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Neck pain with prevertebral soft tissue thickening

A 37-year-old man presented with a history of sudden-onset neck pain, which was worse on movement and neck extension. He reported no history of...

Cardiac sarcoidosis: Difficulties in diagnosis and treatment

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem, granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. It affects the lungs in 90% of cases, but is also known to affect other...

Sepsis, cardiovascular events and short-term mortality risk in critically ill patients

Sepsis is defined as “life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host immune response to infection”.1 It is one of the most common conditions...

Sepsis and cardiovascular events: The story so far

Sepsis is a state of life-threatening organ dysfunction that results from a dysregulated host immune response to infection.1 Sepsis is a common condition that...

Circular RNAs and sepsis: New frontiers in diagnostics and therapeutics?

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a group of endogenous RNAs characterised by their covalently closed-loop structures. These molecules are part of a large class of...

Change in hepatitis B virus DNA status in patients receiving chronic immunosuppressive therapy for moderate-to-severe skin disease

Dear Editor, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection poses a global health burden. Clinically, patients may present with chronic HBV infection, occult HBV infection, and fulminant...

Cryptococcal Prostatic Abscess in an Immunocompromised Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Cryptococcosis is a well-recognised infection in immunocompromised patients, although its prevalence varies with the type of immune defect. We report a patient with myasthenia...

Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Continuous Blood Purification in the Intensive Care Unit

The last decade has seen a progressive change in the style of management of severe acute renal failure (acute renal failure which requires the...

Intravital Microscopy for the Study of the Microcirculation in Various Disease States

It is more than 150 years ago when the first detailed description of intravital microscopy was given by Waller, demonstrating in the frog tongue...

The Role of Cytokines and Cytokine Gene Polymorphism in T-cell Activation and Allograft Rejection

Cytokines are peptide molecules that are responsible for intercellular signalling during immune activation events. Cytokines are responsible, in large part, for the regulation of...

Retinol Palmitate Counteracts Oxidative Injury During Experimental Septic Shock

Gram-negative bacteria induced septic shock, a condition with high mortality, is frequently seen in critical care medicine. The wall of gram-negative bacteria consists of...

Thyroid Dysfunction in Elderly Patients

Symptoms and signs of thyroid dysfunction in the elderly tend to be atypical and may be mistakenly attributed to the ageing process. Currently, thyroid...

Routine Microbiological Screening in Septic Patients in a Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit

Compared to in-hospital patients, patients treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) have the highest risk of contracting an infection. The risk correlates well...

15th Seah Cheng Siang Memorial Lecture: Liver Transplantation – Lessons Learnt and Future Horizons

It is a great honour to be giving this lecture – the 15th, in memory of Professor Seah, who by all accounts was truly...

The Evolution of Teaching and Learning Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at NUS

The Straits and Federated Malay States Government Medical School was founded in 1905. Dr Chen Su Lan, 1 of the 7 graduates in the...

Cyclosporin-induced Sebaceous Hyperplasia in Renal Transplant Patients

There are several reports in the literature of sebaceous hyperplasia being induced by cyclosporin in immuno-suppression of organ transplant patients. The condition was only...

Tuberculosis Post-Liver Transplantation: A Rare but Complicated Disease

Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious opportunistic infection in transplant recipients, with an incidence in organ transplant recipients ranging from 0.35% in developed countries to...

Current Biologic Agents in the Treatment of Uveitis

Uveitis is a general term describing inflammation of one or all parts of the uveal tract. Deleterious effects on vision, either by acute ocular...

In vivo Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines in Normal and Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterised by severe joint deformities due to bony erosions and tendon damage. The chronic inflammatory process...

Recurrent Group B Streptococcal Septicemia in a Very Low Birth Weight Infant with Infective Endocarditis and Submandibular Cellulitis

Maternal Group B streptococcal colonisation can lead to neonatal pneumonia, meningitis or sepsis. Neonatal Group B Streptococcal (GBS) sepsis is common, but infective endocarditis...

The Role of Research in Transplantation

Organ and bone marrow transplantation have been extraordinary success stories in medicine during the past 50 years. A large and important clinical service has...

Research on Psychoneuroimmunology: Does Stress Influence Immunity and Cause Coronary Artery Disease?

In recent decades, there has been increasing interest in exploring the relationship between psychological stress and various health conditions. An enlarging body of evidence...

Herpes Zoster as a Useful Clinical Marker of Underlying Cell-mediated Immune Disorders

Herpes zoster (HZ) occurs when latent virus in the dorsal-root ganglia becomes reactivated and causes a vesicular and often painful rash with a dermatomal...

Challenges and Pitfalls in the Introduction of Pharmacogenetics for Cancer

Pharmacogenetics, by definition, refers to the study of genetic differences in metabolic pathways which can affect an individual’s responses to drugs in terms of...

Incidence and Risk Factors for Development of New-onset Diabetes after Kidney Transplantation

The development of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a serious metabolic complication of kidney transplantation that predisposes patients to graft dysfunction, cardiovascular disease...

The Golden Hours in Paediatric Septic Shock—Current Updates and Recommendations

Sepsis in children is a global health issue. The Global Health Observatory estimates that 58% of deaths in children under 5 years old are...

Chorea precipitated by phototherapy as initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus

Dear Editor, Chorea is a well-recognised albeit rare neuropsychiatric manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We describe here a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting...

Immunomodulator use in paediatric severe sepsis and septic shock

Paediatric sepsis is one of the main causes of childhood mortality.1 Globally, paediatric severe sepsis and septic shock accounts for 6.2% to 23.1% of...

The Greying Pandemic: Implications of Ageing Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Population in Singapore

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global public health issue. It is estimated that there are 37.9 million people living with HIV (PLHIV) today....

Radiological changes on chest CT following COVID-19 infection

COVID-19 infection is associated with high rates of hospitalisation and mortality, placing healthcare systems under strain. There are many reports regarding the non-contrast-enhanced high-resolution...

Survival and Predictors of Mortality in Acute Kidney Injury Patients Treated with Sustained Low Efficiency Dialysis

Approximately one in ten patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) develops acute kidney injury (AKI), an important complication of ICU patients, and...

Impact of Chronic Kidney Disease on Outcomes in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

With improvements in device technology as well as increasing experience, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has replaced open surgical aortic valve implantation as the...

Controversies in Sepsis Management—What is the Way Forward?

Sepsis is a common and life-threatening medical condition which has high incidence and mortality rates. Health care professionals are increasingly familiar with this syndrome,...