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Association between self-care and chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Dear Editor, Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the key complications occurring in 25–40% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).1 Our...

Erdheim-Chester disease: Imaging spectrum of multisystemic manifestations

Dear Editor, Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans histiocytosis, usually affecting middle-aged to older adults. It is a multisystemic disease with protean clinical manifestations....

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease screening in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cost-effectiveness and price threshold analysis

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing epidemic and has become a major cause of liver-related mortality and indication for liver transplantations globally....

Impact of aortic annular size and valve type on haemodynamics and clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

The management of severe aortic stenosis (AS) in patients with small aortic annulus (SAA) represents a therapeutic challenge due to the increased mortality and...

Antiphospholipid and other autoantibodies in COVID-19 patients: A Singapore series

Dear Editor, Thrombosis is an unexpected complication of COVID-19 initially reported in 3 patients from China.1 These patients tested positive for immunoglobulin (Ig) A anticardiolipin...

Interaction of sex and diabetes in Asian patients with heart failure with mildly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common comorbidity worldwide with global prevalence among adults above 18 years of age increasing from 4.7% in 1980 to...

Impact of sex and diabetes in patients with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction

With increasing global awareness of sex differences in the heart failure population and the new entity of heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction...

Haemoglobin H disease and outcomes in Singapore

Dear Editor, Haemoglobin H (HbH) disease is a haemoglobinopathy affecting 3 of 4 α-globin genes on chromosome 16. It results from the deletion of 2...

A Case Report of Neutrophilic Eccrine Hidradenitis in a Patient Receiving Chemotherapy for Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH) is a neutrophilic dermatosis primarily affecting the eccrine glands and occurs most commonly in patients undergoing chemotherapy for a malignancy. This...

A Study of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) Patients over a Ten-year Period

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an immunoregulatory disorder in which antibodies damage platelets leading to their removal by cells of the reticuloendothelial system (RES)....

Childhood Leukaemia: Towards an Integrated Psychosocial Intervention Programme in Singapore

In the last two decades there has been a surge of interest concerning the psychosocial correlates of life-threatening illnesses. Research in this area has...

A Case Report of Adult T-Cell Leukaemia/Lymphoma (ATLL)

Our patient was a 71-year-old Chinese man who presented with a 6-year history of recurrent papular erythematous eruptions to the dermatologist. This article is available...

Newer Thrombolytic Agents

First-generation fibrinolytic agents (streptokinase and urokinase) are effective thrombolytic drugs, but are not fibrin specific as they also have the property to convert circulating...

8th Seah Cheng Siang Memorial Lecture: New Antithrombotic Agents

The tremendous interest in finding new anti-aggregating agents stems from the preeminent role that platelets play, not only in haemostasis and thrombosis, but also...

Activated Protein C Resistance: A Study Among 60 Thromboembolic Patients in the Singapore Population

In 1993, Dahlback and colleagues described a new hereditary thrombophilia state-activated protein C resistance (AK-R). Further studies showed this to be the commonest genetic...

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes mellitus affects some 9% of Singaporeans. Studies had shown that virtually all insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1) and 85% of non-insulin dependent...

Hypoglycaemia from Islet Cell Hyperplasia and Nesidioblastosis in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus—A Case Report

A 57-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for perforated left tubo-ovarian abscess and found to have newly diagnosed diabetes with an admission blood...

Pseudomembranous Tracheobronchitis Caused by Aspergillus in a Patient after Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation

Pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis caused by Aspergillus is a rare and lethal variant of invasive aspergillosis. It has been reported in a few series of immunocompromised...

A Case Report of Aspergillus Hypersensitivity Syndrome with Obstructing Bronchial Aspergillosis

The spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis includes saprophytic colonisation, hypersensitivity syndromes and invasive lung disease. There has been a tendency to classify these syndromes as...

A Rational Alternative for the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus in High Risk Individuals

The “gold standard” for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus has all along been the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). As diabetes mellitus defines a...

Philadelphia Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL): Clinico-Haematologic Characteristics, Molecular Analyses and 3-year Follow Up—A Single Institution Study

A number of specific chromosome abnormalities are associated with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). The commonest in adults with B lineage ALL is the Philadelphia...

Thrombotic and Haemorrhagic Complications in Patients with Mechanical Heart Valve Prostheses Attending the Singapore General Hospital Anticoagulation Clinic

Patients with mechanical heart-valve prosthesis receive lifelong anticoagulation. The management of these patients taking oral anticoagulants is aimed at achieving and maintaining adequate levels...

Traditional Indian Systems of Medicine

Traditional medicine includes the knowledge and practices that rely exclusively on practical experience and observations handed down from generations to generations, either verbally or...

A Rare Cause of Syncope in a Patient with Diabetes Mellitus—A Case Report

Hypoglycaemia is a common medical emergency. It presents either with symptoms of neuroglycopaenia, such as episodes of visual blurring, confusion, convulsions and sometimes coma...

Malignant Melanoma Seen in a Tertiary Dermatological Centre, Singapore

Unlike in Caucasians, primary malignant melanoma is an uncommon skin malignancy in Singapore. There have been little published data on cutaneous melanoma in Southeast...

Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia Using a Combination of All-trans Retinoic Acid and Chemotherapy

Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), or acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)-M3 under the French-American-British (FAB) classification, is characterised by the following: a distinct expansion of promyelocytes...

CD4 Lymphocyte Enumeration in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Using Three-Colour and Four-Colour Dual-Platform Flow Cytometry: An Inter-Laboratory Comparative Evaluation

Clinical flow cytometry provides a precise technology for the multiparameter analysis of the morphological (scatter) and immunofluorescence properties of stained leukocyte populations, as well...

Deep Vein Thrombosis is Not Rare in Asia—The Singapore General Hospital Experience

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), the postphlebitic syndrome and recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) are important and often preventable causes of early morbidity...

High-dose Therapy followed by Autologous Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disorder in which malignant plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow and produce an immunoglobulin, usually monoclonal IgG or...

Current Therapeutic Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is now recognised as a metabolic syndrome and although the treatment paradigm has shifted from one that focuses solely on...

New Aspects of the Blood Coagulation Cascade, Anticoagulants and Vein Thrombosis in Asia

Injury to blood vessels triggers haemostasis, a process that has evolved to achieve two superficially incompatible outcomes: arresting blood loss while protecting vessel patency...

Four Pregnancies in Two Patients with Essential Thrombocythaemia—A Case Report

Essential thrombocythaemia (ET) is a rare myeloproliferative disease which manifests with an elevated platelet count. It presents predominantly in the middle-aged population, occurring slightly...

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder in which platelets are sensitised with an antiplatelet autoantibody and then destroyed by the reticuloendothelial system.1...

Thrombophilia in Pregnancy

A clear understanding of thrombophilia is becoming increasingly important in the practice of high-risk obstetrics. In addition to their role in thromboembolic disease, there...

Management of Haematologic Malignancies in Pregnancy

Malignancy complicates the course of about 1 in 1000 pregnancies and is the second leading cause of death in women of reproductive age. The...

Pregnancy in Women with Idiopathic Thrombocytopaenic Purpura

Idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura (ITP) is the most common autoimmune haematological disorder in pregnancy. The pathophysiology of the disease is peripheral destruction of platelets mediated...

Clinical Update on Deep Vein Thrombosis in Singapore

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and its acute complication–pulmonary embolism (PE), is one of the most important preventable causes of death in hospital patients. It...

Case Report on Recombinant Coagulation Factor VIIa in the Treatment of Three Haemophilia A Patients with Inhibitors in Singapore

Development of inhibitors against factor VIII is one of the main complications in the treatment of haemophiliacs. Inhibitors block the procoagulant effects of factor...

Evaluation on the Use of a Portable Unit Versus the Laboratory for the Monitoring of International Normalized Ratio (INR) in Orally Anticoagulated Patients

Oral anticoagulation therapy is used for a number of conditions, namely deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, mechanical heart valves, embolic stroke as well as...

Trauma-induced coagulopathy: Mechanisms and clinical management

Globally, trauma accounts for the highest number of mortalities in adolescents and young adults up to 49 years old.1 Of these deaths, a large...

Coagulopathy related to trauma: Is it time for a goal-directed approach?

Trauma represents a leading cause of death globally, and post-traumatic haemorrhage accounts for 40% of early mortality in spite of recent improvements in modern...

Clinico-pathological Analysis of Myelodysplastic Syndromes According to French-American-British Classification and International Prognostic Scoring System

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of acquired clonal haemopoietic stem cell disorders characterised by ineffective haematopoiesis and peripheral cytopenia. The natural history...

In vitro Biological Characteristics of Human Cord Blood-derived Megakaryocytes

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is now a well-established therapeutic modality for a broadening spectrum of medical problems. Umbilical cord blood (CB) has emerged...

Unrelated Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation in Children and Adults

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an established form of treatment for many high-risk haematological malignancies and marrow failure syndromes. The use of...

Haematopoietic Graft Engineering

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become an established modality for the treatment of cancer and diseases of the bone marrow and immunological system....

Stem Cells: Current Usage and Future Potentials

In recent years, the term “haematopoeitic stem cell transplantation” has replaced “bone marrow transplantation”. It is more precise and emphasises the “haematopoeitic stem cell”...

How Much do Diabetic Patients Know About Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications?

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common and growing healthcare problem in Singapore with a prevalence of 9% in 1998. Since the 1990s, the Ministry...

A Rare Case of Porphyria

Porphyrias are a rare and intriguing group of metabolic disorders. We report a case of congenital erythropoietic porphyria, one of the infrequent forms of...

Extensive Calcinosis Cutis in Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

Calcinosis cutis is characterised by the aberrant deposition of calcium salts in the skin. In metastatic calcinosis cutis, calcium salts are precipitated in normal...

Diabetes as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease: Current Status and Future Considerations

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common and growing global health problem. It is highly prevalent in Asian communities. Hong Kong, Pakistan, and Singapore are...

Diabetic Retinopathy in Type II Diabetics Detected by Targeted Screening Versus Newly Diagnosed in General Practice

The epidemic of type II diabetes mellitus is now recognised worldwide. In India, it has been estimated that the population with type II diabetes...

Clinical Experience with Three Combination Regimens for the Treatment of High-risk Febrile Neutropenia

Cancer patients who become severely neutropenic as a result of intensive myelosuppressive chemotherapy are at high risk for developing life-threatening infections, and unless they...

Use of Antibiotics in a Haematology Ward – An Audit

Rising rates of antibiotic resistance prompted a review of antibiotic use policies hospitalwide. The Department of Haematology established a new set of consensus guidelines...

Sociodemographic Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Public Health Education – A Comparison of Two Studies in Singapore

Public health education is a cornerstone in the primary prevention of chronic diseases. In the United States, for example, studies have shown that cardiovascular...

Diabetes and Associated Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Iran: The Isfahan Healthy Heart Programme

The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) worldwide is increasing, due almost exclusively to an increase in non-insulin-dependent (type 2) DM, which represents...

An Unusual Cause of Lymphadenopathy and Rash

A 38-year-old Chinese man who was previously well, presented with one month of fever and a non-pruritic rash involving the face, trunk and upper...

Impact of Depression on Health Related Quality of Life in Patients with Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a serious chronic illness that imposes significant morbidity and mortality and has a major impact on the quality of life...

Bone Marrow Cytogenetics Workup: Application of Lean Management System to Determine if Additional Cell Workup is Helpful and Necessary to Analysis

Cytogenetic studies are important to the diagnosis and monitoring of various haematopoietic disorders such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic...

Epidemiology and Management of Surgical Upper Limb Infections in Patients with End-stage Renal Failure

Hand infections are common in the general population, and their management is usually uncomplicated. Several papers have noted that patients with diabetes mellitus have...

A Case of Congenital Haemolytic Anaemia and Thrombocytopenia

A 20-month-old boy came from Bangladesh to Singapore for medical consultation. He presented with progressive pallor, easy bruising, intermittent dark-coloured urine, and failure to...

Prospective Audit of Febrile Neutropenia Management at a Tertiary University Hospital in Singapore

Febrile neutropenia (FN) is considered a medical emergency and remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Oncology and Haematology units worldwide. A...

Eighteen-Month Clinical Safety and Efficacy Outcomes of Sirolimus-, Paclitaxel- and Zotarolimus-drug Eluting Stents in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Complex Coronary Artery Stenosis

Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have higher incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with non-diabetic patients. The underlying mechanism is due to the...

Framingham Risk Score Inadequately Predicts Cardiac Risk in Young Patients Presenting with a First Myocardial Infarction

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was derived from the Framingham Heart Study...

The Relevance of the Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome describes a constellation of interrelated metabolic risk factors, in which components coexist more frequently in a given individual than could be expected...

Immunophenotypic, Cytogenetic and Clinical Features of 113 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Patients in China

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous disease with abnormal proliferation and accumulation of immature lymphoblasts within the bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood and...

Non-haem Iron-mediated Oxidative Stress in Haemoglobin E Beta-thalassaemia

Thalassaemia is a genetic haemoglobinopathy in which the production of normal haemoglobin is partly or completely suppressed because of a defective synthesis of 1...

Thrombocytopenia and its Related Factors: A Hospital-based, Cross-sectional Study

Thrombocytopenia is a common clinical problem found in laboratory results during health examinations. Blood platelets play an essential role in haemostasis, thrombosis and coagulation...

Health-related Quality of Life is Associated with Diabetic Complications, but not with Short-term Diabetic Control in Primary Care

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major chronic disease globally. With increasing life expectancy, long-term complications of diabetes mellitus leading to significant morbidity and...

Incidence and Risk Factors for Development of New-onset Diabetes after Kidney Transplantation

The development of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a serious metabolic complication of kidney transplantation that predisposes patients to graft dysfunction, cardiovascular disease...

Geriatric Syndromes and Depressed Mood in Lower-income Singaporeans with Diabetes: Implications for Diabetes Management and Health Promotion

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (henceforth referred to as diabetes) has increased significantly in the last decade and it is reaching epidemic levels worldwide...

Kidney Cancer and Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Taiwan

Kidney cancer accounts for 3% to 4% of all cancers. In a systematic review by Mathew and et al,2 the incidence of kidney cancer...

Medical management of PAD: Expand or consolidate?

In this issue of the Annals, a rapid review of adherence to evidence-based medical treatment highlights an important and underappreciated aspect of the management...

Severe COVID-19 and coagulopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Manifestations of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) span a wide clinical spectrum, from asymptomatic carriers to critical illness with a wide range of complications....

Estimating the impact of COVID-19-induced coagulopathy

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exerted significant strain on healthcare worldwide. Mostly asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic, COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is...

Long-term outcomes of ischaemic stroke patients with diabetes in a multi-ethnic cohort in Singapore

Asia faces an epidemic of diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes in Asia is projected to grow from 114 million in 2007 to 180 million...

Recurrent vascular events in ischaemic stroke patients with diabetes

Stroke is a major cause of death and disability globally, with 6.55 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval 6.00–7.02 million), 101 million prevalent cases...

Adipsic diabetes insipidus and SGLT2 inhibitor: A perplexing conundrum

A 70-year-old man with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and alcohol dependence presented intoxicated, with occipital scalp lacerations after a...