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Epidemiological trends and outcomes of children with aural foreign bodies in Singapore

Aural foreign bodies (FBs) commonly present to the emergency department (ED) worldwide. Children represent the majority of the population, believed to be due to...

Evaluation of a health screening protocol for recovered COVID-19 patients before “return-to-play” and strenuous physical activity

Dear Editor, We conducted a prospective, single-centre cohort study to develop guidance for military personnel returning to strenuous activities following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The patients underwent...

Determinants of emergency department utilisation by older adults in Singapore: A systematic review

Older adults in Singapore contribute to a disproportionately higher number of visits to the emergency department (ED), mirroring trends around the world.1,2 For instance,...

Pre- and apnoeic high-flow oxygenation for rapid sequence intubation in the emergency department (the Pre-AeRATE trial): A multicentre randomised controlled trial

Critically ill patients in the emergency department (ED) have shorter safe apnoea times due to physiological distress from decreased cardiac output, increased shunting and...

Case Series of Bronchoscopic Removal of Tracheobronchial Foreign Body in Six Adults

Gustav Killian reported the first case of bronchoscopic removal of foreign body (FB) from the trachea in 1897. Since then, rigid bronchoscopy under general...

A Review of Pedestrian Fatalities in Singapore from 1990 to 1994

Fatal road accidents are by no means uncommon in Singapore, a modern tropical metropolis with a population of approximately 3 million. Statistics provided by...

Bronchoscopy in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU)

Flexible fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FFB) has become an indispensable tool in the optimal management of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with both diagnostic and therapeutic...

Combined High-frequency Ventilation (CHFV) in the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury—A Case Report

The role of ventilatory support in acute lung injury is supportive, whilst the damage to alveolar-capillary membranes resolves and alveolar stability is restored. The...

Contributions of Respiratory Care Practitioners to Intensive Care: A Review

The intensive care unit (ICU) is a complex environment in which multidisciplinary expertise has been shown to enhance clinical outcomes. For example, the availability...

Ventilatory Strategies for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was first described by Ashbaugh et al in 1967. The original authors detailed the presence of tachypnoea, hypoxaemia, decreased...

The Oxygen Delivery Debate—A Review

Multisystem organ failure occurs in a large proportion of critically ill patients and is a major cause of death in this group of patients....

Controlled Observations in Critical Care Medicine: The Therapeutic Trial

Central to the combined diagnostic and therapeutic approach to the critically ill subject is the evaluation of both the basal physiologic status and its...

Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit for Poisoning

The study of poisoning has been relatively neglected in Singapore. A check through the Infogate database of the National University of Singapore Library revealed...

Survival after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the General Wards—The Results of a Dedicated “Code” Team

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is widely practised for cardiopulmonary arrests with variable success. The initial intention was to defibrillate patients with ventricular fibrillation after acute...

Impact on Quality of Patient Care and Procedure Use in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) Following Reorganisation

Critical care is costly as it is labour intensive and involves expensive life support technology. In the United States, the intensive care units (ICUs)...

Intensivists for the Intensive Care Unit—Do They Make a Difference?

Does Critical Care Medicine exist and what defines its area of practice? Different countries have embarked on their own journeys of discovery, and have...

A Prospective Study of Infections with Atypical Pneumonia Organisms in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease state characterised by the presence of airflow limitation that is generally progressive, partially reversible and caused...

Hospitalised Low-risk Community-acquired Pneumonia: Outcome and Potential for Cost-savings

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common illness with nearly 4 million adults diagnosed each year in USA with more than 600,000 hospita1isations. The associated...

Long-term Outcome and Disease Control in Near-fatal Asthma

Rising trends in mortality in asthma have been reported from many countries, including Asian countries such as Hong Kong. Asthma deaths have been associated...

Perceived Need for Community Geriatric Services: A Survey at a Regional Hospital in Singapore in an Inpatient Setting

Singapore has one of the most rapidly ageing populations in the wor1d. The number of the very aged (>75 years old) has already increased...

Ethnicity, Obstructive Sleep Apnoea and Ischaemic Heart Disease

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a condition whereby there is snoring associated with complete or partial cessation of breathing during sleep, associated with nocturnal...

Rapid Mycobacterial Tuberculosis Detection in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction in Patients with Upper Lobe Infiltrates and Bronchiectasis

Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), the incidence of which is rising, poses a major health problem. It is caused by <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i>. The isolation of <i>Mycobacterium...

Extent and Appropriateness of Emergency Department Services Usage by Foreign Workers in Singapore

Singapore employs more than 350,000 foreign workers currently. With this influx of foreign workers into our city-state which has limited land and resources, it...

Drowning and Near-drowning—Some Lessons Learnt

Drowning is defined as suffocation from submersion in a liquid with death within the first twenty-four hours. Near-drowning implies that recovery has occurred, at...

Beneficial Effect of Combination Therapy with Ozagrel and Pranlukast in Exercise-induced Asthma Demonstrated by Krypton-81m Ventilation Scintigraphy—A Case Report

Exercise is a common stimulus of bronchoconstriction in subjects with asthma. Exercise-induced asthma is a temporary increase in airway resistance that occurs after several...

The Use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway in Post-Tonsillectomy Haemorrhage—A Case Report

A 53-year-old man with a history of hypertension and asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was admitted to the hospital for an elective uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, tonsillectomy and bilateral...

Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Exercise intolerance is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although exertional symptoms may be mild at the outset, exercise limitation is the...

Ethnic Differences in Genetic Susceptibility to Atopy and Asthma in Singapore

Twin studies have indicated that both asthma and atopy are largely regulated by genetic factors. However, the genetics is complex, involving an interaction of...

Human Genetic Susceptibility to Tuberculosis

The World Health Organization has declared that the recent resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) is a global emergency. Southeast Asia, which is seeing the greatest...

A Case Report of Aspergillus Hypersensitivity Syndrome with Obstructing Bronchial Aspergillosis

The spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis includes saprophytic colonisation, hypersensitivity syndromes and invasive lung disease. There has been a tendency to classify these syndromes as...

Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome—Report of Three Cases

Sleep-related breathing disorders are widely recognised as important causes of morbidity and mortality over the past 3 decades. The obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS)...

Audit of Oxygen Therapy in Acute General Medical Wards Following an Educational Programme

The rational basis for supplemental oxygen (O<sub>2</sub>) treatment is well established. Long-term O<sub>2</sub> therapy improves survival and quality of life in patients with chronic...

Active Management of a Patient with Endstage Pulmonary Emphysema Using Lung Volume Reduction Surgery and Intensive Rehabilitation

A 65-year-old Chinese man with a 30-pack year history of cigarette smoking was referred to our institution for further management of chronic obstructive pulmonary...

Endobronchial Mass in a Patient with Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection

The diagnosis of Burkholderia pseudomallei infection is based on culture of clinical specimens such as blood or other body fluids, or serology using indirect...

Endobronchial Stenting in Patients Requiring Mechanical Ventilation for Major Airway Obstruction

Few things are as dramatic as respiratory arrest from major airway obstruction. Major airway obstruction frequently leads to well-defined clinical sequelae, namely shunt-associated hypoxaemia...

Fibre-optic Aided Bougie (FAB) for Simulated Difficult Tracheal Intubation

Difficult intubation remains a key problem1 and the value of a flexible introducer (gum elastic or wire) as a first approach is well recognised...

Preparing for the silver boom: A falls prevention tool for older adults in the emergency department

Each year, 28–35% of community dwelling adults over 65 years fall.1 This figure increases to about 50% for those above 80 years old.2 Falls...

Clinical Update on Occupational Asthma

Occupational asthma is the most common occupational respiratory disease in the United Kingdom and also in Singapore. Recent estimates of the proportion of adult...

Book Review

The above is a textbook of medicine written by Singapore doctors and published in Singapore. It is difficult not to be over-enthusiastic about it...

Effect of Different Endotracheal Suctioning Systems on Cardiorespiratory Parameters of Ventilated Patients

Endotracheal suctioning is a routine procedure performed in the intensive care unit (ICU) to remove secretions from the tracheobronchial tree. This is to maintain...

The Role of Early Tracheostomy in Critically Ill Neurosurgical Patients

In medical history, tracheostomy is one of the oldest operations performed. There are indications that the Egyptians first employed this procedure more than 3500...

Effects of a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programme on Physiologic and Psychosocial Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Respiratory Disorders

Pulmonary rehabilitation is a multi-disciplinary programme of care for patients with chronic respiratory impairment that is individually designed to optimise physical and social performance...

Intravenous Adrenaline or Vasopressin in Sudden Cardiac Arrest: A Literature Review

Of the approximately 15,000 deaths that occur in Singapore every year, about 25% are from cardiac causes; of which, some 30% to 40% occur...

Recent Advances in the Obstructive Sleep Apnoea/Hypopnoea Syndrome

The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the number of patients being referred for investigation for the obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS)....

All that Wheezes is not Asthma—Broncholithiasis, a Forgotten Disease

Asthma is a very common condition which presents clinically with cough, shortness of breath and wheezing. However, ‘all that wheezes is not asthma’, is...

Audit of Total Parenteral Nutrition in an Adult Surgical Intensive Care

Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may contribute to good outcome in selected groups of patients. Parenteral nutrition is highly effective in reversing effects attributable to...

Asthma Disease Management: A Provider’s Perspective

The burden of asthma appears to be increasing worldwide, especially in societies undergoing rapid urbanisation, and both morbidity and mortality from asthma have increased...

Emergency Department Asthma: Compliance with an Evidence-based Management Algorithm

Attendance at the emergency medicine department (EMD) for acute exacerbation is an important milestone in the natural history of patients with asthma. It is...

Acute Coronary Syndrome—Factors Causing Delayed Presentation at the Emergency Department

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) refers to a continuum of clinical entities ranging from unstable angina pectoris (UAP) to Q-wave myocardial infarction. Mortality rates from...

The Acute Presentation of Pulmonary Thromboembolism: A Retrospective Viewpoint

Pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) has historically been considered a rarity in the Asian population. Although well studied in the West, Asian literature on this condition...

Four-month Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Smear-negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Results at 30 to 60 Months

Patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are usually treated with a 6-month regimen in which chemotherapy is administered daily, intermittently or as a combined...

Bacteriologically-negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis—The Singapore Tuberculosis Control Unit Experience

The management of a patient as for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the setting of negative bacteriology would have to take into account not only...

Emergency Department Usage by Community Step-Down Facilities – Patterns and Recommendations

It is projected that elderly persons will make up 18.4% of Singapore’s population by the year 2030. Currently, there are 5189 residents staying in...

Critically Ill Elderly Who Require Mechanical Ventilation: The Effects of Age on Survival Outcomes and Resource Utilisation in the Medical Intensive Care Unit of a General Hospital

Increasing life expectancy and ageing of the “post-war baby boomer” generation have led to the rapidly ageing demographic of many Asian countries. Singapore’s elderly...

Asthma in Light of Patient Documents. A Factor Analytic Study

The lack of uniform criteria for asthma handicaps the diagnosis, the systematic documentation of cases and the consistent reporting of studies addressing asthma. It...

Malignant Mesothelioma: Experience at the Singapore General Hospital

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare tumour and is typically associated with asbestos exposure. In endemic areas, it has an estimated incidence as high as...

Stress among emergency medicine residents during the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative study

Dear Editor, The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted medical education1,2 and distressed clinicians.3,4 Understanding the impact of this pandemic on emergency medicine (EM) residents’ experience of...

Pulmonary Hypereosinophilia

Eosinophilic lung diseases encompass a heterogenous spectrum of lung disorders defined by increased eosinophils in blood and/or tissue. In 1952, Crofton et al proposed...

An Unusual Cause of Pulmonary Haemorrhage in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode which causes a chronic but usually asymptomatic infection in humans. However, in immunocompromised patients, parasitic larvae can develop...

A Case Report of Occupational Asthma due to Gluteraldehyde Exposure

Worldwide, asthma is estimated to affect between 5% and 10% of the population and, among adults, 4% to 9% of these cases have been...

Work-related Injury Sustained by Foreign Workers in Singapore

Singapore has a resident population of 3.26 million and 0.53 million foreign workers. Of these half a million foreigners, 450,000 are work permit holders,...

The Haze and Health: A Blog About the Fog

The haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where pollutant particles accumulate in the air and obscure the normal clarity of the sky. In Singapore, this...

The Impact of Experiential Learning on NUS Medical Students: Our Experience With Task Trainers and Human-patient Simulation

The realisation that students have different cognitive and learning styles has had major implications on medical curriculum design efforts. If the student’s learning style...

SARS: How to Manage Future Outbreaks?

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which crossed from wild animals at live markets to man in mid-November...

Potentially Fatal Paracetamol Overdose and Successful Treatment with 3 Days of Intravenous N-acetylcysteine Regime – A Case Report

Paracetamol overdose is one of the most common drug overdose in both children and adults in Singapore. Doses of paracetamol exceeding 150 mg/kg in...

Clinical Cases Seen in Tsunami Hit Banda Aceh – From a Primary Health Care Perspective

Earthquakes and tsunamis can cause massive destruction over large areas, affecting the lives of many in areas hit by such disasters. The local health...

The Clinical Predictors of Hypertension and Sleepiness in an Asian Population with Sleep-disordered Breathing

Sleep physicians have only recently began to learn much about the epidemiology of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) from large, well conducted prospective community-based studies. These...

Sarcoidosis with Granulomatous Hepatitis and Autoimmune Endocrine Involvement

Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It emerges in the form of hiler adenopathy and interstitial pulmonary disease in most cases. This...

Observational Study to Determine Factors Associated with Blood Sample Haemolysis in the Emergency Department

Haemolysis of blood samples leads to inaccurate results and often necessitates a repeat sample. Escalating workloads and finite resources are an increasing problem in...

Cardiovascular Changes in Children with Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a spectrum of diseases ranging from primary snoring to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). A recent review suggested that the...

Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Hypopnoea Syndrome in Singapore Children

Obesity is becoming a problem of epidemic proportions and is perhaps, the most pervasive medical problem faced by medical providers today. It is a...

Sleep Disorders in Children: The Singapore Perspective

Sleep problems are common in children. For example, snoring occurs in more than 25% of Singapore children1 and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) occurs in...

Diagnosis and Evaluation of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea in Children

Children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) may present with nocturnal and/or diurnal symptoms. The history is best obtained from parents, or siblings who share...

The Scope of Paediatric Sleep Medicine

Despite apparent similarities to adult sleep medicine, the disorders of paediatric sleep medicine have a distinct epidemiology and pathophysiology. During childhood, the physiology of...

Obstructive Sleep Apnoea in Singapore: Polysomnography Data From a Tertiary Sleep Disorders Unit

Overnight attended polysomnography (PSG) in the sleep laboratory has been the gold standard to confirm the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA)....

Improving Door-to-balloon Times in Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Acute ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction: The Value of an Audit-driven Quality Initiative

Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been shown to be superior to thrombolytic therapy in terms...

Renal Artery Embolism in a Patient with Vague Abdominal Pain

Thromboembolism is a well-known complication of mitral stenosis especially when it is associated with cardiac dysrhythmias. However, renal artery embolism is a disease that...

Clinical Characteristics of Renal Infarction in an Asian Population

Renal infarction is a rare disease. Domanovits et al reported an incidence rate of 0.007% (17/248,842) during a study period of 45 months. This article...

Impact of the Singapore National Asthma Program (SNAP) on Preventor-Reliever Prescription Ratio in Polyclinics

According to the World Health Organization/Global Initiative on Asthma (WHO/GINA) report on the global burden of asthma, Singapore is an intermediate-risk country for asthma...

Characteristics of unplanned hospitalisations among cancer patients in Singapore

Cancer is a pervasive global problem with growing healthcare utilisation and costs.1-3 This situation is similar in Singapore where cancer incidence is on the...

The case for better hospitalisation selection in cancer patients

Public hospital occupancy rates and resource utilisation in Singapore are perennially high. In the last 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been...

T Lymphocyte Activation Profiles in Peripheral Blood of Long-Versus Short-Term Residents of Kuwait: Comparison with Asthmatics

The Gulf Wars of 1991 and 2003 exposed the residents of Kuwait and several neighbouring countries to high levels toxicants with the capacity to...

Lung Cancer: Recent Advances

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality in the world. It accounts for almost a million deaths annually and resulted in...

Reply from Author: Putting the Wedge under Pressure

We thank the authors for their interest in our study and their insightful comments. We agree that filling pressures such as the central venous...

Putting the Wedge under Pressure

We would like to thank Dr Huck Chin Chew et al for sharing their findings and we are appreciative of their work, “Oesophageal Doppler...

Difference in Asthma Control Test™ (ACT) Scores in Three Different Clinical Practice Settings

The prevalence of asthma ranges from 1% to 18% worldwide and it remains a significant cause of morbidity and economic burden despite advances in...

Epidemiology of Snakebites from A General Hospital in Singapore: A 5-year Retrospective Review (2004-2008)

Snakes are present even in an industrialised country like Singapore. A bite from a venomous snake can inflict much morbidity and occasionally, it can...

Clinical Features of Allergic Rhinitis and Skin Prick Test Analysis Based on the ARIA Classification: A Preliminary Study in Malaysia

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common disease worldwide and is known to cause serious implications to the physical and mental health status of the...

Are New Resuscitation Guidelines Better? Experience of an Asian Metropolitan Hospital

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a substantial public health burden that has poor prognosis. Patients who receive “good” and “high-quality” cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have...

An Eight Year Review of Exercise-related Cardiac Arrests

Exercise-related cardiac arrest is uncommon, however it is devastating when it occurs in otherwise healthy adults. In young adults, vigorous physical exercise trigger cardiac...

Inadvertent Haemodialysis in a Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patient with Hypercalcaemia

Malaysia is a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis (TB) with a prevalence of 121 cases per 100,000 population per year. TB usually...

A 5-year Profile of Trauma Admissions to the Surgical Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Hospital in Singapore

Our tertiary hospital has a 9-bed Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) that caters to all surgical disciplines except Cardio-Thoracic and Vascular Surgery (which has...

Sir John Wenman Crofton

Sir John Crofton, a world famous expert on the treatment of tuberculosis died in Edinburgh at the age of 97. John Crofton was born...

Rapidly Vanishing Pulmonary Pseudotumour

A 51-year-old male ex-smoker with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis was referred for exertional dyspnoea for 5 days. He had no fever, cough or...

Plasma IP-10 could identify early lung disease in severe COVID-19 patients

Dear Editor, The global pandemic of SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has imposed tremendous strain on healthcare resources worldwide, as a significant proportion of patients require...

Outcomes of second-tier rapid response activations in a tertiary referral hospital: A prospective observational study

Despite its widespread adoption, rapid response systems (RRS) and rapid response teams (RRT) vary significantly in composition and set-up.1-3 While implementation of RRSs appear...

Factors reducing inappropriate attendances to emergency departments before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: A multicentre study

Since the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in China in late December 2019, the pandemic has spread throughout the world,...

An Unusual Cause of Severe Pulmonary Hypertension in a Young Woman

Dear Editor, A 25-year-old Cambodian lady diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension in her native country came for second opinion on the further management of her condition....

Cognitive Aspect of Diagnostic Errors

It was an unusually busy ward round. The newly promoted registrar was keen to review the patients handed over to him. But there were...

Use of the Sole Flap to Convert an Above Knee Amputation to a Below Knee Amputation in Trauma

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) are performed for decompression of the spine when the primary compressive...

Emergency Medicine Residency Programme in Singapore—Where Are We at Since Inception?

It has been 4.5 years since the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME-I) accredited competency-based emergency medicine residency programmes were started in July...

Heterogeneity of non-cystic-fibrosis bronchiectasis in multiethnic Singapore: A prospective cohort study at a tertiary pulmonology centre

Bronchiectasis is a chronic lung disease of significant morbidity and mortality. The pathological hallmarks of the disease are abnormal dilatation of airways resulting from...

A review of child sexual abuse cases presenting to a paediatric emergency department

Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health issue with adverse short- and long-term repercussions. Formal definitions of CSA and the age for...

Attendance for ischaemic stroke before and during COVID-19 lockdown in Singapore

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has impacted healthcare systems worldwide. Globally, visits to the emergency department have fallen as much as 25% during...

Impact of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with interstitial lung disease in Singapore

Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) encompass a heterogeneous group of lung parenchymal disorders. ILD-related symptoms impact significantly on quality of life (QoL). Dyspnoea is the...

Radiological changes on chest CT following COVID-19 infection

COVID-19 infection is associated with high rates of hospitalisation and mortality, placing healthcare systems under strain. There are many reports regarding the non-contrast-enhanced high-resolution...

Health-seeking behaviour of foreign workers in Singapore: Insights from emergency department visits

Singapore employs a large foreign worker (FW) population, defined as non-Singapore citizens and non-permanent residents working locally. Holders of “work permit” (WP), the work...

Impact of dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation and myResponder mobile app on bystander resuscitation

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide, with a global incidence of 62 cases per 100,000 person-years. In addition, there...

Community-level interventions for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Singapore: Yay or nay?

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a leading cause of mortality and a significant public health problem globally. In Singapore, OHCA affected 11,061 adults between...

The Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Pandemic

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic began in early December in Wuhan, the 7th most populous city in Mainland China, and...

Circulatory collapse from rupture of splenic artery aneurysm: A case study

Splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) are uncommon and often asymptomatic. However, ruptured SAAs can be rapidly fatal. We reviewed the literature on SAAs and highlighted...

Decrease in emergency department attendances during COVID-19 especially in school-going children

Health-seeking behaviour varies during a pandemic. Early reports have suggested reduced attendances at emergency departments (EDs), especially in paediatric patients and in patients with...

Virtual reality mobile application to improve videoscopic airway training: A randomised trial

Emergency airway management is a keystone of emergency medicine practice and critical skill in residency training. An accredited emergency attending is expected to handle...

Paediatric emergency department attendances during COVID-19 and SARS in Singapore

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020, with over 110 million cumulative cases...

Epidemiology and risk stratification of minor head injuries in school-going children

Head injuries are common childhood injuries that present to paediatric emergency departments. Falls are the most common cause in young children, while contact sports...

Rapid Progression to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Review of Current Understanding of Critical Illness from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection

In this report, we describe a patient who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with rapid clinical deterioration. Unfortunately, not much is known about...