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The potential of RNA therapeutics in dermatology

Graphic design by Liu Yujia Ribonucleic acid (RNA) therapeutics involving, among others, microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and/or antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) hold great potential...

Frailty-aware surgical care: Validation of Hospital Frailty Risk Score (HFRS) in older surgical patients

Frailty is a clinically recognisable state of vulnerability in older people, resulting from age-associated decline in physiological reserves and function across multiple organ systems,...

Defining breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) prevalence and risk factors: A pragmatic approach to lymphedema surveillance

Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a chronic progressive pathological condition of the lymphatic system that can lead to significant impact on the quality of...

Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL): Should we be doing more or less for the axilla?

Breast cancer mortality has declined steadily over the years with breast cancer screening, and improvement in diagnostic and therapeutic regimens. Despite cancer survivors living...

Perinatal outcomes of pregnancies affected by COVID-19 in Singapore: A cohort study

Pregnant women and infants were not spared from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after it was first identified in December 2019.1,2 In the beginning...

Normative data for baseline and longitudinal neuropsychological assessments in Singapore

Dear Editor, Neuropsychological assessments play a vital role in the early detection of cognitive disorders. However, the lack of Singapore-specific norms has resulted in a...

Call for a Singapore National Action Plan for Sepsis (SNAPS): Stop sepsis, save lives

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction syndrome caused by a dysregulated host response to an infection.1 It affects up to 48.9 million people globally...

Oocytes on ice: Exploring the advancements in elective egg freezing for women

Elective egg freezing (EEF), otherwise known as oocyte cryopreservation for age-related fertility loss, has become a viable option for single women to preserve their...

Caregiver reported long-term outcomes in children with major trauma and traumatic brain injuries: A single-centre retrospective study

Traumatic injuries in children are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide.1 Children with major trauma are at risk of poor outcomes.2-4 These...

Anti-osteoporosis drugs and reduction of mortality in cancer patients

Osteoporosis and cancer share a complex relationship, with each condition influencing the progression and outcomes of the other.1 Multiple factors, such as chemo- and...

Four cases of HIV infection in men taking pre-exposure prophylaxis in Singapore

Dear Editor, Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with co-formulated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) is an effective prevention strategy against sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency...

AL amyloidosis: Singapore Myeloma Study Group consensus guidelines on diagnosis, treatment and management

Amyloidosis refers to disorders characterised by the deposition of insoluble amyloid fibrils, which are pathogenic,1 resulting in organ dysfunction. Amyloidoses differ in the protein...

Clinical utility of PET/MRI in multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological malignancy characterised by abnormal accumulation of malignant plasma cells and is associated with anaemia, renal impairment, hypercalcemia and...

Improving management of AL amyloidosis

In this issue of the Annals, Tan et al. on behalf of Singapore Myeloma Study Group presented the consensus guidelines on light chain (AL)...

Treatment outcomes of micropulse cyclophototherapy in uveitic glaucoma

Dear Editor, We present a case series, describing the utility of micropulse cyclophototherapy in the treatment of uveitic glaucoma. Prevalence of glaucoma in patients suffering from...

Singapore’s experience in managing the COVID-19 pandemic: Key lessons from the ground

In the early days of the pandemic when information on COVID-19 infection was lacking, all COVID-19 positive patients were admitted into acute hospitals for...

Cardiovascular effects of COVID-19 in children

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While the respiratory system is  the...

Association of quality-of-care indicators with asthma outcomes: A retrospective observational study for asthma care in Singapore

Asthma, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways,1 is a common respiratory condition, with an estimated 262 million people affected worldwide.2 In Singapore, 5%...

Outcomes of patients admitted for drowning

Dear Editor, According to the latest Utstein-style consensus, drowning is defined as the primary respiratory impairment resulting from submersion or immersion in a liquid medium.1...

Impact of an ageing population on the intensive care unit

Dear Editor, Intensive care unit (ICU) resources are scarce and expensive, and deciding if intensive care is suitable for older patients involves complex clinical reasoning,...

Consensus statement on Singapore perinatal mental health guidelines on depression and anxiety

Perinatal mental health conditions have been recognised as a key area of focus by the World Health Organization, with the new guide published in...

Association of anticoagulation use during continuous kidney replacement therapy and 90-day outcomes: A multicentre study

Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects 21.6% of critically ill adult patients,1 with 5–7% requiring kidney replacement therapy (KRT).2 AKI carries significant prognostic and socioeconomic...

A perfect match: The story of robotics in gynaecology

Dear Editor, The first use of surgical robotics started in the domain of orthopaedic and urological surgery. However, it was the initial concept of using...

Transitional care strategies at emergency department for elderly patients: A multicentre study in Singapore

In Singapore, greater efforts are being directed towards developing an integrated health and social ecosystem under the new Healthier SG strategy announced by the...

An approach to genetic testing in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in Singapore

Prostate cancer is the fifth most common cancer in Asian men, and with its rising incidence, is emerging as a health priority in Asia.1...

Challenges with mainstreaming genetic testing for metastatic prostate cancer treatment in Singapore

Compared with other solid tumours, patients with metastatic prostate cancer typically have better survival in the range of years.1 The long survival translates to...

The role of PIVKA-II in hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance in an Asian population

Dear Editor, Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most established biomarker for surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in at-risk individuals. However, its sensitivity and specificity are...

Surgical margins assessment reduces re-excision rates in breast-conserving surgery

Dear Editor, Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiation therapy for breast cancer offers improved cosmetic results and comparable long-term survival rates as mastectomy.1 However,...

Clinical efficacy and long-term immunogenicity of an early triple dose regimen of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in cancer patients

The spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to the ongoing worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. Initial studies have reported an increased vulnerability of patients with...

Early COVID-19 booster is beneficial in cancer patients

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and its corresponding coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first reported as a cluster of pneumonia cases in...

Multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic: An emerging model of care

Dear Editor, Lung cancer management is progressively complex and multidisciplinary input is often needed. The recent publication of CheckMate 816 heralds a paradigm shift...

Low skeletal muscle mass predicts poor prognosis of elderly patients after emergency laparotomy: A single Asian institution experience

Emergency laparotomy (ELAP) for elderly patients is associated with higher mortality and increased postoperative complications compared with those undergoing elective surgery.1-3 Elderly patients, who...

Characteristics of anti-transcriptional intermediary factor 1 gamma autoantibody-positive dermatomyositis patients in Singapore

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a heterogeneous group of acquired, systemic autoimmune conditions characterised by muscular and extramuscular manifestations. As a subset within the...

A recurring nasal mass

A 56-year-old Chinese man presented to the Ear, Nose and Throat clinic with months of unilateral right-sided nasal obstruction. He reported occasional mucopurulent discharge...

A strategy to make COVID-19 vaccination more accessible to the elderly

Dear Editor, Singapore embarked on the COVID-19 National Vaccination Programme in early 2021. The main modality employed to achieve the mass vaccinations has been the...

Early rehabilitation to improve functional outcomes in childhood cancer in Singapore

Dear Editor, We conducted a prospective, single-centre cohort study to review the impact of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme in children with cancer in Singapore....

ICU nutrition: Bracing for the silver tsunami

The global population’s life expectancy is growing with a steady increase in the proportion of older patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).1...

High burden of respiratory viral infection-associated mortality among critically ill children

Dear Editor, Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) are a leading cause of under-5 mortality globally—two-thirds could be attributable to respiratory viral infections (RVIs).1,2 The burden...

Cost analysis of a Patient-Centred Medical Home for community-dwelling older adults with complex needs in Singapore

The Patient-Centred Medical Home (PCMH) is a model of chronic care that replaces episodic primary care, with the delivery of primary care to patients,...

Barriers to breast cancer screening in Singapore: A literature review

Breast cancer is a major public health concern and a leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide, including Singapore.1 According to the 2018...

Comparison of planned-start, early-start and deferred-start strategies for peritoneal dialysis initiation in end-stage kidney disease

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a well-established long-term dialysis modality for patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD).1 It is recommended that a PD catheter should...

Determinants of emergency department utilisation by older adults in Singapore: A systematic review

Older adults in Singapore contribute to a disproportionately higher number of visits to the emergency department (ED), mirroring trends around the world.1,2 For instance,...

Identifying high-risk hospitalised chronic kidney disease patient using electronic health records for serious illness conversation

In-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is shown to have lower survival1 and a higher proportion of survivors on maintenance...

Death and cardiovascular outcomes in end-stage renal failure patients on different modalities of dialysis

End-stage renal failure (ESRF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, including Asia.1 In Singapore, incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage...

Risk Factors for Predicting Mortality in a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit

Following the rapid advances in medical therapy and critical care technology over the past 30 years, coupled with the spiralling cost of medical care,...

Bone Mineral Density—Correlation between Quantitative Ultrasound Characteristics and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

Osteoporosis is well documented to be a significant determinant of the risk of fracture and its assessment in vivo has been based on various...

Serum Selenium in the General Population of Singapore, 1993 to 1995

The current disease pattern in Singapore (an island state of 3.3 million people composed of 76% Chinese, 14% Malays, 7% Asian Indians and 3%...

Infections in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

Children undergoing chemotherapy for cancer are especially vulnerable to infection because of immunosuppression related to their underlying illness, the effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy....

Malaria Requiring Intensive Care

Malaria is an important and common infectious parasitic disease globally. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in endemic areas. This article is...

Impact on Quality of Patient Care and Procedure Use in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) Following Reorganisation

Critical care is costly as it is labour intensive and involves expensive life support technology. In the United States, the intensive care units (ICUs)...

Survey of Aerobic Bacterial Infections in Paediatric Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients

Data on infections in paediatric surgical patients are few in the literature. Although there are many studies on infection in adult surgical and paediatric...

Plasma Vitamins A, C and E in the General Population of Singapore, 1993 to 1995

The current disease pattern in Singapore (an island state of 3.3 million people composed of 76% Chinese, 14% Malays, 7% Asian Indians and 3%...

Hospitalised Low-risk Community-acquired Pneumonia: Outcome and Potential for Cost-savings

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common illness with nearly 4 million adults diagnosed each year in USA with more than 600,000 hospita1isations. The associated...

Long-term Outcome and Disease Control in Near-fatal Asthma

Rising trends in mortality in asthma have been reported from many countries, including Asian countries such as Hong Kong. Asthma deaths have been associated...

Perceived Need for Community Geriatric Services: A Survey at a Regional Hospital in Singapore in an Inpatient Setting

Singapore has one of the most rapidly ageing populations in the wor1d. The number of the very aged (>75 years old) has already increased...

Extended Resection of Locally Advanced (T4) Stomach Cancer

Cancer is the most common cause of death in Singapore. Although there is a gradual decline in incidence of stomach cancer over the years,...

The Reliability and Validity of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) among the Elderly Chinese in Hong Kong

The Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) is a 21-item scale designed to assess the severity of cognitive and non-cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer’s...

Adverse Operative Risk Factors for Perforated Peptic Ulcer

Although there has been a significant decline in elective surgery for peptic ulcer disease with the introduction of H-2 blocker, the incidence of peptic...

Delirium in patients following general anaesthesia

Delirium is a disturbance of consciousness characterised by an acute onset and fluctuating course of inattention, accompanied by either a change in cognition or...

Critical Role of Functional Decline in Delayed Discharge from an Acute Geriatric Unit

In the last decade, many countries have experienced alarming transformation in their demographic patterns, with the elderly population emerging as the fastest growing segment...

Quality of Life in Long-Term Survivors of Intensive Care

Intensive care has undergone rapid technological advancement in recent years enabling complex treatment of patients of advanced age and/or with advanced chronic diseases underlying...

Limitation of Life Support in the Critically Ill: The Hong Kong Perspective

Technological advances over the last 30 years have had an enormous impact on the way in which medicine is delivered today. This is particularly...

The Practice of Foregoing Life Support in the Critically Ill “Old Old”: A Singapore Perspective

Studies on the foregoing of life support (FLS) in North America, Europe and Australia have shown diversity in terms of the incidence, decision-making process...

Abdominal Complications after Cardiac Surgery

Despite intensive therapeutic efforts, both the incidence and mortality of gastrointestinal complications after cardiac surgery employing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have not decreased during the...

Early Unplanned Readmission of Elderly in Singapore: A Retrospective Study

The number of elderly people in Singapore is expected to increase over the next 2 decades. The proportion of those 60 years and above...

Advances in Surgical Treatment of Osteoporotic Fractures of the Spine

Osteoporosis is an important cause of fractures in the elderly. In the USA alone, at least 1.3 million fractures are attributed to osteoporosis a...

Myocardial Infarction in Singapore: A Nationwide 10-year Study of Multiethnic Differences in Incidence and Mortality

Rapid urbanisation and increasing affluence have improved the socioeconomic status of Asians. This, however, has brought with it new socioeconomic and medical problems resulting...

Statins and Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: New Pathways in Bone Formation

Osteoporosis is a major public health problem causing considerable morbidity and mortality in Asian women. It is estimated that half of the world’s hip...

Influenza in Singapore: Assessing the Burden of Illness in the Community

Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Morbidity in the working age group gives rise to frequent doctor visits and considerable...

Epidemiology of Beta-haemolytic Group G Streptococcal Bacteraemia in Singapore (1996 to 1998)

Human isolates of group G streptococci (GGS) that form large colonies are similar to group A streptococci (GAS) in terms of virulence and cause...

Bone Fragility in Asian and Caucasian Men

Bone fragility in men has been receiving greater attention during the last few years. Epidemiological studies have been done in Caucasian and Asian populations. This...

Steroid-induced Osteoporosis

Corticosteroids are known to affect bone through multiple pathways (Fig. 1), influencing both bone formation and bone resorption, and these mechanisms have been reviewed....

Osteoporosis in Relation to Menopause

Singapore has a rapidly ageing population. In 1990, only 6% of the population was above the age of 65 years but this percentage of...

Differentiation of Malignant Vertebral Collapse from Osteoporotic and Other Benign Causes Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

An elderly patient presenting with backache and vertebral collapse on plain X-ray is a common clinical scenario and a diagnostic challenge. It is difficult...

Osteoporotic Hip Fractures in Singapore—Costs and Patient’s Outcome

Singapore is facing a rapidly ageing population. Osteoporosis, which is an age-related illness, will become an increasing problem. Osteoporotic hip fracture, because of the...

Nursing Home Falls: A Local Perspective

Falls in the elderly has been a well-studied subject and now occupies an important place in geriatric medicine. While many studies have been done...

The Development of Geriatric Psychiatry Services in Singapore

The population of Singapore is ageing. In 2002, it was estimated that there were 252,700 persons aged >65 years, forming 7.5% of the population....

Emergency Department Usage by Community Step-Down Facilities – Patterns and Recommendations

It is projected that elderly persons will make up 18.4% of Singapore’s population by the year 2030. Currently, there are 5189 residents staying in...

Critically Ill Elderly Who Require Mechanical Ventilation: The Effects of Age on Survival Outcomes and Resource Utilisation in the Medical Intensive Care Unit of a General Hospital

Increasing life expectancy and ageing of the “post-war baby boomer” generation have led to the rapidly ageing demographic of many Asian countries. Singapore’s elderly...

The Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill in Women Over Age Forty

In the 1970s, several studies appeared to suggest that users of oral contraceptives (OCs) were at increased risk of cardiovascular events. More recently following...

Measuring Quality of Life in Chinese Cancer Patients: A New Version of the Functional Living Index for Cancer (Chinese)

Health-related quality of life (QOL) is recognised as an important aspect of patient care. In oncology studies, it may stand as the primary end-point....

Current Concepts of Tumour Metastasis

Tumour metastasis, or the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumour to distant sites, remains the principal cause of treatment failure and poor...

Medical Therapy in Heart Failure – Is Polypharmacy Necessary?

The clinical syndrome of heart failure is recognised by a characteristic pattern of haemodynamic, renal, neural and hormonal responses. Heart failure is the end-stage...

Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest in Adults Undergoing Aortic Surgery: Local Experience

The use of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) as a method of cerebral protection during aortic surgery was first described in 1975. Its use...

Severe Adult Chickenpox Infection Requiring Intensive Care

Chickenpox (varicella) in adults can be severe. It is frequently associated with pneumonia and immunosuppression as well as increased mortality rates. This article is available...

Trends in Cancer Incidence Among Singapore Malays: A Low-risk Population

Cancer is now one of the most common causes of death in the world. Inspection of changes in cancer incidence in ethnically or geographically...

Polypharmacy and Inappropriate Medication Use in Singapore Nursing Homes

The elderly usually have multiple medical problems, requiring prescription drugs to treat diseases and to prevent complications arising from them. Currently, in the United...

Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Metastases of Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectum

Cutaneous metastasis from colorectal adenocarcinoma is an interesting condition not only because of its rarity, it occurs in less than 4% of patients with...

Neuroblastoma Screening in Japan: Population-based Cohort Study and Future Aspects of Screening

This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download PDF” on top to view the full article.

Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation Reference Database for Southeast Asian Males and Females

Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) systems measuring the calcaneus are currently approved for the assessment of osteoporotic risks in Europe, Canada and the USA. A QUS...

Parathyroid Carcinoma: A Case Series

Parathyroid carcinomas account for 1% to 3% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).1 Patients usually present with a severe form of hyperparathyroidism at diagnosis,...

Early Predictors of Mortality in Pneumococcal Bacteraemia

Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia worldwide.1 It has been associated with an approximately 10% rate of bacteraemia.2-4 Despite...

Magnesium, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, and Selenium Levels in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis. Can Magnesium Play a Key Role in Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a condition in which an increased risk of fracture takes place due to a reduction of bone mineral content. It occurs as...

Thoracic Complications of Radiofrequency Ablation of Recurrent Hepatoma

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) intended to produce complete thermal necrosis of unresectable primary or secondary hepatic malignancies have gained widespread availability and acceptance over the...

Hip Fractures in the Elderly: The Impact of Comorbid Illnesses on Hospitalisation Costs

Management of hip fractures is costly and continues to generate significant costs throughout the one-year period after discharge.1 They demand considerable resources from a...

A Review of Geriatric Education in Singapore

The United Nations International Plan of Action on Ageing (IPA), formulated during the First World Assembly on Ageing in Vienna in 1982, listed gerontological...

Mohs micrographic surgery in Singapore: A long-term follow-up review

Dear Editor, Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) has become the treatment of choice for high-risk non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) worldwide.1 Unlike wide local excision, MMS...

Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features and the risk of malignancy in thyroid cytology: Data from Singapore

As only 5–10% of thyroid nodules harbour malignancy, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is important in triaging nodules requiring surgical excision from nodules that may be...

Characteristics of unplanned hospitalisations among cancer patients in Singapore

Cancer is a pervasive global problem with growing healthcare utilisation and costs.1-3 This situation is similar in Singapore where cancer incidence is on the...

The case for better hospitalisation selection in cancer patients

Public hospital occupancy rates and resource utilisation in Singapore are perennially high. In the last 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been...

Profiling Acute Presenting Symptoms of Geriatric Patients Attending an Urban Hospital Emergency Department

Singapore’s population is ageing rapidly. Today 1 out of every 12 Singaporeans is aged 65 or above. In 2030, it is expected to be...

Junior Doctors’ Attitudes Towards Older Adults and its Correlates in a Tertiary-care Public Hospital

Singapore is a rapidly ageing society. The proportion of older persons above the age of 65 was 6.8% of the population in 1995 and...

Clinical Outcome Following Treatment of Stable and Unstable Intertrochanteric Fractures with Dynamic Hip Screw

Intertrochanteric (IT) fracture is among the most common orthopedic injuries in the elderly population, and is associated with osteoporosis. It usually occurs as a...

Normative Data for Quantitative Calcaneal Ultrasound in Asian Children

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is currently the gold standard for the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD). It is the commonest tool used...

Older Age at Initial Presentation to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Care and Treatment at the Communicable Disease Centre (CDC) in Singapore, 2006 to 2011

Since the first case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Singapore was identified in 1985, the incidence of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has steadily...

Causes of Death in Hospitalised Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected Patients at a National Referral Centre in Singapore: A Retrospective Review from 2008 to 2010

The advent of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era has greatly reduced the mortality and incidence of new diagnoses of acquired immune deficiency...

Demographic Determinants of Survival in Osteosarcoma

The treatment of osteosarcoma has seen tremendous improvements over the last 3 decades of the twentieth century. Over the last decade it appears that...

The Hidden Impact of Childhood Cancer on the Family: A Multi-Institutional Study from Singapore

Chronic childhood illnesses have varying degrees of impact on the children and their families. Some chronic conditions that have little or no impact on...

Antibiotic Therapy and Clinical Outcomes of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (PA) Bacteraemia

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a virulent nosocomial pathogen and PA bacteraemia is associated with high mortality ranging from 18% to 59%. It is ranked...

Can Preoperative Scoring Systems be Applied to Asian Hip Fracture Populations? Validation of the Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS) and Identification of Preoperative Risk Factors in Hip Fractures

Osteoporotic hip fractures are common and have significant consequences on mortality and functional capability which indirectly has familial, social and economic repercussions. The inpatient...

Causes and Features of Erythroderma

Erythroderma is a dermatological reaction characterised by extensive erythema and scaling of the skin secondary to a variety of causes. An improved understanding of...

Routine intraoperative frozen section adds little value to the management of thyroid nodules with Bethesda III cytology

Dear Editor, We would like to highlight the need to reduce intraoperative frozen section (FS) during diagnostic hemithyroidectomy performed on thyroid nodules with Bethesda III...

Telemedicine for palliative care: Current and future challenges

Dear Editor, We read with interest the article published in the June 2021 issue of the Annals titled “Use of telemedicine in healthcare during COVID-19...

Anticoagulation Needs in Asians with Atrial Fibrillation: A Mythbuster

Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke 5-fold in Caucasians. While the relative risk for stroke is somewhat lower in Asia, estimated at...

Managing buccal space tumours

Dear Editor, The buccal space is an infrequently addressed fascial space of the head and neck region. Intrinsic tumours of the buccal space are...

A 10-Year Profile of Trauma Admissions Caused by Interpersonal Violence: A Major Trauma Centre’s Experience

The World Health Organization (WHO) has divided violence into 3 categories: interpersonal violence, self-directed violence, and collective violence. Violence is defined as “the intentional...

Changing Landscape of Nursing Homes in Singapore: Challenges in the 21st Century

Nursing homes trace their evolution to American alms-houses in the 1930s where retired nurses welcomed the elderly and ill into their homes. In Singapore,...

Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life Among Community Dwelling Elderly

Singapore is experiencing an unprecedented age shift as the post-war baby boomers turn 65 years in 2012. Currently there are 378,700 people aged 65...

Neonatal Outcome of the Late Preterm Infant (34 to 36 Weeks): The Singapore Story

Neonatologists were caught looking the other way in the early part of the millennium. While they were keenly following the progress of extreme preterms...

Epidemiology and Clinical Evolution of Liver Cirrhosis in Singapore

Cirrhosis is the common end result of chronic damage to liver parenchyma caused by a variety of liver diseases. It results in replacement of...

An External Independent Validation of APACHE IV in a Malaysian Intensive Care Unit

Over the past 30 years, different versions of severity of illness scoring systems and prognostic models have been developed for prediction of patient outcomes...

Bone in the breast: Clinical, radiological and pathological correlation

An 84-year-old woman presented with a left breast mass that had been rapidly growing over a few months. On clinical examination, there was a...

Treatment of Ewing sarcoma in children: Results from a single centre

Dear Editor, Ewing sarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumour that presents as a bone or soft-tissue sarcoma. Translocations involving the EWS gene on chromosome 22q12...

Does pulmonary metastasectomy of colorectal metastases translate to better survival? A systematic review

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the one of most common cancers worldwide. Metastatic disease occurs in approximately half of all CRC patients, in either synchronous...

Prehabilitation and Its Role in Geriatric Surgery

The population in Singapore is ageing rapidly. According to statistics, by 2030, 1 in 2 adults in Singapore will be >65 years old. As...

Heterogeneity of non-cystic-fibrosis bronchiectasis in multiethnic Singapore: A prospective cohort study at a tertiary pulmonology centre

Bronchiectasis is a chronic lung disease of significant morbidity and mortality. The pathological hallmarks of the disease are abnormal dilatation of airways resulting from...

Congenital adhesion band causing recurrent subacute intestinal obstruction in a virgin abdomen

Intestinal obstruction (IO) caused by malignancy and adhesion bands from previous surgery is common among adults. However, IO caused by congenital adhesion bands (CAB)...

Tackling osteoporosis and fragility fractures in Singapore

A shift in worldwide population ageing demographics has occurred in the 21st century. The longevity miracle is most keenly felt in Singapore, a young...

Obesity in COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is established that increasing...

Impact of cardiovascular diseases on severity of COVID-19 patients: A systematic review

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly from China to other countries around the world, with the World Health Organization characterising it as a...

An unusual submandibular tumour

A woman in her 60s presented with a non-tender, non-enlarging swelling in the left submandibular triangle of the neck for 3 months. She had...

Penile preserving surgery in penile cancer management

Penile cancer is a condition that accounts for approximately 0.4% of cancers among Singapore males. Overall, this is an uncommon cancer with higher rates...