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Direct oral anticoagulant: Looking beyond convenience

Since the 2010 Food and Drug Administration approval of Dabigatran as the first non-vitamin-K antagonist oral anticoagulants or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) as it...

Oocytes on ice: Exploring the advancements in elective egg freezing for women

Elective egg freezing (EEF), otherwise known as oocyte cryopreservation for age-related fertility loss, has become a viable option for single women to preserve their...

Strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease in Singapore: A call to action from Singapore Heart Foundation, Singapore Cardiac Society and Chapter of Cardiologists of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore

Despite the success of Singapore’s public health systems in providing medical care through the country, there is still much to be achieved in terms...

Caregiver reported long-term outcomes in children with major trauma and traumatic brain injuries: A single-centre retrospective study

Traumatic injuries in children are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide.1 Children with major trauma are at risk of poor outcomes.2-4 These...

Freezing hope: Balancing realism and optimism in elective egg freezing

The 2022 White Paper on Singapore Women’s Development, which aimed at a fair and inclusive society where both women and men can pursue their...

Polycystic ovary syndrome v.2023: Simplified diagnostic criteria for an East Asian phenotype

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition affecting 6–19% of women of reproductive age, depending on the reference population and definition used.1,2...

An augmented reality mobile application for weight estimation in paediatric patients: A prospective single-blinded cross-sectional study

Drug and defibrillation energy doses for children rely on accurate weight measurement, making it essential during emergencies.1,2 However, quickly weighing children in distress is...

Enhancing the accuracy of polycystic ovary syndrome diagnosis

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder, experienced by 1 in 10 women of childbearing age. Its aetiology is multifactorial and...

How do current paediatrics residency selection criteria correlate with residency performance?

Dear Editor, The selection process for potential residents needs to be reviewed regularly and assessed if effective in selecting the best-fit residents who can achieve...

Singapore’s experience in managing the COVID-19 pandemic: Key lessons from the ground

In the early days of the pandemic when information on COVID-19 infection was lacking, all COVID-19 positive patients were admitted into acute hospitals for...

Cardiovascular effects of COVID-19 in children

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While the respiratory system is  the...

Long COVID prevalence, risk factors and impact of vaccination in the paediatric population: A survey study in Singapore

On 5 May 2023, more than 3 years since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that COVID-19 no...

COVID-19: The virus, vaccine and paediatric heart

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in much morbidity and mortality around the world. The development of vaccines has cushioned the effect...

A case series of higher-order multifetal pregnancies managed at a tertiary maternity unit

Dear Editor, Delayed childbearing and increased use of assisted reproduction technology (ART) have resulted in a dramatic rise in the incidence of multifetal pregnancies. In...

Perinatal mental health in Singapore: Implementation opportunities and relevance of gender-carer roles in screening

In this issue of the Annals, the consensus statement on perinatal mental health by Chen et al. covers the handling of depression and anxiety...

Improving neonatal counselling service for premature births

Dear Editor,  Despite the substantial advancement of neonatal care leading to increased survival of infants of periviable gestation, as young as 22 weeks,1 the anticipated...

Systemic methotrexate in the management of ectopic pregnancy and pregnancy of unknown location

Dear Editor,  Ectopic pregnancy (EP) occurs in 2% of all spontaneous conceptions. It can be a life-threatening condition and is the most common cause of...

Leveraging ChatGPT to aid patient education on coronary angiogram

Natural-language artificial intelligence (AI) is a promising technological advancement poised to revolutionise the delivery of healthcare.1 Traditionally, inclusion of technology in the augmentation of...

Effects of sex on clinical outcomes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in Singapore

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited cardiomyopathy.1 The phenotypic expression of HCM is highly diversified with varying extents of myocardial hypertrophy, which can...

Promise and pitfalls of ChatGPT for patient education on coronary angiogram

The past decade has seen extraordinary and rapid progress in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), which produces computer systems capable of performing tasks...

Preferences for oral anticoagulant medications for managing atrial fibrillation

Dear Editor, Stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) using anticoagulants involves weighing the benefits of reduced ischemic stroke1,2 against the elevated risks of...

Consensus statement on Singapore integrated 24-hour activity guide for early childhood

Early childhood is a critical period for growth and development, setting the foundation for future and lifelong well-being.1 Adopting healthy lifestyle behaviours in early...

Proactive steps to population health: Starting early, starting right

The global burden of non-communicable diseases is rising, with continued projected increases in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the future. This epidemic,...

Clinical efficacy of primary human papillomavirus (HPV) screening with partial genotyping for HPV-16 and HPV-18 subtypes in women from 25 years old

The World Health Organization has launched a campaign to eliminate cervical cancer on the basis of effective vaccines against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes,...

Comparison of four electrocardiographic criteria for the detection of cardiac abnormalities in Singapore athletes

Sudden cardiac death in athletes during exercise is rare, with an estimated incidence of 1–2 per 100,000 people per year in young athletes,1 and...

Improving electrocardiogram interpretation in Asian athletes: A call to action

The field of sports cardiology has evolved substantially over the past 2 decades due to improved understanding of the athlete’s heart, causes of sudden...

Sublingual ondansetron for treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children in the children’s emergency

Dear Editor, Acute gastroenteritis (GE) is a leading cause of death globally in children aged below 5 years and the third most common indication for...

Outcomes of selexipag for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in an Asian population

Dear Editor, Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive condition characterised by increased pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, resulting in right ventricular dysfunction...

Suboptimal adherence to medical therapy in patients undergoing lower limb angioplasty in Singapore

Dear Editor, Chronic limb-threatening ischaemia (CLTI) is the advanced stage of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and patients with this condition face a very high risk...

Association between body mass index, body image and self-esteem with sexual function: A survey of young women in Singapore

Satisfaction with sexual activity is a good predictor of global life satisfaction.1 Problems with sexual function can lead to lower partner satisfaction and affect...

Robotic surgery in morbidly obese women with endometrial cancer in Singapore

Dear Editor, The standard of care for endometrial cancer is a total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic lymph node dissection (THBSO-PLND). Obesity is a...

Rash characteristics of paediatric patients with COVID-19 in Singapore

Dear Editor, Children with COVID-19 infection can present with a variable spectrum of clinical manifestations, and sometimes mucocutaneous manifestations can be the only manifestation of...

Approach to bradyarrhythmias: A proposed algorithm

Bradyarrhythmias are common and occur in both physiological and pathological states. Bradycardia is defined as a heart rate of fewer than 60 beats per...

Factors associated with deep infiltrating endometriosis, adenomyosis and ovarian endometrioma

Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory gynaecologic disease marked by the presence of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterus.1 Debilitating chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhoea, and subfertility...

Case studies of fetal mosaicisms detected by non-invasive prenatal testing

Dear Editor, The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics recommended that all pregnant women be offered non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) regardless of the patient’s...

Ablation therapies for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: A systematic review and patient-level network meta-analysis

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a pertinent health condition that is seeing a sustained rise in global incidence and prevalence.1 In particular, paroxysmal AF (PAF),...

Catheter ablation as first-line treatment for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

Pharmacotherapy has been the mainstay of atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment. As AF progresses from paroxysmal to persistent, electrical and structural remodelling of the atria...

Rapid exome sequencing to aid diagnostics in genetic disorders: Implementation and challenges in the Singapore context

Dear Editor, There is a high burden of genetic disorders in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), ranging from 45–56%,1,2 and delayed definitive...

Implementation of an AI model to triage paediatric brain magnetic resonance imaging orders

Dear Editor, Artificial intelligence (AI) is viewed as the most important recent advancement in radiology with the potential to achieve Singapore’s objective of delivering value-based...

Early rehabilitation to improve functional outcomes in childhood cancer in Singapore

Dear Editor, We conducted a prospective, single-centre cohort study to review the impact of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme in children with cancer in Singapore....

‘Roe’lling with the punches: Telehealth contraception and abortion

Unsafe abortion is a global health issue as it is a key preventable cause of maternal mortality. It has been estimated that up to...

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in Singapore

While children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulting in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have milder manifestations compared to adults,1,2 a...

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: A unique manifestation of COVID-19

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, children have been relatively spared from the severe symptomatic infection affecting adults, particularly the elderly and those...

Child passenger safety training for healthcare professionals in Singapore

Dear Editor, Road traffic injuries are a preventable cause of childhood morbidity and mortality.1,2 Use of age-appropriate child car seats (CCS) lowers the risk...

Clinical characteristics of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections among hospitalised children in Singapore

Dear Editor, Mycoplasma pneumoniae has become the leading cause of paediatric community-acquired pneumonia in countries where pneumococcal vaccination is included in the national immunisation programme,...

Childhood interstitial lung disease: The end of a diagnostic odyssey

Dear Editor, Childhood interstitial lung disease is a heterogeneous group of rare disorders featuring pulmonary interstitial remodelling and diffuse parenchymal infiltrates on imaging.1 Incidence...

Impact of aortic annular size and valve type on haemodynamics and clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

The management of severe aortic stenosis (AS) in patients with small aortic annulus (SAA) represents a therapeutic challenge due to the increased mortality and...

Validation and comparison of the PECARN rule, Step-by-Step approach and Lab-score for predicting serious and invasive bacterial infections in young febrile infants

The diagnostic approach and management of febrile infants <90 days of age remain a challenge, given that the majority of these infants have no...

High burden of respiratory viral infection-associated mortality among critically ill children

Dear Editor, Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) are a leading cause of under-5 mortality globally—two-thirds could be attributable to respiratory viral infections (RVIs).1,2 The burden...

Sex and ethnicity modified high 1-year mortality in patients in Singapore with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common clinically significant arrhythmia and is associated with increased risks of stroke, dementia, heart failure (HF) and death.1...

Non-motorised active mobility device use by children in Singapore: Injury patterns and risk factors for severe injury

The Active Mobility Act was introduced in Singapore in 2017 to promote the safe use of personal mobility devices. Non-motorised active mobility devices (AMDs)...

Different strokes for different folks

Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains the most common arrhythmia since William Harvey’s observation of fibrillating auricles in open chest animal models in 1628. Willem Einthoven...

Screening for somatisation in an Asian children’s hospital emergency setting

Dear Editor, In recent years, self-harm is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescents in Singapore.1,2 This is just the tip of the...

Interaction of sex and diabetes in Asian patients with heart failure with mildly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common comorbidity worldwide with global prevalence among adults above 18 years of age increasing from 4.7% in 1980 to...

Impact of sex and diabetes in patients with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction

With increasing global awareness of sex differences in the heart failure population and the new entity of heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction...

Iatrogenic atrial septal defect after catheter ablation—to close or not to close?

Dear Editor, Transseptal access to the left heart is increasingly performed for electrophysiological procedures and for structural heart disease interventions such as balloon mitral valvuloplasty...

Cardiac sarcoidosis: Difficulties in diagnosis and treatment

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem, granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. It affects the lungs in 90% of cases, but is also known to affect other...

Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Advocating for screening and education

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading non-genetic cause of congenital neurosensory hearing loss in children, accounting for 21% of cases of hearing loss at...

Epidemiological trends and outcomes of children with aural foreign bodies in Singapore

Aural foreign bodies (FBs) commonly present to the emergency department (ED) worldwide. Children represent the majority of the population, believed to be due to...

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Singapore: Can we do better?

Cardiac arrests are unpredictable events that frequently result in death or significant residual morbidity among survivors. These sudden events affect not only the individual,...

Consensus statement on Singapore integrated 24-hour activity guide for children and adolescents

The World Health Organization’s Global action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 2013–2020 provided guiding principles for national efforts in controlling...

Prevalence, risk factors and parental perceptions of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Asian infants in Singapore

Functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, such as colic, gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and constipation, are common in infants under 1 year. They are a frequent cause...

Sepsis and cardiovascular events: The story so far

Sepsis is a state of life-threatening organ dysfunction that results from a dysregulated host immune response to infection.1 Sepsis is a common condition that...

Gastroesophageal reflux disease in Asian infants: Similar condition, different perceptions

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a common problem in infancy, may lead to troublesome symptoms or complications such as oesophagitis or oesophageal stricturing in a...

Previous history of hyperthyroidism in emergency department patients with atrial fibrillation does not increase the risk of thromboembolism and death

Dear Editor, Atrial fibrillation (AF) is frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED) and is a major risk factor for thromboembolic events. The clinical decision...

Pressures, indexes and peripheral arterial disease: Time to rethink our approach?

Most patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are asymptomatic. Despite the absence of symptoms, these patients have a significantly increased risk of death and...

Drug Treatment of Hypercholesterolaemia

Serum cholesterol has been established as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). There is a linear association between serum cholesterol level...

Goldberger’s Triad in Dilated Cardiomyopathy—Can it Predict the Severity of Left Ventricular Dysfunction?

In 1982, Goldberger described a novel electrocardiogram (ECG) triad that was highly specific for patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure (attributable to...

Thyroid Storm Presenting as Jaundice and Complete Heart Block

Thyroid storm is defined as a severe and often life-threatening exacerbation of thyrotoxicosis which is usually characterised by hyperthermia, tachycardia, severe agitation and altered...

Simultaneous Transcatheter Valvuloplasty and Amplatzer Septal Occlusion for Pulmonary Valvar Stenosis and Secundum Atrial Septal Defect

Congenital pulmonary valvar stenosis (PVS) and secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) are relatively common forms of congenital heart disease (CHD). Since the first successful...

Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Combined Hypercalcaemia and Hypokalaemia—Case Report

The electrocardiographic abnormalities in isolated hypercalcaemia and hypokalaemia have been well documented in the literature. However, electrocardiogram (ECG) findings in combined hypercalcaemia and hypokalaemia...

Five Paediatric Case Reports of the Use of Adenosine in Supraventricular Tachycardia

Adenosine has been shown to be effective in terminating supraventricular tachycardia in adults and children. However, the use of adenosine has not been previously...

Interventional Electrophysiology and its Role in the Treatment of Cardiac Arrhythmia

Cardiac arrhythmias are disorders of the electrical system of the heart which can present as benign ectopics or as life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac...

Incessant Ectopic Atrial Tachycardia and Tachycardia-related Cardiomyopathy: Therapeutic Options and Potential for Cure

Incessant ectopic atria tachycardia (IEAT) is a rare and insidious arrhythmia which is frequently misdiagnosed and if untreated, leads to ‘exhaustion’ of the myocardium...

Intracoronary Brachytherapy: The Beginning of the End of Restenosis?

Restenosis remains a major clinical problem 20 years after the introduction of coronary angioplasty by Andreas Gruentzig in the treatment of coronary artery disease....

The Effect of Fenofibrate on Insulin Sensitivity and Plasma Lipid Profile in Non diabetic Males with Low High Density Lipoprotein/Dyslipidaemic Syndrome

Hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance have been postulated to relate directly to both hypertension and coronary artery disease in type II diabetes and possibly also...

Homocysteine and Atherosclerotic Disease: The Epidemiologic Evidence

Homocysteine is a thiol-containing amino acid formed during the metabolism of methionine. The metabolic fate of homocysteine may be influenced by the alterations in...

T Wave Alternans and Acute Rheumatic Myocarditis: A Case Report

T wave alternans, an electrical cardiac alternans in which there is a beat-to-beat variation in the amplitude, shape or the polarity of the T...

Trends in Mortality, Incidence, Hospitalisation, Cardiac Procedures and Outcomes of Care for Coronary Heart Disease in Singapore, 1991-1996

In line with trends in many high-income countries, Singapore has experienced some declines in mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) since the 1980s. Whether...

Bidirectional Cavopulmonary Anastomosis

Children with complex congenital heart disease and a functional single ventricle may not be ideal candidates for a Fontan procedure. A staged approach to...

Echocardiographic Features and Management of Neonatal Ductal Aneurysm

Previously thought to be a rare condition, aneurysms of the ductus arteriosus have been increasingly reported in the medical literature over the past few...

Initial Experience With an Autocapture Pacemaker System

The longevity of a pacemaker generator varies directly with the total deliverable amount of electrical charge (Q, in coulombs) and inversely with the rate...

The Differential Diagnosis of Supraventricular Tachycardia Using Clinical and Electrocardiographic Features

Noninvasive evaluation of the mechanism of the arrhythmia is important in the management of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). It guides one in the choice of...

Cardiac Marker Point-of-care Testing: Evaluation of Rapid On-site Biochemical Marker Analysis for Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction

In the present era of revascularisation therapy, rapid and accurate diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is important, as these patients may benefit from...

Cardiovascular Disease: Genes and Public Health

The excitement surrounding the Human Genome Project and its impending completion has raised expectations of the possibilities for genetics in common disease. It is...

Incidence of Ischaemic Heart Disease and Stroke in Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore: Singapore Cardiovascular Cohort Study

Comparisons of disease frequency in different ethnic groups help to unravel the contributions of nature and nurture in their aetiology and to identify environmental...

Technetium-99m Sestamibi for the Assessment of Myocardial Salvage Following Reperfusion Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction

Reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction is feasible with thrombolytic therapy as well as acute percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Both modalities of treatment...

Initial Experience of Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Supraventricular Tachycardia in Paediatric Patients

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is well-recognised as one of the commonest rhythm disorders in children. There may be few symptoms, but many experience palpitations,...

Diagnosis of Pacemaker Lead Infection Using Transoesophageal Echocardiography: A Case Report

The expanding indications for permanent cardiac pacing mandate an awareness of the potential complications associated with device implantation. After failure of pacing and sensing,...

Paediatric living-donor liver and kidney transplantation during COVID-19

Dear Editor, The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted global healthcare including paediatric solid organ transplantation (SOT). We report our experience of resuming paediatric...

The evolution of severity of paediatric COVID-19 in Singapore: Vertical transmission and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children

Dear Editor, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) arrived in Singapore in January 2020 as imported cases, followed by local transmission predominantly involving dormitories, with later spread...

Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent infective flares in children and adolescents with atopic dermatitis

Dear Editor, Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, affecting approximately 20% of children in Singapore.1 It is associated with skin barrier defects2...

Pericarditis and myocarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in a nationwide setting

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in much morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development of mRNA vaccines has heralded much hope in...

Isolated Non-compaction of Ventricular Myocardium: A Report of Three Cases

Non-compaction of ventricular myocardium is a rare morphogenic arrest of compaction of the ventricular myocardial fibres during intrauterine life. Usually, the left ventricle is...

Impairment of Endothelial Function—A Possible Mechanism for Atherosclerosis of a High-fat Meal Intake

The impairment of endothelial vasodilatory function has been considered an early event in atherogenesis. This has been studied in association with various cardiovascular risk...

A Preliminary Study of the Utility of Combined Cardiac Markers in the Evaluation of Patients Presenting Early with Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome

The management of patients presenting with chest pain of recent onset can prove to be a diagnostic challenge. These patients vary from having atypical...

Homocysteine, Folate and Vitamin B12 as Risk Factors for Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Southeast Asian Population

Since the beginning of the last decade, hyperhomocysteinaemia has been identified as a risk factor for acute coronary syndromes. A few large prospective studies...

Myocardial Infarction in Singapore: A Nationwide 10-year Study of Multiethnic Differences in Incidence and Mortality

Rapid urbanisation and increasing affluence have improved the socioeconomic status of Asians. This, however, has brought with it new socioeconomic and medical problems resulting...

Rheumatic Heart Diseases in Pregnancy

Rheumatic heart disease comprises acute rheumatic fever following group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection of the tonsillopharynx, and its long-term sequelae of heart valve fibrosis...

Allopurinol Hypersensitivity Syndrome and Acute Myocardial Infarction—Two Case Reports

Allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome is an idiosyncratic drug reaction characterised by an acute and severe multiorgan disease. It usually begins 2 to 6 weeks (up...

Two Case Reports on Incessant Left Ventricular Tachycardia: Curative Therapy with Radiofrequency Ablation

Left ventricular tachycardia is a recognisable condition in patients with otherwise structurally normal heart. It may arise from various foci in the left ventricle. This...

Prevention of Restenosis after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The Continuing Challenge

Since Andreas Gruntzig first demonstrated its use in humans in 1977, the utilisation of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) has grown tremendously throughout the...

A Case Series of Sotalol-induced Torsade de Pointes in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation – A Tale with a Twist

In the light of the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST) which suggested that class I antiarrhythmics may be linked to an increase in mortality,...

Immediate and Mid-Term Safety and Efficacy of Single Lead VDD Pacemakers for Patients with Atrioventricular Block and Normal Sinus Node Function—A Single Centre Experience

In patients requiring a cardiac pacemaker for any indication, the ideal goal of therapy is to achieve atrioventricular (AV) synchrony. This replicates the normal...

Torsades de pointes in a woman presenting with syncope

A 57-year-old woman presented with first onset syncope, which was witnessed by her family members. It occurred in the middle of a conversation and...

Spironolactone Does Not Prevent Restenosis After Coronary Stenting in Humans

High restenosis rate, which has been documented to occur in approximately 30% to 50% of cases, still remains a major concern, although percutaneous transluminal...

Nuclear Cardiology in Singapore: A Review

The past decade has witnessed significant advances and rapid growth in the field of nuclear cardiology. In Singapore, our experience has been similar to...

Stem Cell Cardiomyoplasty: State-of-the-Art

Congestive heart failure (CHF) remains the most common diagnosis made in cardiology wards today. At present, no long-term therapeutic option for end-stage CHF is...

Medical Therapy in Heart Failure – Is Polypharmacy Necessary?

The clinical syndrome of heart failure is recognised by a characteristic pattern of haemodynamic, renal, neural and hormonal responses. Heart failure is the end-stage...

Coronary Artery Disease: Comprehensive Evaluation by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major health problem worldwide. With advances in CAD intervention and improvements in treatment and management of CAD, there...

Drug-eluting Stents: The End of Restenosis?

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the preferred revascularisation approach for most patients with coronary artery disease because, with comparable clinical outcomes in selected patients,...

Coronary Artery Ectasia: A Ten-year Experience in a Tertiary Hospital in Singapore

Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is the abnormal dilatation of a segment of the coronary artery to a diameter of at least 1.5 times that...

Pilot Survey of the Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure in Primary Care: A Singaporean Perspective

Congestive heart failure is an increasingly common disorder and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries around the world. It is...

High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein is Predictive of Medium-term Cardiac Outcome in High-risk Asian Patients Presenting With Chest Pain Syndrome Without Myocardial Infarction

Patients with chest pain often pose a diagnostic conundrum to the attending physician especially when symptoms are not typical of angina and the electrocardiogram...

Cardiovascular Medicine and Surgery in Singapore: The Next Lap

Fourteen years ago, an editorial in the Annals announced the coming of age of cardiology in Singapore. Among the issues raised in that editorial...

Clinical Indications for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scanning

The purpose of these guidelines is to provide a broad framework for clinicians considering the use of positron emission tomography (PET) scanning for their...

Clinical Applications of Positron Emission Tomography in Cardiology: A Review

Ischaemic heart disease associated with depressed left ventricular function is a common clinical management dilemma. There is overwhelming evidence that such patients have a...

Positron Emission Tomography – A Vital Component of Molecular Imaging

Contemporary medical imaging is progressing towards quantification of tissue function in addition to merely providing anatomical information, as illustrated by the rising use of...

16th Seah Cheng Siang Memorial Lecture – The Changing Face of Cardiology Practice, Training and Research in Singapore

Professor Seah Cheng Siang was one of the most illustrious physicians of his era. During his professional career, he held the following positions: Head,...

Building Collaboration in Cardiac Imaging

Publicity about new developments in medical technology is not at all unusual. But the degree with which multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) for coronary artery...

Guidelines on Cardiac CT in Singapore (2006)

The heart is difficult to image because of its complex wall motion and variability of the cardiac cycle. Recent advances in 16 and 64-slice...

Financing Newborn Screening Systems: US Experience

This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download PDF” on top to view the full article.

Considerations in Choosing Screening Conditions: One (US) Approach

This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download PDF” on top to view the full article.

The Association of Smoking with Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Non-diabetic Patients

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is conceptualised as a constellation of physiologic or anthropometric abnormalities. Typically, it includes excess weight, hyperglycaemia, elevated blood pressure, low concentration...

Hepatitis B Virus Infection and the Risk of Coronary Atherosclerosis

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also called coronary heart disease, is the leading cause of death for both men and women. CAD is usually caused...

Concomitant Coronary Artery Disease Among Asian Ischaemic Stroke Patients

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality following ischaemic stroke. The annual risk for myocardial infarction following ischaemic stroke is approximately...

Improving Door-to-balloon Times in Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Acute ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction: The Value of an Audit-driven Quality Initiative

Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been shown to be superior to thrombolytic therapy in terms...

Risk Factor Profile and Treatment Patterns of Patients with Atherothrombosis in Singapore: Insight from the REACH Registry

Atherothrombosis is a global problem that affects every ethnic group. It can lead to ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction or vascular death. This article is available...

Non-compaction Cardiomyopathy Presenting with Classical Angina Pectoris

Non-compaction cardiomyopathy (NCC) is an unclassified cardiomyopathy, previously known as “spongy left ventricular myocardium”. It is characterised by prominent myocardial trabeculations and deep intertrabecular...

A Case of Myopericarditis in a Patient with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Community-acquired Pneumonia

We described a healthy and physically active 41-year-old man who presented to a private practitioner with right axillary pain and fever. Physical examination revealed...

The Relation Between Insulin Resistance Determined by Haemostatic Modelling and Slow Coronary Flow

Slow coronary flow (SCF) is a well recognised clinical entity, characterised by delayed opacification of coronary arteries in the presence of normal coronary angiogram....

Improving Access to Outpatient Cardiac Care at the National Heart Centre – A Partnership Between Specialists and Primary Care

There is evidence that shows that the use of healthcare delivered by private providers, particularly procedures and hospital care, depends on supply. For example,...

Pattern and Outcome of Subsidised Referrals to Cardiology Specialist Outpatient Clinics

Singapore faces an increasing demand for public healthcare from an ageing population in need of chronic care. At our cardiology specialist outpatient clinics, the...

Phaeochromocytoma the Great Mimicker: A Case Report

Phaeochromocytomas are catecholamine producing neuroendocrine tumours that can manifest a variety of symptoms which mimic other diseases. They are also known for their “rule...

The Angiographic Aspects of Myocardial Bridges in Turkish Patients who have Undergone Coronary Angiography

Myocardial bridge, intramural coronary artery, coronary artery over bridging and myocardial loop are essentially the different terms used to designate the same phenomenon. Myocardial...

Management of Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Reperfusion Options

Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death globally. More than 920,000 myocardial infarctions (MI) are diagnosed annually in the United States. Of these,...

A Case of Acute Myocardial Infarction 24 hours after Acute Ischaemic Stroke

It is well known that thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may lead to disintegration of pre-existing intracardiac thrombi with subsequent cerebral embolisation. It...

The Growing Burden of Cardiovascular Disease: Role of the Arterial-Cardiac Interaction

World Heart Day was inaugurated to increase global awareness that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the world’s leading cause of death, claiming, according to the...

Comparison of Cardiac Output Measurement by Arterial Waveform Analysis and Pulmonary Artery Catheter in Mitral Stenosis

Cardiac output (CO) is a vital measurement that influences clinical decision-making. Although thermodilution via a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is considered the gold standard...

Unusual Pacemaker Lead Placement in an Unsuspecting Heart

A 51-year-old man, with a negative cardiac medical history, presented with symptomatic 2:1 atrioventricular block. A permanent pacemaker was implanted. This article is available only...

Embolised Injection Needle Fragment to the Heart, Mimicking a Subcutaneous Charm Needle

Embolisation of a fragmented injection needle to the heart is rare, even in intravenous drug abusers. The presence of an embolised needle fragment to...

Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defects – Is Balloon Sizing Still Necessary?

Device closure of atrial septal defects through the transcatheter approach has now been well accepted as an option to surgical treatment. A range of...

Factors Affecting the B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Stroke Patients

The term “stroke” comprises all diseases in which a region of the brain is transiently or continuously affected by ischaemia or haemorrhage, and/or in...

Eighteen-Month Clinical Safety and Efficacy Outcomes of Sirolimus-, Paclitaxel- and Zotarolimus-drug Eluting Stents in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Complex Coronary Artery Stenosis

Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have higher incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with non-diabetic patients. The underlying mechanism is due to the...

Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes for Contrast-induced Nephropathy After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Normal Serum Creatinine

Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common complication post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). CINis associated with increased morbidity, mortality, prolonged hospitalisation and long-term renal impairment. This article...

Brachial Approach for Coronary Angiography and Intervention: Totally Obsolete, or a Feasible Alternative When Radial Access is Not Possible?

The possible methods of reaching the coronary vasculature using a percutaneous technique are limitless: the radial, femoral, brachial, ulnar, subclavian and axillary arteries, and...

Angioplasty on an Infarct-related Anomalous Right Coronary Artery Arising from Posterior Coronary Sinus

A 60-year-old chronic smoker had delayed presentation (>18 hours) of acute inferior myocardial infarction with electrocardiogram showing 1.0 mm ST-segment elevation in leads II,...

Complete Atrioventricular Block Complicating Acute Anterior Myocardial Infarction can be Reversed with Acute Coronary Angioplasty

Complete atrioventricular block (AVB) develops in more than 5% of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). These patients have poorer outcomes compared to those without...

Acute Myocardial Infarction in Pregnant Women

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. It typically occurs in middle-aged or elderly people with cardiovascular risk...

Risk Stratification for Sudden Cardiac Death after Acute Myocardial Infarction

In today’s modern era of evidence-based medicine and interventional cardiology, most patients who suffer an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are started on medication with...

Adjunctive Pharmacologic Agents and Mechanical Devices in Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) has been shown to be superior to thrombolysis in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), with...

Management of Antiplatelet Therapy During Acute Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: New Strategies and Therapeutics

Platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation are stimulated during an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the result of intimal injury due to rupture of an atherosclerotic...

Risk Assessment Models in Acute Coronary Syndromes and Their Applicability in Singapore

Strategies for managing cardiovascular disease are evolving rapidly. This evolution and improvement in care is responsible for reducing mortality especially in patients presenting with...

Current Trends in Diagnostic Biomarkers of Acute Coronary Syndrome

Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have led to the marked increase in development of biomarkers for diagnosis,...

Update on Clinical Imaging of Coronary Plaque in Acute Coronary Syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) encompasses the clinical spectrum of unstable angina (UA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Most ACS are precipitated by luminal thrombi...

Panic Attack and its Correlation with Acute Coronary Syndrome – More Than Just a Diagnosis of Exclusion

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a life-threatening condition which benefits from prompt evaluation and proper treatment, such that it would be considered negligent for...

Research on Psychoneuroimmunology: Does Stress Influence Immunity and Cause Coronary Artery Disease?

In recent decades, there has been increasing interest in exploring the relationship between psychological stress and various health conditions. An enlarging body of evidence...

Clinical and Angiographic Findings of Complete Atrioventricular Block in Acute Inferior Myocardial Infarction

Complete atrioventricular block (AVB) complicates inferior wall myocardial infarction (MI) in 11% to 15% of cases. It usually clusters with conditions indicative of poor...

Reperfusion Strategy and Mortality in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction among Patients with and without Impaired Renal Function

Randomised controlled trials have demonstrated better outcomes with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) over fi brinolytic therapy in the treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial...

Gender Disparity in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Acute Coronary Syndromes – Does it Still Exist in Contemporary Practice?

Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single most common cause of death among women; and in parallel with an increasing life expectancy, the proportion...

The Impact of Gender on the Outcomes of Invasive versus Conservative Management of Patients with Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Recent studies have suggested differences in clinical outcomes between men and women following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Some studies have indicated poorer survival of...

Framingham Risk Score Inadequately Predicts Cardiac Risk in Young Patients Presenting with a First Myocardial Infarction

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was derived from the Framingham Heart Study...

Acute Coronary Syndrome: from Epidemiology to Treatment

The term “acute coronary syndrome” (ACS) was introduced a decade ago to describe a spectrum of conditions resulting in acute myocardial ischaemia. It comprises...

Off-Pump versus On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Procedures: Postoperative Renal Complications in an Asian Population

To date, the major part of routine cardiac surgery is performed using extracorporeal circulation with cardioplegic arrest. Regardless the technique of cardioplegia, temporary renal...

Normative Data for Quantitative Calcaneal Ultrasound in Asian Children

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is currently the gold standard for the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD). It is the commonest tool used...

Catheter Entrapment During Cardiac Electrophysiology Study

A 50-year-old man underwent cardiac electrophysiology study for palpitations. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 1 deflectable decapolar and 2 quadripolar diagnostic catheters were introduced smoothly into the...

Treatment of Coronary In-stent Restenosis with Drug-eluting Balloon Catheter: Real-world Outcome and Literature Review

Dear Editor, Currently, coronary stent implantation is employed in approximately 90% of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) cases. Despite the use of drug-eluting stents (DES), coronary...

Electrocardiograph Changes, Troponin Levels and Cardiac Complications After Orthopaedic Surgery

Following orthopaedic surgery, approximately 5% of patients sustain cardiac complications which leads to increased morbidity and mortality. The mortality rate after hip fracture is...

Neonatal Outcome of the Late Preterm Infant (34 to 36 Weeks): The Singapore Story

Neonatologists were caught looking the other way in the early part of the millennium. While they were keenly following the progress of extreme preterms...

Long-term Outcomes of Medical Therapy Versus Coronary Revascularisation in Patients with Intermediate Stenoses Guided by Pressure Wire

Although coronary angiography has been used as the “gold standard” imaging technique for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, it is essentially a lumenogram...

Chest Pain, Something is Not Right…Or Left

A 46-year-old female was referred for evaluation of central chest pain unrelated to exertion. She was known to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia....

Severe Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a 7-Month-Old Boy

Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency often affects children born to mothers whose nutritional intake is inadequate. We describe a 7-month-old boy with a 2-month history...

Risk Factors for Severe Adenovirus Infection in Children during an Outbreak in Singapore

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are well known pathogens that cause a variety of human illnesses. They are non-enveloped, linear double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses. More...

A Novel “Box Lesion” Minimally Invasive Totally Thoracoscopic Surgical Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

  Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common and severe cardiac arrhythmia. It affects 0.4% to 1% of the general population, and the prevalence of...

Treatment of Ewing sarcoma in children: Results from a single centre

Dear Editor, Ewing sarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumour that presents as a bone or soft-tissue sarcoma. Translocations involving the EWS gene on chromosome 22q12...

Immunomodulator use in paediatric severe sepsis and septic shock

Paediatric sepsis is one of the main causes of childhood mortality.1 Globally, paediatric severe sepsis and septic shock accounts for 6.2% to 23.1% of...

A rare case of thigh asymmetry in an infant

A 6-month-old baby boy presented with asymmetry of thighs since birth. On clinical examination, anteromedial aspect of the left thigh was bulky with pale...

Improved door-to-balloon time for primary percutaneous coronary intervention for patients conveyed via emergency ambulance service

Early reperfusion of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been shown to result in better outcomes,1-3 and guidelines for treatment of STEMI recommend a...

Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in Malaysian infants

Vitamin D deficiency, a worldwide health problem, is also prevalent in tropical countries. It is estimated that 15% of the world’s population are either...

Impact of true fetal mosaicism on prenatal screening and diagnosis

Over the past decade, the non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) has increasingly been used as a method for prenatal screening for trisomy 21 (T21) and...

Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy: The emerging role of cardiac amyloid imaging

Transthyretin amyloidosis (or ATTR amyloidosis) is an under-recognised multisystemic disorder, arising from misfolding of transthyretin proteins into insoluble amyloid fibrils. As amyloid fibrils deposit...

New-onset cardiovascular risk factors following liver transplantation: A cohort analysis in Singapore

Malnutrition is well described in liver cirrhosis. The hyperdynamic circulation and altered metabolism in cirrhosis result in a hypercatabolic state which accelerates tissue breakdown....

A review of child sexual abuse cases presenting to a paediatric emergency department

Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health issue with adverse short- and long-term repercussions. Formal definitions of CSA and the age for...

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in post-COVID-19 patients: A case series

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with thromboembolic phenomenon in the early phase of disease. Growing evidence suggests a hypercoagulable state as well...

Prevalence of thyroid malignancy and hormonal dysfunction following radiation exposure in childhood

The incidence of thyroid cancer has been steadily increasing worldwide. Childhood radiation exposure is a known risk factor for thyroid malignancy. However, data on...

Medical management of PAD: Expand or consolidate?

In this issue of the Annals, a rapid review of adherence to evidence-based medical treatment highlights an important and underappreciated aspect of the management...

Dynamic mitral regurgitation treated with MitraClip

The dynamic nature of mitral regurgitation (MR) has been well appreciated but clinically under-recognised. In addition, evidence on therapeutic options for dynamic MR has...

Percutaneous paravalvular leak repair for severe aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

Paravalvular leaks (PVLs) are not uncommon after surgical valve replacement. The need for re-operation for clinically significant leaks is between 1 and 3%. Percutaneous...

Impact of dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation and myResponder mobile app on bystander resuscitation

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide, with a global incidence of 62 cases per 100,000 person-years. In addition, there...

Autism Spectrum Disorder and COVID-19: Helping Caregivers Navigate the Pandemic

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted societies globally. As of 11 May 2020, 53 children have been infected with COVID-19 in Singapore...

Comparative Analysis of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children

Singapore confirmed its first case of COVID-19 on 23 January 2020 in a Chinese national from Wuhan, and its first paediatric case on February...

Importance of antenatal blood group typing and antibody screening in non-ABO/Rh haemolytic disease of the newborn

Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is a severe, potentially fatal alloimmune condition where maternal antibodies are produced, transported across the placenta...

Cost of inpatient rehabilitation for children with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury

The cost of rehabilitation for children post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) is significant. The annual total healthcare cost of TBI had been estimated to range...

Cerebral venous thrombosis in a patient with mild COVID-19 infection

Emerging reports suggest venous and arterial thromboembolic diseases can complicate recovery from COVID-19. Postulated mechanisms include hypercoagulability, hypoxia, immobilisation, excessive inflammation and diffuse intravascular...

Decrease in emergency department attendances during COVID-19 especially in school-going children

Health-seeking behaviour varies during a pandemic. Early reports have suggested reduced attendances at emergency departments (EDs), especially in paediatric patients and in patients with...

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood presenting as recurrent apnoea in a term newborn infant

Recurrent apnoea in a term infant is usually pathologic, warranting a thorough aetiologic evaluation. An accurate diagnosis is essential in guiding subsequent management and...

Paediatric emergency department attendances during COVID-19 and SARS in Singapore

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020, with over 110 million cumulative cases...

Epidemiology and risk stratification of minor head injuries in school-going children

Head injuries are common childhood injuries that present to paediatric emergency departments. Falls are the most common cause in young children, while contact sports...

Causes, functional outcomes and healthcare utilisation of people with cerebral palsy in Singapore

Cerebral palsy (CP) describes a group of permanent, but often changing, disorders that affect movement and posture, causing activity limitation, attributed to nonprogressive disturbances...

The Singapore Cerebral Palsy Registry: An important new resource for cerebral palsy research

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common, lifelong disorder of movement and posture resulting from an insult or maldevelopment of the developing brain. The movement...

Epidemiology and Control of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Singapore, 2001-2007

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood viral infection, which is typically mild and self-limiting. It is characterised by a brief...