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Stereotactic Microelectrode-guided Posteroventral Pallidotomy and Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease

Medications for Parkinson’s disease (PD) is effective for several years, but is followed by motor fluctuations, dyskinesias and progression of bradykinesia and rigidity. This...

A Case of Pseudohyperkalaemia and Thrombocytosis

Hyperkalaemia is a common biochemical derangement in the intensive care unit reflecting a diversity of systemic perturbations such as acute renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, extracellular...

Diabetes Insipidus in Neurosurgical Patients

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a syndrome characterised by the excretion of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine. It occurs uncommonly in neurosurgical patients, but...

Outcome of Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Managed on a Standardised Head Injury Protocol

Trauma is the fifth commonest cause of death in Singapore. In 1996, trauma contributed to 5.4% of mortality. This article is available only as a...

Young Investigator’s Award: Induction of Apoptosis Following Traumatic Head Injury in Humans

The outlook for sufferers of severe head trauma is extremely poor. Some 20% of patients died before significant treatment can be administered, and nearly...

Extensor Pollicis Longus Paralysis Following Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy

A 24-year-old man was referred for hyperhidrosis of more than 15 years duration. It affected both hands, feet and axilla. This article is available only...

Analytical Static Stress Analysis of First Cervical Vertebra (Atlas)

Fractures of the atlas comprise approximately 25% of all injuries to the atlanto-axial complex, 10% of all injuries of the cervical spine, and about...

Prophylactic Esmolol Infusion for the Control of Cardiovascular Responses to Extubation after Intracranial Surgery

Both intubation and extubation are processes associated with blood pressure and heart rate flux. While many studies have been carried out on the changes...

Advances in Neurointensive Care

Neurointensive care has come into being in the past decade as a recognised subspecialty. Pioneering neurointensivists in the United States, such as Allan Ropper...

Paediatric Orthopaedics in Singapore

The name “Orthopaedic Surgery” is derived from the words “orthos” (meaning straight or to straighten) and “paido” (meaning child). Thus, it is not unexpected...

Cosmesis in Neurosurgery: Is the Bald Head Necessary to Avoid Postoperative Infection?

Preoperative shaving for cranial neurosurgical procedures, as recommended in textbooks, is still a traditional practice in Singapore. Hair has been associated with uncleanliness and...

Intracerebral Schwannoma—A Rare Cause of Epilepsy

Schwannomas are extra-axial neoplasms derived from the nerve sheath of peripheral or cranial nerves. They represent approximately 8% of all intracranial tumours, arising predominantly...

Craniofacial Anomalies: Clinical and Molecular Perspectives

Cleidocranial dysplasia is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder characterized by short stature, brachycephaly, delayed closure of the fontanelles and sutures, Wormian bones, midface hypoplasia,...

Patients who Talk and Deteriorate: A New Look at an Old Problem

Patients who talk after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and then subsequently deteriorate into a coma are defined as those with an initial Glasgow Coma...

Outcome of Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Amongst the Elderly in Singapore

Trauma remains the fifth most common cause of death in Singapore; it contributed 6.7% of mortality in 2001. Head injury contributes to a significant...

3rd College of Physicians’ Lecture – Translational Research: From Bench to Bedside and From Bedside to Bench; Incorporating a Clinical Research Journey in IgA Nephritis (1976 to 2006)

In our quest to pursue knowledge regarding a patient’s illness or seek a cure for the disease, as doctors we have to derive the...

The Teaching of Radiology

A record of Diagnostic Radiology would be incomplete without reference to Wilheim Roentgen, who discovered the rays that he could not comprehend; hence, X-rays....

One Hundred Years of Orthopaedic Education in Singapore

In looking at the history of orthopaedic education in Singapore, one must place our local setting in the worldwide perspective. Officially, the academic Department...

The Evolution of Teaching and Learning Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at NUS

The Straits and Federated Malay States Government Medical School was founded in 1905. Dr Chen Su Lan, 1 of the 7 graduates in the...

One Hundred Years of Physiology Education in Singapore

Physiology is the study of normal function in the body and how genes, proteins, organ systems interact to maintain health. It provides a foundation...

Intracranial Aspergilloma in Immunocompetent Patients Successfully Treated with Radical Surgical Intervention and Antifungal Therapy – Case Series

Aspergillosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is an uncommon infection, mainly occurring in immunocompromised patients. It may present in several forms: meningitis, mycotic...

Facial Palsy from Temporal Bone Lesions

The facial nerve is traditionally divided into the following parts for discussion: supranuclear, nucleus and tracts, cisternal segment, intratemporal segment and the peripheral segment....

Assessment of Vertigo

Vertigo has been said to be the greatest “heartsink” symptom in medicine. That certainly is a possibility but every specialty has its similar conditions,...

Twentieth Century Influenza Pandemics in Singapore

Tropical countries such as Singapore, although without well-defined influenza seasons, are also affected by influenza epidemics and pandemics. Twenty per cent of Singapore’s population...

Translating the Family Medicine Vision into Educational Programmes in Singapore

The core of the Family Medicine (FM) vision is patient-centred care, requiring specific education and vocational training. Modern day FM began its existence as...

Outcome of Severe Head Injured Patients Admitted to Intensive Care During Weekday Shifts Compared to Nights and Weekends

Recognising that severe head injury is a major health problem with significant mortality and morbidity, numerous epidemiological and outcome studies have been conducted in...

A Brief History of Pathology and the Chapter of Pathologists

A history of the Chapter of Pathologists would be incomplete without a history of the specialty of Pathology in Singapore. Pathology is in fact...

A Brief History of the Chapter of Dental Surgeons

The idea of having an Academy of Medicine in Singapore was first proposed by some 20 medical specialists on 19 July 1957 and was...

A Brief History of the College of Surgeons, Singapore (Formerly known as Chapter of Surgeons), Academy of Medicine, Singapore

The Academy of Medicine, Singapore was duly founded in 1957 as the professional corporate body of medical and dental specialists in Singapore. The Chapter...

Recent Development in Paediatrics: from Chapter to College

Paediatrics is among one of the earliest specialties to develop in Singapore and its early development has been documented on various occasions.1-4 At the...

Anaesthetic Management of Awake Craniotomy for Tumour Resection

Historically, surgery for intractable epilepsy was performed with the patient awake for at least some part of the procedure to facilitate cortical mapping and...

Clinical Aspects and Management of Fibromyalgia Syndrome

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) has been referred to as a medically unexplained syndrome;1,2 a rheumatological entity described in rheumatology textbooks and taught to all training...

Dilemmas in Management of Brain Tumours in Pregnancy

Brain tumours in pregnancy are rare with an incidence of 15 per 100,000 and previous reports have shown variable outcomes. We present a case...

200 years of surgery at the General Hospital, Singapore

Western medicine in Singapore began with Sir Stamford Raffles’ arrival on 28 January 1819 with a sub-assistant surgeon, Dr Thomas Prendergast, providing medical care...

24th Seah Cheng Siang Lecture: Seeing Better, Doing Better—Evolution and Application of Gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy

Man’s innate curiosity to study the internal organs of the human body dates back to the time of Hippocrates where basic speculums were invented...