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Surgical margins assessment reduces re-excision rates in breast-conserving surgery

Dear Editor, Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiation therapy for breast cancer offers improved cosmetic results and comparable long-term survival rates as mastectomy.1 However,...

Clinical outcome of bacterial endogenous endophthalmitis in 15 patients

Dear Editor, Endophthalmitis refers to the inflammation of the ocular cavities and their immediate adjacent structures without extension beyond the sclera, usually secondary to...

Combating a resurgence of poliomyelitis through public health surveillance and vaccination

Singapore was certified poliomyelitis (polio)-free by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 29 October 2000, together with 36 other countries in the Western Pacific...

Clinical efficacy and long-term immunogenicity of an early triple dose regimen of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in cancer patients

The spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to the ongoing worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. Initial studies have reported an increased vulnerability of patients with...

Early COVID-19 booster is beneficial in cancer patients

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and its corresponding coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first reported as a cluster of pneumonia cases in...

Vaccination and surveillance: Two basic tools for a final poliomyelitis eradication

Over the past 3 decades, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has strived to achieve a poliomyelitis (polio)-free world. Wild poliovirus (WPV) types 2...

Lichen planus pemphigoides after pembrolizumab immunotherapy in an older man

An 84-year-old Chinese man with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer was initiated on pembrolizumab, an anti-programmed cell death (PD)-1 monoclonal antibody, 4 times...

Drug interactions between common dermatological medications and the oral anti-COVID-19 agents nirmatrelvir-ritonavir and molnupiravir

In December 2021, an Emergency Use Authorisation was issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the use of the orally active...

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenomic considerations in managing use of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir and molnupiravir and dermatological treatments

The COVID-19 pandemic has been unprecedented in its impact on global health, economic, financial, psychosocial and political systems. The World Health Organization estimates approximately...

A strategy to make COVID-19 vaccination more accessible to the elderly

Dear Editor, Singapore embarked on the COVID-19 National Vaccination Programme in early 2021. The main modality employed to achieve the mass vaccinations has been the...

Erdheim-Chester disease: Imaging spectrum of multisystemic manifestations

Dear Editor, Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans histiocytosis, usually affecting middle-aged to older adults. It is a multisystemic disease with protean clinical manifestations....

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: A unique manifestation of COVID-19

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, children have been relatively spared from the severe symptomatic infection affecting adults, particularly the elderly and those...

A man with bark-like skin

A 65-year-old Chinese man was admitted for evaluation of chronic anaemia. He had a history of hypertension and chronic kidney disease, and his regular...

Low-dose computerised tomography screening for lung cancer in Singapore: Practical challenges of identifying participants

INTRODUCTION In March 2022, the European Commission on cancer screening suggested the inclusion of low-dose computerised tomography (LDCT) for lung cancer, targeted at current...

Managing adult asthma during the COVID-19 pandemic: A 2022 review and current recommendations

Asthma is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease, estimated to affect more than 300 million people worldwide.1 First recognised in December 2019, the coronavirus...

Antiphospholipid and other autoantibodies in COVID-19 patients: A Singapore series

Dear Editor, Thrombosis is an unexpected complication of COVID-19 initially reported in 3 patients from China.1 These patients tested positive for immunoglobulin (Ig) A anticardiolipin...

Teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: Perspectives of medical students in Singapore

Dear Editor, The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in many changes to medical education, including the site and mode of teaching, conducting of...

Global monkeypox outbreak 2022: First case series in Singapore

Monkeypox has been declared a public health emergency of international concern. Up until 2022, most cases of monkeypox have been reported in parts of...

The global emergence of monkeypox

Monkeypox is so named because the poxvirus was first identified in 2 outbreaks among cynomolgus monkeys housed at the Statens Serum Institut, Denmark, in...

Safe time interval for screening estimated glomerular filtration rate prior to gadolinium-enhanced MRI scan

Dear Editor, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast media are commonly used in medical imaging and are usually gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). They can be divided...

Neuralgic amyotrophy in COVID-19 infection and after vaccination

Dear Editor, Various neurological manifestations associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been described,1 conditions which left a significant proportion of patients with permanent disability....

Attitude towards screening for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in newborns in Singapore

Dear Editor, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common congenital infection.1 A systematic review that included 77 studies from 36 countries reported that the overall...

Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Advocating for screening and education

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading non-genetic cause of congenital neurosensory hearing loss in children, accounting for 21% of cases of hearing loss at...

Epidemiological trends and outcomes of children with aural foreign bodies in Singapore

Aural foreign bodies (FBs) commonly present to the emergency department (ED) worldwide. Children represent the majority of the population, believed to be due to...

Nutrition support practices for critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2: A multicentre observational study in Singapore

Within 3 weeks of the World Health Organization declaring the COVID-19 pandemic on 11 March 2020, the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and...

Challenges and considerations in delivering nutritional therapy in the ICU during COVID-19 pandemic

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has created unprecedented challenges for healthcare workers in Singapore and across the world. Providing clinical nutrition and metabolic care to...

BNT162B2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccination did not promote substantial anti-syncytin-1 antibody production nor mRNA transfer to breast milk in an exploratory pilot study

Dear Editor, Vaccine hesitancy still threatens global efforts to end the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants. Social media-driven “conspiracy theories”...

COVID-19 vaccination acceptance of healthcare workers in Singapore

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in 511.0 million cases of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and almost 6.2 million deaths globally as of end...

The Lancet Commission on diagnostics: What it means for Singapore

Effective healthcare systems depend on a functioning healthcare value chain—defined as a care cascade comprising screening, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. The tremendous heterogeneity and...

Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress and coronavirus anxiety among hospital essential services workers in Singapore

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected almost all geographies in the world since 2020. Many countries have imposed strict isolation measures to contain...

An initial experience with laser haemorrhoidoplasty in addition to mucopexy for symptomatic haemorrhoids

Dear Editor, Symptomatic haemorrhoids is the most common anorectal disorder, where up to 75% of people experience symptoms sometime in their lives.1 The current gold standard...

Injection site reactions after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination

Dear Editor, The Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2 mRNA) and Moderna (mRNA-1273) COVID-19 vaccinations were approved for use in Singapore in December 2020 and February 2021, respectively. To...

Change in hepatitis B virus DNA status in patients receiving chronic immunosuppressive therapy for moderate-to-severe skin disease

Dear Editor, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection poses a global health burden. Clinically, patients may present with chronic HBV infection, occult HBV infection, and fulminant...

Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma associated with sudden stridor arising from thyroid mucormycosis and concomitant bacterial infection

Dear Editor, Mucormycosis is a life-threatening fungal infection that mainly affects immunocompromised patients. It typically has low prevalence, but fatality rate is as high...

Mesothelial Splenic Cyst—A Case Report

Non-parasitic cystic lesions of the spleen are unusual. They are classified essentially as primary (true, epithelial) and secondary (pseudo, non-epithelial) based on the presence...

Cryptococcal Prostatic Abscess in an Immunocompromised Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Cryptococcosis is a well-recognised infection in immunocompromised patients, although its prevalence varies with the type of immune defect. We report a patient with myasthenia...

Cutaneous Polyarteritis Nodosa: A Case Report and Literature Review

Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (CPN) is an uncommon form of vasculitis of the small-and medium-sized arteries in the reticular dermis and subcutaneous tissue. It remains...

Sezary Syndrome: A Case Report and a Review of the Molecular Pathomechanism and Management

Our patient is a 64-year-old Malay man who first presented in July 1993 with a history of rash starting on the hands 1½ years...

A Case Report of Neutrophilic Eccrine Hidradenitis in a Patient Receiving Chemotherapy for Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH) is a neutrophilic dermatosis primarily affecting the eccrine glands and occurs most commonly in patients undergoing chemotherapy for a malignancy. This...

Reduction in Retake Rates and Radiation Dosage Through Computed Radiography

New computed radiography imaging systems are slowly gaining a foothold in radiological departments worldwide. By computed radiography we mean a digital imaging system which...

Computed Tomographic and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Paranasal Sinus Involvement in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an aggressive infiltrative neoplasm. Spread into the paranasal sinuses is often seen but the frequency is documented in only a...

Abdominal Surgery in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infected Patients—Early Local Experience

The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is rising at an exponential rate in Singapore. The surgical experience with this disease remains limited. This...

Emerging Therapies for Sepsis and Septic Shock

Septic shock remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalised patients despite advances in antimicrobial therapy and medical support. This article is available...

The Surgical Management of Colorectal Complications from Irradiation for Carcinoma of the Cervix

Radiation bowel injury is a significant clinical problem because of the technical difficulties of surgery. Among the more common causes is radiation of carcinoma...

Book Review

This book is a collection of 30 case studies, which were published in the Singapore Medical Journal from 1994 to 1997. They include interesting...

Rosai-Dorfman Disease with Primary Cutaneous Manifestations—A Case Report

In 1969, Rosai and Dorfman first described a newly recognised benign systemic histioproliferative disease characterised clinically by bilateral striking cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, leukocytosis, and...

Bone Mineral Density—Correlation between Quantitative Ultrasound Characteristics and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

Osteoporosis is well documented to be a significant determinant of the risk of fracture and its assessment in vivo has been based on various...

Ambulatory Anorectal Surgery—Is it Feasible Locally?

Economic and social pressures are compelling surgeons to modify their practice. An increasing number of procedures are being done in an outpatient setting. This article...

Epidemiological Surveillance of Melioidosis in Singapore

Melioidosis was first described in 1911 among vagrants and morphine addicts brought into the mortuary in Rangoon, Burma. However, the disease received little attention...

A Review of the Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Evaluation of Shoulder Impingement Syndrome and Rotator Cuff Tendon Tears

In the evaluation of chronic shoulder pain and dysfunction clinically suspected to be due to shoulder impingement syndrome and rotator cuff tendon tears, magnetic...

The Global Pandemic of Dengue/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever: Current Status and Prospects for the Future

The world has experienced unprecedented population growth in the past 50 years that continues unabated in the waning years of the 20th century. It...

Phyllodes Tumour: An Update of 40 Cases

First described by Johannes Muller in 1838 as a large, benign tumour of the breast. Phyllodes tumour is a rare pathological entity, accounting for...

The Investigation and Management of Thyroid Nodules—A Retrospective Review of 183 Cases

Thyroid nodule is a common problem in surgical practice. In 1994, more than 350 thyroid operations were performed in our department, of which 183...

The Role for Preoperative Localisation Techniques in Surgery for Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is well recognised as a clinical problem that has a myriad of presentation. The classical presenting symptoms of hypercalcaemia have been well documented...

Portable Chest Radiography: Comparison of High-resolution Digital Displays with Laser Printed Digital Film

In most institutions, about 10% to 25% of imaging examinations are recorded digitally (e.g. digital subtraction angiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound)....

Percutaneous Needle Aspiration in the Treatment of Hepatic Abscess: Factors Influencing Patients’ Outcome

Liver abscess traditionally has been treated by open surgical drainage, mortality rates being as high as 80% to 100% if left untreated. However, with...

Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Internal Auditory Canals and Posterior Fossa

Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now the gold-standard examination for the exclusion of acoustic schwannomas or other posterior fossa tumours. We retrospectively reviewed...

Medicine and Surgery—History, Change and Challenge

Mr Koh Yong Guan, guest-of-honour; Dr Tan Ser Kiat, Master, Academy of Medicine; Dr K C Tan, Chairman, Chapter of Surgeons; Dr Robert Jalleh...

Imaging of Thoracic Manifestations of Scleroderma

Systemic sclerosis (SScl) is a generalised disease of the connective tissue characterised by fibrosis and vascular changes affecting the skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys,...

Overview of Imaging in Rheumatologic Diseases

Since the discovery of X-rays over a century ago, radiology has played a pivotal role in rheumatology and diseases of the joints. The innovations...

Haemorrhage into Non-functioning Adrenal Cysts—Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

Doran, in 1903, reported the first case of adrenal cyst described by Greiselius in 1670. It was not until 1966 that Foster reported the...

Bullous Dermatomyositis Associated with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma —A Case Report

Bullous dermatomyositis is a rare variant of dermatomyositis and has been reported in the literature. It is believed to be strongly associated with the...

Case Reports of Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis of Childhood

Linear IgA bullous dermatosis of childhood (LADC) is an acquired subepidermal blistering disorder of young children which is characterised by the unique finding of...

Atypical Mycobacterium Infection with Sporotrichoid Spread in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Mycobacteria other than tubercle bacilli (MOTT) were shown to be agents of human disease in the 1950s. They are also known as atypical, environmental...

One-year Review of Pityriasis Rosea at the National Skin Centre, Singapore

Pityriasis rosea is a common, self-limited disorder of unknown but suspected viral aetiology, that develops abruptly with few or no prodromal symptoms. Classically, the...

Repigmentation of Vitiligo with Autologous Blister-induced Epidermal Grafts

Treatment of vitiligo can sometimes be difficult and disappointing. Medical treatment includes topical or systemic steroids and psoralen with ultraviolet A light (PUVA). This article...

Video-assisted Thoracoscopy: Role in the Management of Intrathoracic Pathology

Thoracoscopy was first introduced by Jacobaeus nearly a century ago. With the development of endoscopic equipment and the recent surge of interest in minimally...

Focused Abdominal Sonography for Trauma (FAST)

The multiply injured patient presents a challenge to even the most experienced surgeon. These patients often present in shock and require a rapid diagnostic...

Palm Printing on Agar Plates of Hands of Health Care Workers from the Intensive Care Units of the National University Hospital of Singapore

Nosocomial infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitals resulting in increasing health care costs. The intensive care unit...

Disseminated Penicillium marneffei Infection: A Report of Five Cases in Singapore

Penicillium marneffei is a dimorphic fungus that can cause infection in immunocompromised hosts. Reports on infection with this organism were initially uncommon, but after...

Life-threatening Perineal Gangrene from Rectal Perforation Following Colonic Hydrotherapy: A Case Report

Alternative medicine has become widely publicised throughout the world. Alternative medicine practitioners (AMPS), which include Oriental medicine doctors, traditional Chinese medicine practitioners, naturopaths and...

Eccrine Porocarcinoma: A Case Report

Porocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumour, arising from the intra-epidermal ductal portion of the eccrine sweat gland, also known as “acrosyringium”.’ According to the...

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Metastases: Magnetisation Transfer or Triple Dose Gadolinium?

Accurate detection of brain metastases is an important part of tumour staging. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is well accepted as a sensitive tool in...

A Comparison of Antigen Dipstick Assays with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Technique and Blood Film Examination in the Rapid Diagnosis of Malaria

According to the 1996 epidemiological studies in Singapore done by the Ministry of the Environment, a total of 364 cases of malaria were reported...

Radiological Placement of 211 Central Venous Catheters: Outcome and Complications

Long-term central venous access is an important part of modern medical practice, especially in the haematology and oncology units. Central venous (CV) catheters are...

Retrospective Study of Behcet’s Disease seen at the National Skin Centre, Singapore

Behcet’s disease, first described by a Turkish dermatologist, Dr Hulusi Behcet, is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology. The diagnosis of Behcet’s disease...

Diagnosing and Managing Faecal Incontinence

Faecal incontinence is the inability to control the passage of gas, liquid or solid through the anus. Its severity varies from infrequent passage of...

1998 Distinguished Academician Lecture: Hepatic Resection— A Western Perspective

Although debridement of portions of liver that prolapsed through war wounds was recorded from distant times, attempts at resection of a solid liver tumour...

Use of Ligase Chain Reaction and Polymerase Chain Reaction on Urine Specimens to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic in Singapore

Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are amongst the most common bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the world, causing substantial morbidity in young sexually-active...

A Practical Technique of Colour Image Analysis: Applications in Experimental Research

Colour image analysers have been extensively used in medical research since 1970 for histomorphometric studies. Image analysis gives more information and a better understanding...

Tissue Microangiography Using a Simplified Barium Sulphate Cadaver Injection Technique

The understanding of blood supply is the cornerstone of successful tissue transfer in reconstructive surgery. This understanding has been derived largely from cadaveric dissections,...

Immunological Consequences of Trauma and Shock

Despite intensive research and intervention, trauma continues to be the leading cause of death during the first three decades of life in the USA,...

Radionuclide Studies of Articular Cartilage in the Early Diagnosis of Arthritis in the Rabbit

Osteoarthritis is a common joint disease that involves destruction of articular cartilage. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a sensitive imaging modality for the diagnosis...

The Viability of Liver Graft for Transplantation After Prolonged Warm Ischaemia

Liver transplantation (LTx) is the treatment of choice for many patients with end stage liver disease. However liver allograft availability prevents its widespread application. This...

Retroperitoneal Castleman’s Disease in the Perinephric Space—Imaging Appearance: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

Castleman’s disease (CD) was first proposed by Castleman in 1954. It is usually found in the mediastinum, but other sites have been described. This article...

A Case Report: Persistent Acantholytic Dermatosis in Chronic Renal Failure

A 70-year-old Chinese man with end-stage renal failure (ESRF), who has been on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for 6 months, was referred by the...

Squamous Cell Carcinoma arising in a Cutaneous Epidermal Cyst—A Case Report

Epidermal cysts are common benign subcutaneous lesions. Malignant transformation in epidermal cysts is a rare but recognised occurrence. This article is available only as a...

Extended Resection of Locally Advanced (T4) Stomach Cancer

Cancer is the most common cause of death in Singapore. Although there is a gradual decline in incidence of stomach cancer over the years,...

Granuloma Annulare: A Review of 41 Cases at the National Skin Centre

Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign, inflammatory disorder of the skin that has no proven aetiology or widely accepted theory of pathogenesis. There are...

Correlation of Baseline Quantitative Plasma Human Immunodeficiency (HIV) Type 1 RNA Viral Load with Clinical Status and CD4+ T-cell Counts in Treatment-Naïve HIV-Positive Patients in Singapore

Quantitative plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) ribonucleic acid (RNA) viral load is used clinically as a predictor of progression of HIV-1 infection...

Evaluation of Technetium-99m Ciprofloxacin (Infecton) in the Imaging of Infection

Over the past 10 years we have used various radiopharmaceuticals (RPCs) for imaging of inflammation and infection. These include gallium-67 citrate and the technetium-99m...

A Case Report of Erythema Induratum of Bazin’s Disease

There are many dermatological manifestations of tuberculosis, ranging from distinct entities such as tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, lupus vulgaris, scrofuloderma, to tuberculides. The term tuberculide...

A Case of Mycobacterium scrofulaceum Osteomyelitis of the Right Wrist

Whilst infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis may be a common occurrence in this part of the world, those caused by atypical mycobacteria are rarely...

Case Report of Staphylococcus lugdunensis Native Valve Endocarditis and Review of the Literature

Coagulase-negative staphylococci cause 5% of native valve endocarditis. Of the 30 species identified currently, Staphylococcus epidermidis is a well-recognised cause of native valve endocarditis;...

Laparoscopic Totally Extraperitoneal Inguinal Hernioplasty: An Audit of the Early Postoperative Results of 100 Consecutive Repairs

Inguinal hernia is one of the commonest surgical pathologies in the world. Laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal repair has been gaining popularity in recent years. This article...

Re: One-year Review of Pityriasis Rosea at the National Skin Centre, Singapore

I refer to a paper published in the Annals Vol. 28 No. 6 November 1999 titled “One-year review of pityriasis rosea at the National...

Treatment of Chronic Urticaria with Thyroxine in an Euthyroid Patient with Thyroglobulin and Microsomal Antibodies

Chronic urticaria is defined as daily outbreaks of urticaria of at least 6 weeks duration. Despite being a common disorder, the cause of chronic...

Hard Metal Lung Disease—The First Case in Singapore

A 38-year-old Chinese man and lifetime non-smoker, who had previously been well, was referred for investigation of bilateral reticulonodular infiltrates noted on his chest...

Perioperative Deaths: A Further Comparative Review of Coroner’s Autopsies with Particular Reference to the Occurrence of Fatal Iatrogenic Injury

Beginning in 1991, the Department of Forensic Medicine (DFM), which undertakes all Coroner’s casework locally, embarked on an on-going review of Coroner’s perioperative autopsies...

Human Genetic Susceptibility to Tuberculosis

The World Health Organization has declared that the recent resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) is a global emergency. Southeast Asia, which is seeing the greatest...

An Unusual Case of Cutaneous Vasculitis

A 49-year-old Chinese man presented at the Tan Tock Seng Hospital with painful gangrene of the right second and left third and fourth toes...

Classical and Amyopathic Dermatomyositis seen at the National Skin Centre of Singapore: A 3-year Retrospective Review of their Clinical Characteristics and Association with Malignancy

Polymyositis/dermatomyositis is a connective tissue disorder with inflammatory muscle disease resulting in muscle weakness. When there is only muscle involvement, the term polymyositis is...

Microdochectomy for Single-duct Nipple Discharge

Nipple discharge is a common disturbing symptom for many women and often leads to a surgical referral. It accounts for 3% to 5% of...

Perioperative and Rehabilitative Outcomes after Amputation for Ischaemic Leg Gangrene

In the last century, Sir William Ferguson said: “amputation—one of the meanest and yet one of the greatest operations in surgery: mean, where resorted...

Adverse Operative Risk Factors for Perforated Peptic Ulcer

Although there has been a significant decline in elective surgery for peptic ulcer disease with the introduction of H-2 blocker, the incidence of peptic...

10th Chapter of Surgeons’ Lecture: The Challenges in Surgery—Past, Present and Future, and in Search of the 4Cs

Firstly may I thank the Academy of Medicine and the Chapter of Surgeons for giving me this great privilege and honour to deliver the...

Case Reports of Nocardiosis in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

Nocardiosis is an infection caused by a soil-borne aerobic filamentous bacterium in the genus Nocardia and the order Actinomycetales. Within the genus Nocardia, N....

Neonatal Lupus Erythematosus: Our Local Experience

Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is related to the transplacental passage of anti-Ro antibodies from mother to foetus. The commonest manifestations involve the skin and...

Lichen Amyloidosus: A Bullous Variant

Systemic amyloidosis, first reported in 1886, is characterised by deposits of amyloid in various organs including the skin, which may manifest as skin purpura,...

Results of Surgical Resection of Oesophageal Carcinoma in Singapore

Although the incidence of oesophageal carcinoma is declining, it still remains a common cancer in Singapore. From 1988 to 1992, it was the ninth...

Pericardial effusion and tamponade in a young woman

A young woman presented to the Singapore General Hospital with a history of cough in the 2 weeks prior. She had no significant past...

The evolution of severity of paediatric COVID-19 in Singapore: Vertical transmission and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children

Dear Editor, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) arrived in Singapore in January 2020 as imported cases, followed by local transmission predominantly involving dormitories, with later spread...

Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent infective flares in children and adolescents with atopic dermatitis

Dear Editor, Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, affecting approximately 20% of children in Singapore.1 It is associated with skin barrier defects2...

Pericarditis and myocarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in a nationwide setting

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in much morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development of mRNA vaccines has heralded much hope in...

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Presenting with Chronic Actinic Dermatitis: A Case Report

A 40-year-old Chinese man of skin phototype III (Table I), formerly a welder in a shipyard, presented with pruritic papules on his face, neck...

Histoplasmosis Presenting with Progressively Worsening Backache—A Case Report

A 55-year-old man presented with intermittent low back pain of 2 months’ duration which was progressively worsening, fever, anorexia and a 10-kg weight loss....

Case Report: Follicular Adenoma in a Thyroglossal Duct Remnant Arising Entirely within the Hyoid Bone

Thyroglossal duct remnant is one of the most common lesions of the anterior midline neck. It occurs in 7% of adults1 and carcinoma is...

In vitro Activity of Moxifloxacin against Local Bacterial Isolates

The introduction of newer generation fluoroquinolones has generated great interest, especially in this era of increasing antimicrobial resistance. Among gram-positive resistant bacteria, the most...

Digital Hand-held Sonography Utilised for the Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma: A Pilot Study

On a global basis, the use of ultrasonography to assist clinicians in obtaining timely diagnoses in abdominal trauma is not particularly new. The first...

The Alvarado Score and Acute Appendicitis

Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency. However, it is often difficult to make an accurate preoperative diagnosis, especially during the early stage of...

Comparison of Allergic Contact Dermatitis Cases in the Private and Subsidised Clinics in the National Skin Centre, Singapore

Allergic contact dermatitis is a common clinical problem seen in our dermatology outpatient clinics, comprising 0.5% of patients seen in 1999. In addition to...

Malignant Melanoma Seen in a Tertiary Dermatological Centre, Singapore

Unlike in Caucasians, primary malignant melanoma is an uncommon skin malignancy in Singapore. There have been little published data on cutaneous melanoma in Southeast...

A Retrospective Study of Incontinentia Pigmenti Seen at the National Skin Centre, Singapore Over a 10-year period

Incontinentia pigmenti, called Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome, is a rare X-linked dominant disorder involving ectodermal structures. It is a multisystem disorder with cutaneous, ocular, dental, cerebral...

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci: Emerging Problems and New Prospects for Management

The prevalence of nosocomial infections due to Gram-positive bacteria has increased dramatically over the last two decades. In North America, Gram-positive cocci now are...

Intra-abdominal Hypertension—Implications for the Intensive Care Physician

Although the detrimental effects of raised intra-abdominal pressure have been known for over 100 years, it is only in the last two decades that...

Perioperative Treatment with Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein (rBPI21) in Major Liver Surgery: A Concise Summary

Primary and secondary hepatic malignancies constitute a major health problem. Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for 90% of all primary hepatic malignancies in the world. While...

Mucinous Cystadenoma of the Appendix—An Unusual Cause of Intestinal Obstruction

Mucinous cystadenoma of the vermiform appendix is an uncommon entity. It is a benign lesion but may disseminate and lead to the development of...

Bugs for the Next Century: The Issue of Antibiotic Resistance

Emerging antibiotic resistance is a global problem. Antibiotic resistance results in morbidity and mortality from treatment failures and increased health care costs. This article is...

Melioidosis Splenic Abscess—An Unusual Presentation as Osteomyelitis of Rib

A 74-year-old Chinese gentleman first presented in February 1999 with an abscess over his left lower chest. He was treated for pulmonary tuberculosis in...

A Retrospective Study of Melanocytic Naevi at the National Skin Centre

Melanocytic naevi are benign proliferation of melanocytes of congenital and acquired types which usually appear during adolescence or early adult life. Naevi are of...

Antibiotic Sensitivity of Propionibacterium acnes Isolates from Patients with Acne Vulgaris in a Tertiary Dermatological Referral Centre in Singapore

In Southeast Asia, there have been few studies on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of Propionibacterium acnes on the skin of patients with acne...

A Prospective Evaluation of Surgeon Performed Sonography as a Screening Test in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

Over the past decade, sonography as a screening tool in the evaluation of abdominal trauma has been thoroughly investigated. This modality was first used...

Clinical Utility of Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Different Types of Cutaneous Tuberculosis and Tuberculids

Laboratory confirmation of cutaneous tuberculosis has remained difficult using conventional techniques which include the demonstration of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) on histopathologic examination and culture....

Stapled Haemorrhoidectomy—The Evidence For and the Facts Against

Surgeons as well as patients have recently shown much interest in stapled haemorrhoidectomy. This is a new technique, which is claimed to result in...

12th Chapter of Surgeons Lecture: Shifting Paradigms in the Management of Breast Cancer—A Surgical Perspective

The recorded history of breast cancer management spans four millennia. This story about breast cancer management is also one about change, about resistance to...

Double Omental Hernia—Case Report on a Very Rare Cause of Intestinal Obstruction

Internal hernia is defined as the protrusion of a viscus through a normal or abnormal opening within the confines of the abdominal cavity. This...

A Retrospective Study on the Characteristics of Androgenetic Alopecia among Asian Races in the National Skin Centre, a Tertiary Dermatological Referral Centre in Singapore

Androgenetic alopecia is hair thinning or balding due to the influence of androgens in males and females. Androgenetic alopecia is reported to affect 50%...

A Review of Cutaneous Granulomas and Lupus Vulgaris Following BCG Vaccination in a Skin Hospital in Singapore

BCG vaccines are live vaccines derived from a strain of Mycobacterium bovis that was attenuated by Calmette and Guerin at the Pasteur Institute in...

Magnetic Resonance Arthrography of the Labral-Ligamentous Complex of the Shoulder: An Update

Shoulder instability is a frequently encountered clinical problem in young active people following injury, particularly in athletes. The labral-ligamentous complex is increasingly recognised as...

Limited Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and the Occult Hip Fracture

Worldwide, in the past decade, the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has increased tremendously in the management of musculoskeletal trauma. Not least is...

All that Wheezes is not Asthma—Broncholithiasis, a Forgotten Disease

Asthma is a very common condition which presents clinically with cough, shortness of breath and wheezing. However, ‘all that wheezes is not asthma’, is...

The Epidemiology and Treatment of Anogenital Warts in Singapore: A Retrospective Evaluation

Anogenital warts are caused by specific subtypes of the human papillomavirus (HPV), of which serotypes HPV 6 and 11 are the most common. There...

Fluconazole Susceptibility of Candida Species in Singapore by Disc Diffusion Test

Candida species is becoming increasingly important as a cause of serious infections particularly in immunocompromised patients. Surveillance in the USA between April 1995 and...

Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the Older Population in Singapore

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in persons older than 50 years are rarely studied because STDs are more common in young people. There is very...

Allopurinol Hypersensitivity Syndrome and Acute Myocardial Infarction—Two Case Reports

Allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome is an idiosyncratic drug reaction characterised by an acute and severe multiorgan disease. It usually begins 2 to 6 weeks (up...

Technetium-99m Methoxyisobutylisonitrile Imaging in the Follow-up of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is not an uncommon tumour in Thailand.1 A high percentage of 10-year survival results in long-term follow-up. I-131 total-body scan...

Influenza in Singapore: Assessing the Burden of Illness in the Community

Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Morbidity in the working age group gives rise to frequent doctor visits and considerable...

Bullous Pemphigoid Seen at the National Skin Centre: A 2-year Retrospective Review

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering disorder affecting mainly the elderly. It is characterised by autoantibodies to the basement membrane zone (BMZ),...

Emergency Laparoscopic Surgery—The Changi General Hospital Experience

Today, laparoscopic surgery has achieved widespread acceptance among surgeons as well as the general public. Emergency laparoscopic procedures (ELPs) have been performed since the...

Surgical Management and Outcome of Carotid Body Tumours

The carotid body was first described by von Haller in 1743. It is often a small ovoid or irregular mass composed of compact pinkish...

Embolisation of a Renal Artery Pseudoaneurysm in a Patient with Renal Malrotation and Chronic Aortic Dissection

A 40-year-old Chinese male presented with severe right loin pain. He had a history of chronic abdominal aortic dissection of unknown aetiology. He was...

Hepatolithiasis —A Case Series

Intrahepatic biliary stone or hepatolithiasis is an uncommon entity worldwide, with a higher incidence in East Asia in comparison to the West. As yet,...

Single Centre Review of Radiologically-guided Percutaneous Nephrostomies: A Report of 273 Procedures

Percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) is a well-established technique in the armamentarium of an interventional radiologist when dealing with urinary obstruction. It provides temporary relief in...

To Establish the Normal Bone Mineral Density Reference Database for the Singapore Male

Bone mineral densitometry was developed as a means to quantify the bone mineral content of the skeleton accurately and has been used in the...

Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in the Management of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures: Initial Experience

With the general increase in life expectancy in the local population, the incidence of osteoporosis is anticipated to rise as well. Even with screening...

Differentiation of Malignant Vertebral Collapse from Osteoporotic and Other Benign Causes Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

An elderly patient presenting with backache and vertebral collapse on plain X-ray is a common clinical scenario and a diagnostic challenge. It is difficult...

Acute Embolic Occlusion of the Superior Mesenteric Artery: A Case Report and Discussion of Management

Acute ischaemia of the bowel is a devastating condition. Recently published figures on mortality range from 30% to 60%. This article is available only as...

Clinical Profile and Treatment Outcome of Livedoid Vasculitis: A Case Series

Livedoid vasculitis is a clinicopathological entity that has variously been referred to as atrophie blanche, livedoid vasculopathy or segmental hyalinising vasculitis. It presents with...

Letter to the Editor

We would like to draw the attention of your readers to the comments made in the editorial of the recent Imaging issue of your...

A Case of Penicillamine-induced Dermopathy

D-penicillamine is a copper chelator used primarily in Wilson’s disease and cystinuria. Other long-term indications include rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma and primary biliary cirrhosis. This article...

The Role of Influenza Vaccine in Healthcare Workers in the Era of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

The new coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) found its first victims in healthcare workers with attack rates of more than 50%...

Imaging-guided Bone Biopsy

Biopsy may be performed at surgery (open biopsy) or percutaneously (closed biopsy). Percutaneous bone biopsies are usually performed under imaging guidance using a variety...

Carcinoma of the Cervix: Role of MR Imaging

In females with cancer, cervical carcinoma is second to breast cancer in both incidence and mortality worldwide. About 465,000 new cases are diagnosed each...

Intracerebral Schwannoma—A Rare Cause of Epilepsy

Schwannomas are extra-axial neoplasms derived from the nerve sheath of peripheral or cranial nerves. They represent approximately 8% of all intracranial tumours, arising predominantly...

Radiographic Features of a Case of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome with Fatal Outcome

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an atypical pneumonia that was first reported in early 2003. Reports of outbreaks of cases rapidly appeared in...

Clinical Applications of MR Cholangiopancreatography

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has attracted a lot of interest from clinicians because it is a non-invasive method of obtaining a cholangiographic image without...

Imaging of Paediatric Mediastinal Masses

A review of mediastinal masses in children, emphasising imaging features, is important for several reasons. Firstly, the mediastinum is the most common location for...

Clinical Positron Emission Tomography Imaging—Current Applications

Like other radionuclide techniques, positron emission tomography (PET) is based on the tracer principle – a small amount of labelled ligand is used to...

MR Imaging and MR Spectroscopy of Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

Prostate cancer is usually suspected due to an abnormal digital rectal examination, elevated serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level or both. The diagnosis of...

Imaging of Congenital Middle Ear Deafness

When a child or young adult with morphologically normal external ears and no previous history of ear discharge or trauma presents with conductive hearing...

MR Imaging of the Fetal Brain and Spine: A Maturing Technology

The introduction of a new diagnostic test into a clinical arena goes through a number of stages. The first stage is technical development. This article...

Imaging of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

The pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a global healthcare problem and HIV infection is the most common cause of...

The Singapore National Breast Screening Programme: Principles and Implementation

In January 2002, the first population-based national mammographic breast screening programme in Asia, the Singapore National Breast Screening Programme (BreastScreen Singapore), was launched. The...

Brachiocephalic-Superior Vena Cava Metallic Stenting in Malignant Superior Vena Cava Obstruction

A large majority of superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is caused by malignancy (74% to 95%). This can either be due to direct SVC...

Pilot Study Using Technetium-99m Pertechnetate Sequential Radionuclide-Sialography to Assess Salivary Gland Function in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients on Radiation Therapy

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy occurring worldwide with particularly high frequencies in the Far East. The incidence is highest in Hong Kong...

Breath-hold Fast Recovery Fast Spin Echo versus Conventional Non-Breath-hold Fast Spin Echo T2-Weighted MR Imaging of Focal Liver Lesions

T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is an important sequence for characterisation of focal liver lesion. Accurate characterisation of benign lesions, such as haemangioma or...

Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging in Intracranial Infections

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (DWMRI) is becoming essential to the assessment of acute cerebral infarction and has also been applied to distinguish cerebral...

Preoperative High Resolution CT and MR Imaging in Cochlear Implantation

Candidates for cochlear implantation undergo a thorough audiological and medical assessment. The audiological assessment is done to ensure that these candidates who have bilateral...

Non-consensual Double Reading in the Singapore Breast Screening Project: Benefits and Limitations

Double reading of mammogram is not the standard practice in the United Kingdom National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP). Rather, single reading of...

Breast Cancer in Women Under 40 Years: Preoperative Detection by Mammography

The incidence of breast cancer peaks between the ages of 45 and 55 years. Approximately 7% of breast cancers occur below 40 years of...

The Past Decade of Diagnostic Radiology in Singapore: How Much Progress Have We Really Made?

It has been 10 years since the first ever issue of Annals dedicated to “Radiology” was published in Volume 22 No. 5 September 1993....

Sweet’s Syndrome Associated with Mycobacterium chelonae and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: A Case Report

Sweet’s syndrome is an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis. An association with malignancy is well recognised. This article is available only as a PDF. Please click...

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) — 150 Days On

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) has been identified as a new clinical entity in the year 2003. It was on 12 March 2003...

HIV/AIDS in Children

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in Asia has grown from a handful of cases to a major...

Colorectal Hepatic Metastases: Role of Radiofrequency Ablation

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in Singapore, accounting for 15.9% of all cancers registered with the Singapore Cancer Registry in the...

Hepatic Resection for Colorectal Metastases to the Liver: The National Cancer Centre/Singapore General Hospital Experience

Colorectal carcinoma is the fourth most common malignancy and the second leading cause of death worldwide. Although surgical resection in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy...

Computed Tomographic Appearance of Colorectal Hepatic Metastases

It is important to recognise the computed tomography (CT) appearance of hepatic metastases from colorectal primaries, as resection in a selected group may offer...

Current Status in Imaging of Colorectal Liver Metastases

Colorectal cancer is a common primary that metastasizes to the liver. About 20% of patients with colorectal cancer will have detectable metastases at the...

Practical Issues in Adjuvant Therapy for Rectal Cancer

This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download PDF” on top to view the full article.

Total Mesorectal Excision (TME) – Twenty Years On

In 1982, Heald et al1 at the Basingstoke District General Hospital introduced the concept of total mesorectal excision (TME) as a means of performing...

Flat and Depressed Lesions of the Colon and Rectum: Pathogenesis and Clinical Management

It was previously thought that the vast majority of colorectal cancers were derived from polypoid adenomas. However, several investigators have noted that most colorectal...

Routine Abdominal and Pelvic Ultrasound Examinations: An Audit Comparing Radiographers and Radiologists

Since its introduction into clinical practice in the early 1970s, ultrasound (US) has become firmly established as an extremely valuable imaging modality and widely...

Clinical Utility of Selective Intra-arterial Calcium-stimulated Hepatic Venous Sampling in Regionalisation of Insulinomas—The Singapore Experience

Insulinomas are small tumours with dimensions that seldom exceed 2.0 cm in diameter. Preoperative non-invasive localisation using trans-abdominal ultrasound and conventional computed tomography (CT)...

Sexually Transmitted Infections in Singapore Teenagers

Adolescence can be a difficult period for many individuals who have to navigate their way through complicated emotional, psychological, physical and social demands and...

An intensely pruritic disseminated skin eruption

A 64-year-old man presented to the dermatology outpatient clinic with a 4-month history of pruritic papules. He had a significant medical history of thyrotoxicosis,...

Pressure injuries related to N95 respirator masks among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic

Dear Editor, The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak, which started in 2019, has affected millions of patients globally.1 Singapore is not spared, being one...

Novel transdermal device for delivery of triamcinolone for nail psoriasis treatment

Psoriasis is a chronic immune mediated inflammatory skin condition that affects about 2–4% of the Western populations, with rising incidence over the years.1,2 The...

Oral Pemphigus Vulgaris: A Case Report and Literature Update

Autoimmune blistering conditions are an uncommon cause of chronic ulceration of the oral mucosa. Nevertheless, it is important to diagnose these conditions early and...

Melanocytic Lesions of the Face: Diagnostic Pitfalls

Cutaneous melanocytic lesions are amongst the commonest tumours in all races but are more common in Caucasians with fair skin. Although most are benign...

Inflammatory Fibroid Polyp of the Caecum in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis

Inflammatory fibroid polyp is an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion found in the gastrointestinal tract. It is a benign, non-encapsulated submucosal lesion, composed mainly of loose...

A Case of Recurrent Erythema Multiforme and its Therapeutic Complications

Recurrent erythema multiforme (EM) is a disabling condition with a specific diagnosis and certain diagnostic criteria. Systemic corticosteroid therapy is frequently used to treat...

A Review: The Location, Molecular Characterisation and Multipotency of Hair Follicle Epidermal Stem Cells

There have been significant advances in the understanding of keratinocyte stem cells since the 1970s, when the concept of interfollicular epidermis was initially proposed;...

Oropharyngeal Carriage and Penicillin Resistance of Neisseria meningitidis in Primary School Children in Manisa, Turkey

Infections by Neisseria meningitidis are significant causes of mortality and morbidity in young children and adolescents. The epidemiology of serious meningococcal disease is an...

A Clinical Audit of Presentation and Outcome of Salmonella Septicaemia

Salmonella infection occurs globally and has diverse presentations including enteric fever, gastroenteritis, localised infection, chronic enteric or urinary carrier state and bacteraemias. Enteric fever,...

15th Chapter of Surgeons Lecture: Surgeon of the New Millennium – Surgeon, Scientist and Scholar

Next year, we celebrate a hundred years of medical education in Singapore. We have come a long way since 1821 – from a small,...

Reflections of a Septuagenarian – Radiology: Past, Present and Future

Before I commence, I would like to thank the Singapore Radiological Society and the Chapter of Radiologists of the Academy of Medicine for inviting...

Imaging Findings in Acute Neck Infection due to Pyriform Sinus Fistula

Pyriform sinus fistula is a developmental abnormality of the 3rd or 4th branchial pouch. It usually presents in childhood as acute inflammatory swelling of...

Audit of Diagnostic and Interventional Craniocervical Catheter Angiographic Procedures at the Singapore General Hospital

Catheter angiography has long been considered the diagnostic standard by which the accuracy of other vascular imaging modalities are compared, given its superior contrast...

Breast Ultrasound in Women With Familial Risk of Breast Cancer

Mammography is the modality of choice to screen for breast cancer in asymptomatic women. However, it is known that about 10% to 12% of...

Serum Interleukin-2, Interleukin-6, Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Nitric Oxide Levels in Patients With Behçet’s Disease

Behçet’s disease (BD) is characterised by oral aphthous lesions, genital ulcerations and eye inflammation. The disease was first described by Hulusi Behçet in 1937....

Cutaneous Mycobacterium haemophilum Infections in Immunocompromised Patients in a Dermatology Clinic in Singapore

Mycobacterium haemophilum is a nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) that is increasingly recognised as a cause of cutaneous, joint, or pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients and...

A Case of Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy

Nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy (NFD) is a recently described and recognised fibrosing disorder occurring in patients with renal disease. The condition resembles scleromyxoedema clinically and...

Littoral Cell Angioma of the Spleen

The littoral cells line the vascular channels of the red pulp of the spleen and have characteristics of endothelial and histiocytic cells. In 1991,...

Coronary Artery Disease: Comprehensive Evaluation by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major health problem worldwide. With advances in CAD intervention and improvements in treatment and management of CAD, there...

A Case of Right Loin Pain: Septic Ovarian Vein Thrombosis Due to Campylobacter fetus Bacteraemia

Septic ovarian venous thrombosis is an uncommon entity. Classically, it occurs as a postpartum complication with reported frequency of 1 in 600 to 2000...

Dapsone Hypersensitivity Syndrome Masquerading as a Viral Exanthem: Three Cases and a Mini-Review

Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is a rare condition mostly occurring in leprosy patients on multidrug therapy. Dapsone is also combined with pyrimethamine as maloprim...

Cyclosporin in the Treatment of Severe Atopic Dermatitis: A Retrospective Study

Cyclosporin is a potent immunosuppressant that inhibits cell-mediated immunity, mainly via inhibition of T helper cells. It has been used successfully in the treatment...

Salivary Immunoglobulin A and Lysozyme in Patients with Psoriasis

The pathophysiological mechanisms in psoriasis are still unclear. Many factors, such as infection, trauma and stress, could cause psoriasis. This article is available only as...

Laboratory Safety Aspects of SARS at Biosafety Level 2

In Singapore, the majority of patients suffering from the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) were cared for at Tan Tock Seng Hospital. The dramatic...

Varicella Screening and Vaccination for Healthcare Workers at KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital

Due to the increased morbidity and mortality of varicella zoster (VZ) in adults and increased exposure to chickenpox in hospitals, especially in paediatric hospitals,...

Clinical Indications for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scanning

The purpose of these guidelines is to provide a broad framework for clinicians considering the use of positron emission tomography (PET) scanning for their...

Semi-Quantitative Measurements of Normal Organs With Variable Metabolic Activity on FDG PET Imaging

Positron emission tomography (PET) has a proven clinical role in oncology, cardiology and neurology that primarily uses 2-deoxy-2--fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG). FDG is an analogue of...

Clinical Applications of Positron Emission Tomography in Cardiology: A Review

Ischaemic heart disease associated with depressed left ventricular function is a common clinical management dilemma. There is overwhelming evidence that such patients have a...

The Role of FDG-PET in the Management of Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma

Carcinoma of the lung is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women and is the second most common malignancy in...

Clinical PET Imaging – An Asian Perspective

Positron emission tomography (PET) is distinct from other imaging modalities in its ability to probe the physiology and biochemistry of normal and abnormal tissues....

PET Tracers and Radiochemistry

Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a powerful scientific and clinical tool for probing biochemical processes in the human body. This is due, in...

Physical Principles and Technology of Clinical PET Imaging

The past few years have seen the transition of positron emission tomography (PET) from the research domain into mainstream clinical applications for oncology. The...

Positron Emission Tomography – A Vital Component of Molecular Imaging

Contemporary medical imaging is progressing towards quantification of tissue function in addition to merely providing anatomical information, as illustrated by the rising use of...

Lymphomatoid Papulosis Associated with Recurrent Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

Lymphomatoid papulosis is a self-healing recurrent popular eruption often exhibiting a chronic course. It is associated with malignant lymphomas in 10% to 20% of...

Extensive Calcinosis Cutis in Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

Calcinosis cutis is characterised by the aberrant deposition of calcium salts in the skin. In metastatic calcinosis cutis, calcium salts are precipitated in normal...

Transmission of Tuberculosis from Patient to Healthcare Workers in the Anaesthesia Context

Tuberculosis poses a very real problem to healthcare workers (HCWs). In Singapore, the prevalence of tuberculosis in the general population remains high at 44...

Delusional Parasitosis: Case Series of 8 Patients and Review of the Literature

Delusional parasitosis (DP), or delusional infestation, is a condition in which a person has the unshakeable and mistaken belief of being infested with parasites....

Severe Adult Chickenpox Infection Requiring Intensive Care

Chickenpox (varicella) in adults can be severe. It is frequently associated with pneumonia and immunosuppression as well as increased mortality rates. This article is available...

Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging (LDPI) and Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL) Values in Psoriatic Lesions Treated with Narrow Band UVB Phototherapy. Dermal Vascularity may be useful Indicator of Psoriatic Activity

Non-invasive techniques have become useful procedures in measuring skin physiology and skin response to treatment. This study attempts to objectively measure physiological changes in...

Familial Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Atopic Dermatitis among Chinese Families in Singapore

Family history has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of allergic rhinitis (AR) and atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the increase...

Comparison of Completely versus Incompletely Excised Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas

Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common skin cancer worldwide and its incidence has risen in the last few decades. Approximately 80% of non-melanoma...

Viral Warts in Children Seen at a Tertiary Referral Centre

Viral warts are a common affliction in children. It is caused by the human papilloma virus, of which there are more than 80 serotypes. This...

Skin Manifestation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Infection – A Case Report and Review Article

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus that is found in aquatic environments. It is a frequent coloniser of fluids used in the hospital...

Use of D-dimer and Lower Extremity Doppler Ultrasound Results to Obviate the Need for Computerised Tomographic Pulmonary Angiography

The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) can be a challenging problem. It depends on clinical suspicion and the interpretation of a combination of clinical...

Image-guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Malignancies: Experience at Singapore General Hospital

Radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the treatment of focal liver malignancies is a relatively new image-guided procedure that is gaining increasing acceptance in the radiologic...

Presumed Dapsone-induced Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome Causing Reversible Hypersensitivity Myocarditis and Thyrotoxicosis

A 22-year-old Malay soldier doing his National Service was warded with a 6-day history of an itchy generalised rash associated with fever and lymphadenopathy....

A Study on the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Southeast Asian Dermatologists in the Management of Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and pruritic inflammatory skin disorder that occurs worldwide. Several guidelines on the management of AD have been published...

Early Dengue Infection and Outcome Study (EDEN) – Study Design and Preliminary Findings

Dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) is a re-emerging disease that is endemic in the tropical world. It is caused by 4 closely-related dengue viruses...

Seroepidemiology of Pertussis in the Adult Population of Singapore

Pertussis is a highly communicable, vaccine-preventable respiratory disease and is a frequent but often underestimated cause of prolonged cough illness in adults. Whereas in...

Travel Characteristics and Health Practices Among Travellers at the Travellers’ Health and Vaccination Clinic in Singapore

The South-east Asian region has seen recent increases in travel, and pre-travel health advice is important in protecting these travellers from risks. Travellers now...

Building Collaboration in Cardiac Imaging

Publicity about new developments in medical technology is not at all unusual. But the degree with which multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) for coronary artery...

3rd FY Khoo Memorial Lecture – Education, Professionalism, Outsourcing and the Future of Radiology

Radiology is undergoing unprecedented changes. Not only is the technology evolving rapidly, providing images of breathtaking anatomical clarity, but functional information has also become...

Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Metastases of Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectum

Cutaneous metastasis from colorectal adenocarcinoma is an interesting condition not only because of its rarity, it occurs in less than 4% of patients with...

Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC): A World Wide Web Resource for Radiology Education

Radiological images are critical for diagnosis, teaching and research. In radiology education, learners must be exposed to large amounts of visual information, and assimilation...

Teleradiology in Singapore – Taking Stock and Looking Ahead

Teleradiology is the electronic transmission of radiologic images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. The current interest in...

Infected Pancreatic Necrosis – An Evaluation of the Timing and Technique of Necrosectomy in a Southeast Asian Population

The management of necrotising pancreatitis has improved significantly over the last 2 decades, with a corresponding improvement in mortality rates. This improvement is largely...

Complications Relating to Intravenous Buprenorphine Abuse: A Single Institution Case Series

Buprenorphine, more commonly known as Subutex (Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals), has been released in Singapore since 2002. Initially marketed as an opiate substitute to help...

Scanning Laser Polarimetry in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients on Chemotherapy

Pulmonary tuberculosis is a worldwide disease. In Hong Kong, there are about 7000 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis each year and the prevalence remains...

Understanding the Super-spreading Events of SARS in Singapore

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was the first emerging infectious disease of this century with true epidemic potential. Worldwide, the virus caused a total...

SARS Plague: Duty of Care or Medical Heroism?

SARS has been described as a Chinese plague because it emerged from the colourful markets of wild animals and the exotic kitchens of Guangdong,...

SARS: How to Manage Future Outbreaks?

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which crossed from wild animals at live markets to man in mid-November...

SARS Revisited: Managing “Outbreaks” With “Communications”

In the short span of 3 years since SARS first appeared on the Asian landscape, terms like “risk communications” and “outbreak communications” have assumed...

Laboratory Containment of SARS Virus

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged in November 2002 in Guangdong Province in China and quickly spread to 26 countries/areas with local transmission in...

SARS and Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Challenge to Place Global Solidarity above National Sovereignty

The majority of the world’s information about infectious disease outbreaks no longer comes from voluntary reporting by countries, the willingness of which is influenced...

SARS in Singapore – Key Lessons from an Epidemic

The 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak represented the most severe communicable disease challenge to the public health system and the government and...

Radiographic Features of SARS in Paediatric Patients: A Review of Cases in Singapore

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emerged atypical pneumonia caused by the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). It is easily transmitted via droplet infection...

Clinical and Laboratory Findings of SARS in Singapore

An outbreak of atypical pneumonia was recognised in Singapore soon after the release of a global alert by the World Health Organization (WHO) on...

SARS in Singapore – Predictors of Disease Severity

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a recently defined illness caused by a novel coronavirus. The outbreak in Singapore originated from Hong Kong via...

The Outbreak of SARS at Tan Tock Seng Hospital – Relating Epidemiology to Control

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus. Worldwide, the virus caused a total of 8098 reported...

Epidemiology and Control of SARS in Singapore

Since the 1990s, a number of infectious diseases have emerged in Singapore, despite its high standard of environmental hygiene, comprehensive childhood immunisation programme and...

Lessons From the SARS Crisis – More Relevant Than Ever

This issue of the Annals contains articles on the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). One might wonder what else there is to write about...

Delayed Hypersensitivity Reaction After Intravenous Glucagon Administered for a Barium Enema: A Case Report

A 74-year-old Chinese woman presented with a 1-week history of an itchy rash on the trunk and legs. A barium enema was performed a...

Ethambutol-associated Optic Neuropathy

Tuberculosis (TB) has been present since ancient times. Around 460 BC, Hippocrates identified phthisis, which is the Greek term for consumption (TB seemed to...

Modelling the Utility of Body Temperature Readings From Primary Care Consults for SARS Surveillance in an Army Medical Centre

There has been increasing interest in building surveillance systems capable of detecting outbreaks of infectious diseases, at the stage where clinical presentation would still...

Mycobacterium-related Ocular Inflammatory Disease: Diagnosis and Management

Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease that has been detected in 3000-year-old Egyptian mummies. Robert Koch’s discovery of the tubercle bacillus as the aetiologic...

A Case of Cystic Schwannoma of the Lesser Sac

Schwannoma or neurilemmoma (NL) is a well-defined, usually benign, tumour arising from the nerve sheath (Schwann cell). It may present as a solitary mass...

Implementation and Evaluation by Formal Assessments and Term End Student Feedback of a New Methodology of Clinical Teaching in Surgery in Small Group Sessions

In clinically-oriented subjects such as surgery, specific guidelines for conducting small group teachings are lacking. Different methods are being practiced and researched in different...

Successful Management of an Iatrogenically-ingested Sharp Foreign Body

A 37-year-old man with no significant medical history underwent dental treatment. An injection dental needle used in the course of root canal treatment came...

Anaerobic Culture of Diabetic Foot Infections: Organisms and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities

Singapore has a relatively high prevalence of diabetes mellitus, with a recent survey showing an age-standardised prevalence of 7.8% in 2004. Diabetic soft-tissue infections...

Electrocardiographic Changes in Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Treated with Systemic Glucantime

Antimonial compounds are regarded as the treatment of choice for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The efficacy of sodium stibogluconate (pentostam) and the other compound of...

Infection Control Practices at the Singapore General Hospital: From a Swedish Point of View

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most common antibiotic resistant pathogen in many parts of the world, and is associated with significant in hospital...

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Control in Singapore – Moving Forward

The significance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is indisputable. Its successful establishment and maintenance as the most important endemic healthcare associated infection (HCAI) results...

“Future” Threat of Gram-negative Resistance in Singapore

Gram-negative bacteria are important causes of urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, healthcare-associated pneumonia, and intra-abdominal infections. The increasing resistance of Enterobacteriaceae is a significant...

Polymyxins: A Review of the Current Status Including Recent Developments

Polymyxins are polypeptide antibiotic that becomes available for clinical use in the 1960s, but was replaced in the 1970s by antibiotics considered less toxic....

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus – A Review From a Singapore Perspective

The first isolates of high-level vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were reported from the United Kingdom in the late 1980s. Since then rates of VRE infection...

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Control at the National University Hospital, Singapore: A Historical Perspective

The National University Hospital (NUH) was established in 1985 as the first restructured hospital and medical centre in Singapore. At its official opening in...

Gram-negative Resistance in Singapore: A Historical Perspective

Standardised antimicrobial susceptibility testing was first introduced to Singapore in the mid-1970s. The earliest Singapore antibiogram the author is aware of was published in...

In vitro Activities of Antifungal Drugs Against Yeasts Isolated from Blood Cultures and Moulds Isolated from Various Clinically Significant Sites in Singapore

Fungaemia carries with it high mortality rates and appropriate as well as timely antifungal therapy has been shown to be life saving. Amphotericin B...

A Retrospective Analysis of Antifungal Susceptibilities of Candida Bloodstream Isolates From Singapore Hospitals

Nosocomial infection with Candida species is increasing in significance worldwide. A recent review of positive blood cultures noted the relative increase in importance of...

Ertapenem for Treatment of Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamase-producing and Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative Bacteraemia

Extended-spectrum beta-lacatamase (ESBL)-producing gram-negative bacteraemia is optimally treated with carbapenem. In our institution, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the most common and third...

Independent Predictors for Mortality in Patients with Positive Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Cultures

Stenotrophomonas (formally Pseudomonas or Xanthomonas) maltophilia is a gram-negative bacillus emerging as an opportunistic, nosocomial pathogen associated with a high mortality rate. Although it...

Antibiotic Resistance in Gram-negative Bacilli: A Singapore Perspective

In contrast to recent media reviews on gram-positive pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and Clostridium difficile, the increasing complexity and multiplicity...

Antimicrobial Resistance: A New Beginning and the Need for Action

In this issue, the articles (historical, original and review papers) highlight the extent and problem of antimicrobial resistance in Singapore. The authors should be...

Assessment of Medical Graduates Competencies

Medical professional proficiency comprises a set of skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to efficiently accomplish the practice of medicine. The major aim of undergraduate...

Infectious Respiratory Illnesses and their Impact on Healthcare Workers: A Review

With the recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and its exceptionally high transmission rate in healthcare settings, healthcare workers (HCWs) and administrators...

Healthcare Workers and HIV Health Issues

This paper aims to present a comprehensive review of issues related to HIV testing in healthcare workers (HCWs) and proposes appropriate measures in response...

The 2005 Dengue Epidemic in Singapore: Epidemiology, Prevention and Control

Dengue is the most important human viral disease transmitted by arthropod vectors. Some 2500 million people – two-fifths of the world’s population – are...

Antiviral Drugs for the Control of Pandemic Influenza Virus

Over the past 100 years there have been 3 major influenza virus pandemics, which have among them claimed millions of lives. In 1918 the...

Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza. The History of our Current Vaccines, their Limitations and the Requirements to Deal with a Pandemic Threat

The ongoing epizootic of avian influenza due to A (H5N1) viruses, the growing count of associated human fatalities, and the fear that this may...

Prevention and Control of Avian Influenza in Singapore

Avian influenza (AI) or “bird flu” is a highly infectious disease of birds. AI viruses are negative single-stranded enveloped RNA viruses that belong to...

Preparing for an Influenza Pandemic in Singapore

The last influenza pandemics occurred in 1957 and 1968. Few remember the pandemic in 1968 in Singapore as it was relatively mild. This article is...

Avian Influenza and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness in Hong Kong

In 1997, Hong Kong became reputed by identifying the first instance of human infection with avian influenza H5N1. A total of 18 cases occurred...

Towards Mutual Trust, Transparency and Equity in Virus Sharing Mechanism: The Avian Influenza Case of Indonesia

Since July 2005 to December 2007, Indonesia has reported the highest number of influenza A (H5N1) human cases in the world, i.e., 116 cases...

A Global Perspective on Avian Influenza

The world is confronted by many important public health challenges, some of which constitute potentially devastating global threats. Prime among these is the threat...

Twentieth Century Influenza Pandemics in Singapore

Tropical countries such as Singapore, although without well-defined influenza seasons, are also affected by influenza epidemics and pandemics. Twenty per cent of Singapore’s population...

The Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination in Healthcare Workers in a Tropical Setting: A Prospective Investigator Blinded Observational Study

Influenza causes significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact in Singapore. According to a recent report, there are about 4.2 million cases of influenza-like illness...

A Cross-sectional Study of Primary-care Physicians in Singapore on Their Concerns and Preparedness for an Avian Influenza Outbreak

Outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) caused by the H5N1 subtype in several Asian countries have raised concern all over the world. AI is endemic...

Clinical and Epidemiological Features of Patients With Confirmed Avian Influenza Presenting to Sulianti Saroso Infectious Diseases Hospital, Indonesia, 2005-2007

The first human cases of H5N1 avian influenza (AI) virus infection were reported in Indonesia in July 2005. On 19 September 2005, the Ministry...

To Kill a Mocking Bird Flu?

Why devote an entire issue of the Annals to pandemic influenza when there are so many other pressing health needs around us? With a...

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Mimicking Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by different species of the obligate intracellular protozoa Leishmania. This disease is transmitted through the bite of an...

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Sports Injuries of the Knee

Sports-related knee injuries are common, with contact sports and sports involving twisting movements being the most frequent causes. Sports injuries may affect any of...

Advanced Burkitt’s Lymphoma Presenting With Jejunal Perforation

Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) is a high grade B-cell neoplasm under the umbrella of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. It is predominantly seen in children but may also...

Angioplasty in Critical Limb Ischaemia: One-year Limb Salvage Results

Critical limb ischaemia (CLI) is the most severe form of peripheral vascular disease where there is inadequate blood flow to a limb to maintain...

Concerns, Perceived Impact and Preparedness in an Avian Influenza Pandemic – a Comparative Study between Healthcare Workers in Primary and Tertiary Care

The danger posed by emerging infectious diseases has become greater in the past few years with the World Health Organization (WHO) warning that the...

Laboratory-acquired Brucellosis

Brucellosis is a serious disease seen worldwide and has been historically known as undulant fever, Bang’s disease, Gibraltar fever, Mediterranean fever, and Malta fever....

The Utility of Liver Function Tests in Dengue

Dengue infection is endemic in many countries along the tropical and subtropical belt, with more than 100 million cases and 24,000 deaths annually worldwide....

Local Experience of Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Prostate with Correlation to Radical Prostatectomy Specimens

Prostate cancer ranks among the top 10 cancers in Singapore. The incidence of prostate cancer has risen by 5% to 118% in most Asian...

A Comparative Study of Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Clonal T-cell Receptor Gamma Chain Gene Rearrangements Using Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis versus Fluorescence Capillary Electrophoresis

Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are a heterogeneous group of malignancies of skin-homing T-cells, of which mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common form. CTCL...

Treatment Gets Better, but Leprosy Remains a Global Problem

Rising standards of living and the provision of effective medical treatment have resulted in good control of leprosy in many parts of the world,...

Development of a Core Curriculum on Tuberculosis Control for Philippine Medical Schools

Medical schools play an important role not only in the building of medical expertise but also in the socialisation of future physicians. Societies expect...

Mohs micrographic surgery in Singapore: A long-term follow-up review

Dear Editor, Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) has become the treatment of choice for high-risk non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) worldwide.1 Unlike wide local excision, MMS...

Lamotrigine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in Singapore: A case series

Dear Editor, With the advancements in pharmacogenetics, potential genetic associations with severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR)—which include Stevens- Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic...

Multimodal prehabilitation before major abdominal surgery: A retrospective study

Ageing is one of the biggest public health concerns of the 21st century, presenting a challenge to the practice of medicine globally. As the...

Development of Ceftazidime Resistance in Burkhoderia pseudomallei in a Patient Experiencing Melioidosis with Mediastinal Lymphadenitis

Melioidosis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei is endemic to Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Melioidosis was nicknamed the “greater mimicker” because of its diverse clinical...

Cutaneous Angiosarcoma Associated with the Kasabach–Merritt Syndrome

Angiosarcoma is a rare tumour commonly affecting elderly men, usually occurring on the head and neck region. The tumour usually presents as ecchymosis-like plaques,...

Human Rights as a Cornerstone of AIDS Prevention, Treatment and Public Health Measures

The International AIDS Conference (IAC) and the Singapore AIDS Conference (SAC) are biannual meetings held on even years. Both these meetings are occasions for...

Epidemiology of Skin Diseases in Renal Transplant Recipients in a Tertiary Hospital

Various types of skin lesions are more common in renal transplant recipients compared to the general population, mainly attributable to post-transplant immunosuppression. The well-documented...

Changing Epidemiology of Enteric Fevers in Singapore

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever – collectively referred to as enteric fevers - are serious systemic infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi)...

Expanding the Scope of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection

The 2010 Global Report on AIDS contains some welcome news: the number of annual AIDS-related deaths has continued to decrease from a peak of...

Bosentan – A Previously Unrecognised Cause of Facial Telangiectasia

Bosentan is an endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Although flushing is a documented side effect of...

Blistering Eruption Following a Rubefacient Rub for Shoulder Discomfort

A 96-year-old woman was referred as an emergency with a suspected allergic reaction to Deep Heat® rub (Mentholatum Company Ltd, East Kilbride, Scotland). Five...

An 11-year Review of Dermatomyositis in Asian Patients

Dermatomyositis (DM) is an acquired multisystem inflammatory disease with prominent, characteristic cutaneous manifestations and proximal muscle myopathy. A clinically distinct amyopathic variant with typical...

Medical Misadventure: Barium Extravasation in Colorectal Cancer

Double contrast barium enema (DCBE) is a safe and accurate diagnostic procedure for colorectal cancer. It is often the next diagnostic test after incomplete...

A Cross-Sectional Study on Reference Ranges of Normal Oral Temperatures Among Students in Singapore

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), an infection caused by the SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was imported into Singapore in late February 2003 by a local...

Durian Seed Masquerading as Gallstone Ileus on Computed Tomography

Bezoars and gallstones are unusual causes of small bowel obstruction, with well-described imaging features on CT. We present a case of intestinal obstruction caused...

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Peritoneal Metastases: Report of Three Cases and Collective Review of the Literature

Peritoneal dissemination of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a rare presentation, with an incidence of 2% to 6% detected during autopsy or laparoscopy. Although uncommon,...

Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases – Understanding the Differences in the Management of Synchronous and Metachronous Disease

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the commonest cancers worldwide with age standardised incidence rates of 22.8 to 64.2 and 19.0 to 46.7 per...

A Survey of Local Preclinical and Clinical Medical Students’ Attitudes towards Radiology

Radiology is not a popular specialty for undergraduate student electives or postgraduate training amongst students from a local undergraduate medical school which is based...

An Exanthem with An Annular Pattern in a 2-year-old Girl

A 2-year-old Chinese girl was seen in clinic with an erythematous annular itchy rash which began on the thighs and had spread to the...

Levofloxacin-induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Treated with Intravenous Immunoglobulin

Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) is a rare, fulminating rash with a mortality rate of 35%.1 It is predominantly medication-induced; allopurinol, ampicillins, anticonvulsants and non-steroidal...

Primary Epithelioid Angiosarcoma of the Lung Presenting as Left-sided Shoulder Pain

Primary angiosarcoma of the lung is a rare, often difficult to diagnose disorder with non-specific respiratory manifestations. Angiosarcoma involving the lung is usually a...

Surgical Metastasectomy in AJCC Stage IV M1c Melanoma Patients with Gastrointestinal and Liver Metastases

The prognosis of patients with stage IV melanoma or recurrent melanoma is poor with an estimated median survival period of 6 months. The recent...

Changing Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Markers of Adults in Singapore

In Singapore, epidemiological surveillance and research on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were initiated when acute viral hepatitis was made a notifiable disease under...

Personalised Medicine for Psoriasis: A Real Possibility Ahead

In the last decade, our understanding of psoriasis has increased by leaps and bounds, resulting in many new targeted therapies being introduced for those...

Macronodular Tuberculosis: Imaging Resemblance of Cholangiocarcinoma

The ability of multiphasic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) studies in the diagnosis of liver tumours such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma...

Evaluation on the Effectiveness of the National Childhood Immunisation Programme in Singapore, 1982-2007

Singapore has a comprehensive National Childhood Immunisation Programme (NCIP) which first covered smallpox (1862), followed by diphtheria (1938), tuberculosis (TB) (1957), poliomyelitis (1958), pertussis...

Epidemiological Characteristics of Cholera in Singapore, 1992-2007

Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal disease that usually presents as abrupt massive watery diarrhoea and vomiting. The causative organism is Vibrio cholerae which is...

Erythematous Plaques in a Filipino Man

Three years after emigrating from Philippines to Singapore, a 34-year-old, otherwise healthy man presented with a progressive erythematous eruption on his lower limbs. Six...

Emergency Surgery for a Ruptured Intra-abdominal Desmoid Tumour

Desmoid tumours are fibrous benign tumours that are often indolent until local symptoms evolve. We highlight a rare case of a ruptured intra-abdominal desmoid...

Influenza B Outbreak among Influenza-vaccinated Welfare Home Residents in Singapore

Influenza has a major impact on the health of residents of long-term residential care facilities (LTCF). Residents of LTCFs are especially vulnerable to influenza...

Central Clot Score at Computed Tomography as a Predictor of 30-day Mortality after Acute Pulmonary Embolism

Multi-detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) pulmonary angiography is currently the method of choice for the detection of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), because of its convenience,...

Beyond Blood Safety

World Blood Donor Day takes place on 14 June each year. Established in 2005 by the World Health Assembly, it aims to raise global...

Inflammatory Tinea Capitis: Non-healing Plaque on the Occiput of a 4-year-old Child

Tinea capitis is a fungal infection of the hairs of the scalp. Although commonly described in children, it is uncommonly seen in Singapore. This article...

Afterword

My first involvement with pandemic influenza preparedness planning began in January 2004, when I attended an urgent meeting organised by the Ministry of Public...

Use of Healthcare Worker Sickness Absenteeism Surveillance as a Potential Early Warning System for Influenza Epidemics in Acute Care Hospitals

The global spread of emerging infectious diseases can strain resources and result in healthcare staff absenteeism, as was the case during the severe acute...

Streptococcus pneumoniae Bacteraemia in a Young Man with Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009

The contributory role of bacterial infection to severe influenza illness during a pandemic is not entirely clear. The post-mortem samples of those who died...

Surveys of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on the Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic

Statistical surveys are in general an efficient and flexible means of collecting a wide range of information from large numbers of respondents. These are...

2009 Pandemic Influenza H1N1: Paediatric Perspectives

The pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, containing genes from avian, human and swine influenza viruses, emerged in North America, and caused illness in more than...

Severe Infection with H1N1 Requiring Intensive Care – Lessons for Preparedness Programmes

Severe cases of influenza have traditionally generated much interest. The pandemic of 1957 provided instructive materials on the subject, with publications on the pulmonary...

International Health Regulations: Lessons From the Influenza Pandemic in Singapore

By virtue of the International Health Regulations (IHR) which came into force on 15 June 2007, countries are required to report specific infectious diseases...

Influenza A (H1N1-2009) Pandemic in Singapore – Public Health Control Measures Implemented and Lessons Learnt

The novel influenza A(H1N1) outbreak was officially declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 June 2009. We describe the public...

Attitudes of Patients, Visitors and Healthcare Workers at a Tertiary Hospital Towards Influenza A (H1N1) Response Measures

Following the announcement by the World Health Organization (WHO) that outbreaks of a novel influenza virus had occurred in Mexico and several parts of...

Outbreak of Novel Influenza A (H1N1-2009) Linked to a Dance Club

Influenza A (H1N1-2009) is a novel strain of influenza virus. The infection is thought to have first occurred in Mexico in March 2009, and...

Obstetric Outcomes of Influenza A H1N1 (2009) Infection in Pregnancy – Experience of a Singapore Tertiary Hospital

Influenza A H1N1 (2009) is a new viral strain containing gene segments from human, swine and avian lineages. Soon after reports of human cases...

Tracking the Emergence of Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1/2009 and its Interaction with Seasonal Influenza Viruses in Singapore

The global preparedness that followed the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreaks of 2003 and the re-emergence of a potentially pandemic avian influenza A/...

An Epidemiological Study of 1348 Cases of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Admitted to Singapore Hospitals from July to September 2009

On 17 April 2009, the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) determined that febrile respiratory illness occurring in 2 children residing in adjacent counties...

Outbreak of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1-2009) in Singapore, May to September 2009

The first cases of infection with a novel influenza A (H1N1) strain were reported in 6 cases in California and 2 cases in Texas...

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009: Clinical and Laboratory Findings of the First Fifty Cases in Singapore

Just over a year ago, the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged in Veracruz, Mexico, and rapidly alarmed public health and influenza experts by...

The Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Pandemic in Singapore

Just over a year ago, the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged in Veracruz, Mexico, and rapidly alarmed public health and influenza experts by...

Tuberculosis – An Under-appreciated Disease

Tuberculosis (TB, as usually abbreviated) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries, and a significant public health problem worldwide. The...

Subungual Nodule of the Right Fourth Finger

A 14-year-old, otherwise healthy boy presented with a skin nodule for the past 3 years which slowly lifted up the right fourth fingernail. The...

Knowledge and Practice of Household Mosquito Breeding Control Measures between a Dengue Hotspot and Non-Hotspot in Singapore

Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in the world and its severity is reflected by a 30-fold increase over the last 50...

Chronic Truncal Plaques and Palmoplantar Keratotic Lesions in an Elderly Man

A 70-year-old gentleman with a significant past history of using traditional medication presented to our clinic with multiple dysplastic lesions of varying severity on...

Challenges Facing the Control of Leprosy in the Indian Context

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae and mainly affects the skin, peripheral nerves, the eyes and the mucosa of the...

Lower limb nodules

A 45-year-old Chinese woman with no medical history or regular medications presented with painful nodules on her left shin that progressed to involve her...

A pedunculated mass of the thigh

A 61-year-old Chinese woman presented to the general surgery clinic for a long-standing lump over her proximal medial right thigh. The painless lump was...

Use of Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in the Diagnosis of Granulomatous Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy

The clinical utility and safety of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in the diagnosis and mediastinal staging of patients with non-small cell lung...

Plasma IP-10 could identify early lung disease in severe COVID-19 patients

Dear Editor, The global pandemic of SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has imposed tremendous strain on healthcare resources worldwide, as a significant proportion of patients require...

Periarticular FDG Uptake on PET/CT in Malignant Melanoma—Metastatic or Misleading?

A 74-year-old male with newly diagnosed melanoma of the right mastoid region, underwent resection of the lesion followed by F-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed...

Dermatological Disorders at the Emergency Department of a Tertiary Hospital in Singapore

Skin disorders pose a frequent diagnostic challenge for emergency physicians due to their broad spectrum and varied clinical manifestations. The diagnosis of acute dermatologic...

Acute Marjolin’s Ulcer: A Forgotten Entity

Marjolin’s ulcers are malignancies that arise from areas of chronic irritation or injury that undergo malignant transformation after a period of many years. Such...

An Interesting Finding in a Patient with Chronic Diarrhoea

A 25-year-old man presented with intermittent selflimiting episodes of diarrhoea for 5 months. At times, he opened his bowel 8 times a day with...

200 years of surgery at the General Hospital, Singapore

Western medicine in Singapore began with Sir Stamford Raffles’ arrival on 28 January 1819 with a sub-assistant surgeon, Dr Thomas Prendergast, providing medical care...

Adverse reactions and safety profile of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines among Asian military personnel

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant changes in the way of life for many around the world.1,2 After more than a year, many...

Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma of the Thyroid: A Case Report

Dear Editor, Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare form of neoplasm that usually occurs in the deep soft tissue of the lower limbs with...

Re: An Alternative Diagnosis: Bartonella Neuroretinitis

I would like to thank the authors for the reply to our case report. The differential diagnosis of Bartonella neuroretinitis in this patient was...

An Alternative Diagnosis: Bartonella Neuroretinitis

We refer to the letter ‘Lyme Neuroretinitis in Singapore: A Diagnostic Dilemma’ published in the April 2012 Vol. 41 No. 4 issue of the...

MERS-CoV: Where Are We Now?

Prior to 2002, coronaviruses were known mainly for causing mild human upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and enteric and respiratory infections in many animals....

Diagnosing Bacteraemia Early in Older Adults

Sepsis is a prevalent and important cause of morbidity and mortality in the general population. Approximately 750,000 patients in the United States alone develop...

Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking Early Acute Infection Following Total Knee Arthroplasty

Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an ulcerative neutrophilic dermatosis of uncertain aetiology. Known associations include inflammatory bowel disease, myeloproliferative disease and various arthritides. There have...

Anti-BP180 NC16A IgG Titres as an Indicator of Disease Activity and Outcome in Asian Patients with Bullous Pemphigoid

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a subepidermal blistering dermatosis characterised by circulating autoantibodies targeting BP180 and BP230 hemidesmosomal proteins. Anti-BP180 NC16A IgG antibodies have been...

Assessment of Age in Ulcerative Colitis Patients with Ileal Pouch Creation—An Evaluation of Outcomes

A total proctocolectomy is considered the standard of care in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The indications for this operation in patients with UC...

Ultrasound-Guided Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy—The Way Forward

I read with great interest the recent article published in the Annals of Academy of Medicine Singapore entitled, ‘Surgeon-Performed Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology...

Localised Dermatitic Nodules but No Itch

In 1909, Hyde first described nodular prurigo as pruritic nodules on the extensor surfaces of the lower extremities in middle-aged women. Thus, nodular prurigo...

Relationships between Prostatic Volume and Intravesical Prostatic Protrusion on Transabdominal Ultrasound and Benign Prostatic Obstruction in Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the commonest diseases of ageing men. It can be associated with bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)...

Are Pregnant Women Adequately Equipped for Autonomy in Pregnancy Screening?

The concept of first trimester screening (FTS) to evaluate the risk of fetal aneuploidies was first introduced in 1997 by Orlandi et al. The...

A Follow-up Longitudinal Survey on a Cohort of Undergraduate Medical Students’ Attitudes towards Radiology

As a follow-up to an earlier study comparing the attitudes of first year undergraduate medical students following the introduction of a new radiology curriculum...

Anaerobic Bacteraemia Revisited: Species and Susceptibilities

Over the last 2 decades, the importance of anaerobic bacteraemia has undergone various shifts in opinion. Early studies in the 1970s reported that anaerobes...

Evolution and trends in the adoption of laparoscopic liver resection in Singapore: Analysis of 300 cases

Over the past few decades, the introduction of laparoscopic surgery has been the biggest game changer in abdominal surgery.1 However, although the first laparoscopic...

Laparoscopic liver resection: Global diffusion and learning curve

Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) is being utilised with increasing frequency worldwide, as initial concerns about the safety and feasibility of LLR, such as the...

The Greying Pandemic: Implications of Ageing Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Population in Singapore

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global public health issue. It is estimated that there are 37.9 million people living with HIV (PLHIV) today....

Prehabilitation and Its Role in Geriatric Surgery

The population in Singapore is ageing rapidly. According to statistics, by 2030, 1 in 2 adults in Singapore will be >65 years old. As...

The “Jeff Cut”: A simple innovation to minimise up-riding sleeves of protective gown

Personal protective equipment (PPE) including the N95 mask, face shield, cap, splash-resistant gown and gloves are worn by frontline healthcare workers for various duties...

Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy: The emerging role of cardiac amyloid imaging

Transthyretin amyloidosis (or ATTR amyloidosis) is an under-recognised multisystemic disorder, arising from misfolding of transthyretin proteins into insoluble amyloid fibrils. As amyloid fibrils deposit...

New-onset cardiovascular risk factors following liver transplantation: A cohort analysis in Singapore

Malnutrition is well described in liver cirrhosis. The hyperdynamic circulation and altered metabolism in cirrhosis result in a hypercatabolic state which accelerates tissue breakdown....

Outcomes of oesophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant compared with definitive chemoradiotherapy

Oesophageal cancer is the 7th most common cancer in the world, with 572,034 new cases diagnosed in 2018, and is the 6th most common...

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in post-COVID-19 patients: A case series

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with thromboembolic phenomenon in the early phase of disease. Growing evidence suggests a hypercoagulable state as well...

Pelvic mass mimicking advanced tubo-ovarian malignancy with hepatic metastasis

A 49-year-old woman presented with mild pain in her lower abdomen and changes in bowel habits for 2 months. She also experienced 20kg of...

Evaluation of the QIAstat-Dx Respiratory SARS-CoV-2 Panel for early diagnosis of COVID-19

An effective response to the SARS-CoV-2 that has caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic1 requires rapid and accurate diagnostic testing. We evaluate the...

Antibiotic stewardship algorithm to rationalise antibiotic use among hospitalised COVID-19 patients

As presentation of COVID-19 may mimic that of bacterial pneumonia, antibiotics are often prescribed. Concerns regarding overuse of antibiotics are now being raised particularly...

Attendance for ischaemic stroke before and during COVID-19 lockdown in Singapore

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has impacted healthcare systems worldwide. Globally, visits to the emergency department have fallen as much as 25% during...

Congenital adhesion band causing recurrent subacute intestinal obstruction in a virgin abdomen

Intestinal obstruction (IO) caused by malignancy and adhesion bands from previous surgery is common among adults. However, IO caused by congenital adhesion bands (CAB)...

Radiological changes on chest CT following COVID-19 infection

COVID-19 infection is associated with high rates of hospitalisation and mortality, placing healthcare systems under strain. There are many reports regarding the non-contrast-enhanced high-resolution...

Severe COVID-19 and coagulopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Manifestations of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) span a wide clinical spectrum, from asymptomatic carriers to critical illness with a wide range of complications....

Estimating the impact of COVID-19-induced coagulopathy

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exerted significant strain on healthcare worldwide. Mostly asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic, COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is...

Impact of COVID-19 on mental health and occupational burnout in a surgical unit in Singapore

In this study, we assessed the impact of COVID-19 on the psychological well-being and burnout among staff who manage critically ill general surgery and...

Optimum early orthopaedic surgery in COVID-19 patients

Multiple guidelines have been established regarding the management of COVID-19 patients. However, there remains a paucity regarding specific guidelines on the optimal timing for...

Endovenous cyanoacrylate ablation for chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins among Asians

In the past 2 decades, the management of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) has been revolutionised by the introduction of minimally invasive endovenous techniques, which...

Vulnerability to rumours during the COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore

The global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has come with increased psychological burden. In several meta-analyses, depression and anxiety symptoms have been found...

Behavioural changes during the COVID-19 pandemic: Results of a nationwide survey in Singapore

In response to the global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Singapore undertook a multipronged approach to contain the pandemic. Of note, when community...

The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on global mental health: From the general public to healthcare workers

The COVID-19 pandemic began in late 2019 and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. To decrease...

The Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Pandemic

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic began in early December in Wuhan, the 7th most populous city in Mainland China, and...

Precautions When Providing Dental Care During Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and was first reported to the World Health Organization...

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Singapore: Reflecting on the First Decade

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has markedly changed the way aortic valve stenosis is treated. It is 18 years since the first patient was...

Autism Spectrum Disorder and COVID-19: Helping Caregivers Navigate the Pandemic

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted societies globally. As of 11 May 2020, 53 children have been infected with COVID-19 in Singapore...

Cross-reaction of Sera from COVID-19 Patients with SARS-CoV Assays

SARS-CoV-2 is a new zoonotic coronavirus (CoV) that emerged in Wuhan, China, which was first reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) on 31...

COVID-19 and Singapore: From Early Response to Circuit Breaker

The COVID-19 pandemic first broke out in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, where a cluster of pneumonia cases was reported and the novel coronavirus...

Comparative Analysis of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children

Singapore confirmed its first case of COVID-19 on 23 January 2020 in a Chinese national from Wuhan, and its first paediatric case on February...

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): The Singapore Experience. A Review of the First Eight Months

Singapore reported its first imported case of COVID-19 on 23 January 20201 and its first COVID-19 deaths on 21 March 2020.2 The WHO declared...

Pregnancy Outcomes in COVID-19: A Prospective Cohort Study in Singapore

Since the first cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnancy were described, significant concerns have been raised about the potentially increased susceptibility of...

Obesity in COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is established that increasing...

Acquired hypohidrosis following a drug reaction

A 44-year-old Chinese man presented with a 3-week history of heat intolerance and a reduced ability to sweat even upon strenuous physical exertion. His...

Resuming otolaryngology services following a COVID-19 lockdown in Singapore

When the COVID-19 outbreak first occurred, we tweaked our department workflows to cope with the various demands of our practice and the pandemic. When...

COVID-19: Lessons from Thailand

The COVID-19 pandemic has massively disrupted the social and economy of many countries. Thailand has been successful in controlling the spread of the disease...

Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae carriage in polyclinic attendees and national servicemen presenting with diarrhoea

Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess is an invasive syndrome that mainly affects people living in East Asia. It especially affects adults with diabetes and is...

Circulatory collapse from rupture of splenic artery aneurysm: A case study

Splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) are uncommon and often asymptomatic. However, ruptured SAAs can be rapidly fatal. We reviewed the literature on SAAs and highlighted...

Videoconsultation to overcome barriers during COVID-19

Since February 2020, Government Restructured Hospitals in Singapore began deferring non-urgent outpatient appointments. This aimed to facilitate physical distancing and reallocate healthcare resources to...

Impact of cardiovascular diseases on severity of COVID-19 patients: A systematic review

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly from China to other countries around the world, with the World Health Organization characterising it as a...

Positive RT-PCR detected in patients recovered from COVID-19

Positive real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid following 2 consecutive negative RT-PCR tests have been reported in China and Korea....

Cerebral venous thrombosis in a patient with mild COVID-19 infection

Emerging reports suggest venous and arterial thromboembolic diseases can complicate recovery from COVID-19. Postulated mechanisms include hypercoagulability, hypoxia, immobilisation, excessive inflammation and diffuse intravascular...

Decrease in emergency department attendances during COVID-19 especially in school-going children

Health-seeking behaviour varies during a pandemic. Early reports have suggested reduced attendances at emergency departments (EDs), especially in paediatric patients and in patients with...

Penile preserving surgery in penile cancer management

Penile cancer is a condition that accounts for approximately 0.4% of cancers among Singapore males. Overall, this is an uncommon cancer with higher rates...

Primary cutaneous umbilical melanoma

A 59-year-old woman with a pre-existing asymptomatic pigmented nevus on the umbilicus for the past 20 years was seen in the outpatient dermatology clinic...

A clinico-pathological approach to management of atopic dermatitis

Recent research in atopic dermatitis (AD) has identified it to be a heterogeneous inflammatory skin disorder of different endotypes (immune polarisation of T-cell subsets...

Paediatric emergency department attendances during COVID-19 and SARS in Singapore

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020, with over 110 million cumulative cases...

Mental Health Strategies to Combat the Psychological Impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Beyond Paranoia and Panic

On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) an international public health emergency after the...

Rapid Progression to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Review of Current Understanding of Critical Illness from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection

In this report, we describe a patient who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with rapid clinical deterioration. Unfortunately, not much is known about...

Epidemiology and Control of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Singapore, 2001-2007

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood viral infection, which is typically mild and self-limiting. It is characterised by a brief...