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Prevalence of burnout among healthcare professionals in Singapore

Burnout was first described in 1974 by Herbert Freudenberger, where he discussed the concept based on physical signs, behavioural indicators, judgment, emotional factors, and...

Effects of electroconvulsive therapy on cognition and quality of life in schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder with a profound impact on patients, their families, caregivers and society. The global prevalence of lifetime schizophrenia is...

Perception of disease, well-being and financial burden by patients with chronic hepatitis B: A self-reported assessment

Dear Editor, Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection affects approximately 248 million individuals in the world1 and 3.6% of the Singapore population.2 Given the natural history...

Psychosocial impact and treatment trends of hidradenitis suppurativa in Singapore

Dear Editor, Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a common disease with a prevalence of about 1%.1 Patients commonly suffer from pain, disfigurement and psychosocial embarrassment, and...

Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress and coronavirus anxiety among hospital essential services workers in Singapore

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected almost all geographies in the world since 2020. Many countries have imposed strict isolation measures to contain...

Use of Atypical Neuroleptics in a State Mental Institute

Schizophrenia is the most severe of all mental disorders and affects about 1% of the population. The main disturbances of schizophrenia comprise positive symptoms,...

Somatisation among Asian Refugees and Immigrants as a Culturally-shaped Illness Behaviour

During the past two decades, close to one million Southeast Asian refugees of war have resettled in North America. Together with the already significant...

How the Mental Hospital was Renamed Woodbridge Hospital in 1951

In the 1920s the government embarked on an ambitious programme to build hospitals, staffed largely by graduates of the King Edward College of Medicine....

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Discontinuation Symptoms

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a new class of antidepressants which are effective, better tolerated with less side effects and more specific in...

Under-diagnosed Psychiatric Syndrome II: Pathologic Skin Picking

Pathologic skin picking may be defined as the habitual picking of skin lesions, which when chronic and extensive, can lead to significant distress, dysfunction...

A Clinical Study of Seven Cases of Trichotillomania in Singapore

Trichotillomania was first described by a French dermatologist Hallopeau (1889) of a young man who pulled out his hair in tufts. The word trichotillomania...

Under-diagnosed Psychiatric Syndrome I: Trichotillomania

Trichotillomania (TTM) is a chronic psychiatric condition characterised by uncontrollable, self-inflicted, hair pulling, resulting in noticeable hair loss. First described by Hallopeau a century...

Psychological Trauma, Physical Health and Somatisation

Trauma does not respect persons or culture. While Singapore is fortunate to have been spared large-scale disaster and war for decades, it has nevertheless...

Medical Leave Granted to Psychiatric Inpatients—A One-year Retrospective Review

The Department of Psychological Medicine, National University Hospital (NUH) has a 26-bedded inpatient unit. This study retrospectively examines the medical leave granted to all...

Mental Health Literacy in Singapore: A Comparative Survey of Psychiatrists and Primary Health Professionals

The management of mental health disorders within a nation requires a system of care extending from the primary health care setting to tertiary and...

Identification of Genes for Schizophrenia Susceptibility

Schizophrenia, described as “the most human of all diseases,” affects about 0.5 % to 1% of the population and typically develops in the early...

Muscle Dysmorphia in a Young Chinese Male

In 1891, Morselli described “dysmorphophobia” in 78 patients who were severely miserable, preoccupied and distressed by perceived deformities. The word “dysmorphia” in Greek means...

Active Management of a Patient with Endstage Pulmonary Emphysema Using Lung Volume Reduction Surgery and Intensive Rehabilitation

A 65-year-old Chinese man with a 30-pack year history of cigarette smoking was referred to our institution for further management of chronic obstructive pulmonary...

Contrasting Clozapine Prescribing Patterns in the East and West?

Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness which causes enormous suffering, impaired social and occupational functioning, as well as higher mortality among the sufferers. The...

The moderating effect of employment status on the relationship between lifetime major depressive disorder and positive mental health

Studies across the world have reported a high prevalence of mental disorders,1-3 highlighting that mental disorders remain one of the major causes of “non-fatal...

The relationship between major depressive disorder and employment status

Major depressive disorder is associated with executive dysfunction that includes impairment in problem-solving and decision-making,1 as well as with occupational impairment.2 One of the...

Cardiac Effects of Psychotropic Drugs

The incidence of mortality is higher among psychiatric patients than among the general population and the cause of which may be the psychiatric disorder...

Men Who Commit Rape in Singapore

Of all the sexual crimes committed, rape stands out as one of the most serious forms of sexual assault, yet there is a general...

Psychiatric Illness, Personality Traits and the Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder seen by gastroenterologists and has been found to account for 50% of referrals...

Behavioural Disorders in Childhood: A Singapore Perspective

A review of five Western epidemiological studies of children aged 6 to 11 years revealed an average prevalence of 25% for psychiatric disorder (ranging...

The Views of Mental Health Professionals Towards Psychotherapy—A Singapore Survey

There is a trend in Asia towards a greater application of psychotherapeutic approaches in multidisciplinary settings to emotional and behavioural disturbances. The inaugural issue...

Pilot Study to Assess the Viability of a Rape Trauma Syndrome Questionnaire

In their 1974 study, Burgess and Holmstrom1 interviewed a heterogeneous sample of 92 adult females admitted between 1972 and 1973 to the emergency ward...

Thyroid Dysfunction in Chronic Schizophrenia Within a State Psychiatric Hospital

Thyroid dysfunction can give rise to various psychiatric symptoms. While there is a persistent interest in the role of thyroid axis in affective disorders,...

Mental Disorders and Public Safety of the Community at Large—Does the Tarasoff Principle Apply in Singapore?

In the course of their work, psychiatrists treat patients who, because of their mental disorders, may pose a danger to themselves and/or to others....

Measuring Health-related Quality of Life in Singapore: Normal Values for the English and Chinese SF-36 Health Survey

Advances in diagnosis and therapy in the second half of the 20th century have lead to impressive improvements in survival for patients with many...

Validity and Reliability of the EQ-5D Self-report Questionnaire in Chinese-speaking Patients with Rheumatic Diseases in Singapore

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) refers to patients’ perceptions of their own functioning and well-being. HRQoL is increasingly being used as a primary or...

Preventing Youth Suicide

This letter is in reference to Dr Ung’s article published in the Annals which investigated youth suicide and parasuicide in Singapore. The study of...

Measuring Quality of Life in Chinese Cancer Patients: A New Version of the Functional Living Index for Cancer (Chinese)

Health-related quality of life (QOL) is recognised as an important aspect of patient care. In oncology studies, it may stand as the primary end-point....

Eating Disorders in Singapore: A Review

Anorexia nervosa, bulimia and binge-eating disorder are the three best described ‘eating disorders’. All three are predominantly disorders of women with the core symptoms...

Youth Suicide and Parasuicide in Singapore

The World Health Organization defines suicide as an act with a fatal outcome that is deliberately initiated and performed by the person himself or...

Five-Year Review of Adolescent Mental Health Usage in Singapore

The past 20 years have seen much growth in the knowledge of child and adolescent psychiatric practice. Research has provided an improved understanding in...

Stress among emergency medicine residents during the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative study

Dear Editor, The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted medical education1,2 and distressed clinicians.3,4 Understanding the impact of this pandemic on emergency medicine (EM) residents’ experience of...

Post-SARS Psychological Morbidity and Stigma Among General Practitioners and Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners in Singapore

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is the first severe and readily transmissible new disease to emerge in the 21st century (WHO). The countries most...

A Risk Reduction Approach for Schizophrenia: The Early Psychosis Intervention Programme

Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder with a profound impact on patients, their caregivers and society. The Global Burden of Disease lists schizophrenia among...

Interleukin-2 Levels in Chronic Schizophrenia Patients

Autoimmune processes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Several pieces of indirect evidence point towards a role of autoimmune processes in at...

Abuse of Prescription Buprenorphine, Regulatory Controls and the Role of the Primary Physician

Buprenorphine is an opiate partial agonist that has been used for pain management, and in the past few years has been approved for the...

Utility and Validity of the Self-administered SF-36: Findings From an Older Population

The shift towards broader health perspectives and the emphasis on patient preferences have led to the development of many health questionnaires and their inclusion...

Reducing Polypharmacy Through the Introduction of a Treatment Algorithm: Use of a Treatment Algorithm on the Impact on Polypharmacy

The use of 2 or more antipsychotic medications (polypharmacy) for an episode of psychosis is pervasive despite the lack of evidence-based data. It is...

Socio-demographic Profile and Help-seeking Behaviour of Buprenorphine Abusers in Singapore

Opiate dependence is a major health and social concern in many countries across the world. The burden of disease is considerable, with surveys indicating...

Medicalising the Treatment of Opioid Dependence

Traditionally the treatment of opioid dependence in Singapore has not been viewed as a public health problem, but rather as a social problem that...

“The one” Annoying Patient

Schizophrenia – a mind torn asunder – is a difficult illness to live with, both for the patient as well as for the caregiver;...

The Risk of Suicidality with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

The first antidepressants were discovered 50 years ago by chance. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) dominated the treatment of depression from...

Clinical and Social Correlates of Duration of Untreated Psychosis in First-episode Psychosis Patients

First-episode studies of schizophrenia have reported that the longer the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), the poorer the response to antipsychotic medication and treatment...

The Media and Suicide

Suicide worldwide is estimated to represent 1.8% of the total global burden of disease in 1998, and 2.4% in countries with market and former...

Performance Measures for Mental Healthcare in Singapore

Mental disorders are prevalent worldwide and while they are disabling and costly, they have not received that amount of attention and resources needed. A...

Mental Health Professionals’ Perceived Barriers and Benefits, and Personal Concerns in Relation to Psychiatric Research

Epidemiological research has shown that mental disorders can result in considerable healthcare and other opportunity costs. There are some reports that have highlighted the...

Pathways to Specialist Care in an Insomnia Clinic at a Psychiatric Hospital: A Comparative Analysis of Two Periods

The complaint of insomnia is common and patients generally either self-medicate and/or consult primary healthcare providers. Referrals to a specialist for further management largely...

Suicide

The word suicide is derived from the Latin word suicidium, itself derived from sui (of oneself) and cidium (a killing; caedere = to kill....

Behavioural Sleep Disorders in Children and Adolescents

Overall, children spend one-third to one-half of their life sleeping. Although sleep comprises such a significant portion of a child’s day, sleep disturbances are...

Functional Neuroimaging of Sleep Deprived Healthy Volunteers and Persons with Sleep Disorders: A Brief Review

Most adults have experienced sleep deprivation at some stage of their lives, be it in the context of work, illness or play. Sleep deprivation...

Hypnotherapy for Sleep Disorders

Derived from ‘Hypnos’, the Greek God of sleep, the word hypnosis literally means sleep. Ironically, hypnosis is not a form of sleep but a...

Sleep Disturbances in Singaporean Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood psychiatric disorder with various studies reporting prevalence rates of between 1.7% and 16%. The most...

Community Psychiatry in Singapore: A Pilot Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Programme

It is well known that serious and persistent mental illness can result in diminished ability to function effectively in many life domains, such as...

Neuropsychiatry – An Emerging Field

Neuropsychiatry can be described as the interface between neurology and psychiatry – the intersecting field of enquiry for both the brain and the mind....

Providing Integrated Mental Health Services in the Singapore Primary Care Setting – the General Practitioner Psychiatric Programme Experience

Mental disorders are recognised as a major public health problem worldwide, and the management of mental health problems places an enormous burden on health...

Prevalence and Correlates of Excessive Internet Use among Youth in Singapore

There has been an explosive growth of Internet usage worldwide and this is expected to continue with its use becoming an integral part of...

A Brief History of the Chapter of Psychiatrists

The Inaugural Meeting of the Chapter of Psychiatrists and Chapter of Pathologists, Academy of Medicine, was held on 5 December 1986 at King’s Hotel.1,2...

Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) in Singapore: A 1-year Follow-up Study

Major mental illnesses can be persistent and debilitating, significantly impairing patients’ social, occupational and daily functions. The Global Burden of Disease lists schizophrenia among...

Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of Singapore Malay and Tamil Versions of the EQ-5D

The EQ-5D is a widely used preference-based instrument (available in at least 60 language versions and used in more than 800 published studies to...

The personal recovery movement in Singapore – past, present and future

Early psychiatric conceptions of successful mental health recovery traditionally focused on reducing or eradicating symptoms.1 The personal recovery movement of the early 1990s in...

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Impairs Visuospatial Perception, whereas Post-Herpetic Neuralgia does not: Possible Implications for Supraspinal Mechanism of CRPS

Some of our patients with pathologic pain reported that when groping for the light switch in a dark room, they often misjudge its location...

Impact of Depression on Health Related Quality of Life in Patients with Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a serious chronic illness that imposes significant morbidity and mortality and has a major impact on the quality of life...

Management of a Patient with Schizophrenia and Underlying Pituitary Macroadenoma

Hyperprolactinemia was found to be prevalent in a multi-centred study of 402 patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and schizophreniform disorder treated with conventional antipsychotics...

Staging of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia is Helpful in Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), one of the most common diseases of ageing men, affects the quality of life by interfering with normal daily activities...

Psychological Symptoms in People Presenting for Weight Management

Multiple factors contribute to the genesis and maintenance of obesity which is a difficult condition to treat and weight loss is often not maintained....

Preventive Psychiatry

In medicine, measures that save the most lives and improved the quality of life of millions have largely been public health measures that in...

Comparison of Attitudes of Psychiatrists vs Primary Healthcare Physicians in Singapore Towards At Risk Mental States (ARMS)

Schizophrenia is a serious psychotic condition characterised by delusions, hallucinations and disordered behaviour. The Global Burden of Disease lists schizophrenia among the top 10...

Pathophysiology and Animal Models of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a debilitating condition with a mean lifetime morbidity risk of approximately 1:100.1 The current diagnosis of schizophrenia is based primarily on DSM...

Measuring Memory-Prediction Errors and their Consequences in Youth at Risk for Schizophrenia

Despite the common experience of the world as mostly stable and meaningful, the human nervous system continuously engages with a vast array of ambiguous...

Tactile, Olfactory, and Gustatory Hallucinations in Psychotic Disorders: A Descriptive Study

Hallucinations are a hallmark symptom of schizophrenia and are commonly observed in other psychotic disorders. Auditory hallucinations (AH) are the most common subtype ...

Monthly Take-Home Methadone Maintenance Regime for Elderly Opium-Dependent Users in Singapore

The misuse of illicit opiates remains a global problem, placing a heavy burden on society. Literature on the effectiveness of opiate substitution pharmacotherapies in...

Measurement Properties of the Chinese Language Version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General in a Singaporean Population

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an increasingly important concern in the care of cancer patients. In the approval of oncology drugs, the United...

Panic Attack and its Correlation with Acute Coronary Syndrome – More Than Just a Diagnosis of Exclusion

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a life-threatening condition which benefits from prompt evaluation and proper treatment, such that it would be considered negligent for...

Reply from Author: Is It Time to Revise the Definition of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

We would like to thank the author for suggesting that the definition of ADHD should be revised. This is an important consideration in the...

Is It Time to Revise the Definition of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

I read with interest the article published in the Annals entitled “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Coping or Curing?”, which concluded that coping rather than...

Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Singapore Cancer Patients

Worldwide, the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) by cancer patients is highly prevalent. For cancer specialists, knowledge on CAM use in their...

Socio-demographic Profile and Psychiatric Comorbidity of Subjects with Pathological Gambling

Gambling has been defined as a wager of any type of item or possession of value upon a game or event of uncertain outcome...

Weight Gain in Asian Patients on Second-generation Antipsychotics

Weight gain is a serious side-effect with antipsychotic medication use. There is increasing evidence that with certain second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) weight gain liability is...

Health-related Quality of Life is Associated with Diabetic Complications, but not with Short-term Diabetic Control in Primary Care

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major chronic disease globally. With increasing life expectancy, long-term complications of diabetes mellitus leading to significant morbidity and...

Quality of Life in Pathological Gamblers in a Multiethnic Asian Setting

Pathological gambling is categorized under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TR) as an impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified....

Asian Adaptation and Validation of an English Version of the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire (MusiQoL)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common disorders of the central nervous system with a lifetime risk of 1 in 400. In...

The Health-Related Quality of Life of Junior Doctors

It is widely reported that junior doctors experience a large amount of work-related stress and fatigue. This has detrimental effects both on the well-being...

Where do People with Mental Disorders in Singapore go to for Help?

Not only are mental disorders prevalent in any country, it is also common that many of those with mental disorders are neither seeking nor...

Effectiveness of Assertive Community Management in Singapore

In Asia, various community programmes have been adopted and studied in several countries in an effort to promote de-institutionalisation, community psychiatric services and reduce...

Height and Mental Health and Health Utility Among Ethnic Chinese in a Polyclinic Sample in Singapore

Several studies have found adult height predictive of mental health and emotional well-being. A study of Swedish conscripts demonstrated an inverse association between height at...

You Are Worth More Than What You Weigh: Preventing Eating Disorders

Times have changed. Maternal mortality rates at the start of the 1900s were around 1 in 100 live births in the best maternity institutions....

An Analysis of Blinding Success in a Randomised Controlled Trial of Fish Oil Omega-3 Fatty Acids

There has been growing interest in the use of dietary supplementation to treat psychiatric disorders. In particular, supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids has been...

Schizophrenia as a Lifelong Illness: Implications for Care

The management of schizophrenia has advanced considerably since the term was first coined in 1911, with Kraepelin’s early pessimism tempered by more recent evidence...

Integrating mental healthcare in primary care in Singapore

Management of mental health conditions can be both resource-intensive and costly. The rigour of obtaining appointments and the long waiting time at tertiary hospitals,...

Prehabilitation and Its Role in Geriatric Surgery

The population in Singapore is ageing rapidly. According to statistics, by 2030, 1 in 2 adults in Singapore will be >65 years old. As...

Seasonal haze: Knowledge gaps and risk perception behaviours

The seasonal haze in Southeast Asia has been a recurrent concern whenever we enter the southwest monsoon season (June–September). This phenomenon, caused by agricultural...

Impact of unemployment on mental disorders, physical health and quality of life: Findings from the Singapore Mental Health Study

Several reviews and meta-analyses have established an association between unemployment and psychological distress. This relationship between unemployment and mental health is complex and likely...

Dietary intake of persons with depressive and psychotic disorders in Singapore

Unhealthy diet is a modifiable risk factor in many health conditions, including mental disorders. Nutritional psychiatry is an emerging field that examines the role...

Nutritional psychiatry: The next frontier in mental health treatment

The World Health Organization has envisioned for every human being’s fundamental right to be able to enjoy the highest attainable standard of health, even...

Stress and resilience of paediatric healthcare workers during COVID-19

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused multiple changes in healthcare systems as governments implement measures to boost acute services. Healthcare workers (HCWs)...

Impact of COVID-19 on mental health and occupational burnout in a surgical unit in Singapore

In this study, we assessed the impact of COVID-19 on the psychological well-being and burnout among staff who manage critically ill general surgery and...

A resuscitation course designed for a psychiatric hospital

It is challenging to maintain the resuscitation skills of doctors in a psychiatric hospital. Our study describes a resuscitation course designed specifically for the...

Psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on paediatric healthcare workers

Early studies done in China during this COVID-19 pandemic have shown considerable mental health impact on healthcare workers (HCWs), especially those working on the...

The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on global mental health: From the general public to healthcare workers

The COVID-19 pandemic began in late 2019 and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. To decrease...

Autism Spectrum Disorder and COVID-19: Helping Caregivers Navigate the Pandemic

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted societies globally. As of 11 May 2020, 53 children have been infected with COVID-19 in Singapore...

Mental Health Strategies to Combat the Psychological Impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Beyond Paranoia and Panic

On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) an international public health emergency after the...