-onset Diabetes after Kidney Transplantation

The development of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a serious metabolic complication of kidney transplantation that predisposes patients to graft dysfunction, cardiovascular disease...

Kidney Cancer and Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Taiwan

Kidney cancer accounts for 3% to 4% of all cancers. In a systematic review by Mathew and et al,2 the incidence of kidney cancer...

Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

According to the National Health Survey, the percentage of Singapore residents with diabetes mellitus (DM) aged between 18 and 69 years has risen from...

Dietary Protein Intake in a Multi-ethnic Asian Population of Healthy Participants and Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

Clinical practice guidelines recommend different amounts of dietary protein intake for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The recommended daily protein intake varies according to...

Avulsed Tip of a Systemic Iceberg

An 18-year-old male presented to the emergency department of Khoo Teck Puat Hospital with knee pain and swelling while playing basketball. He was unable to bear weight....