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Safe time interval for screening estimated glomerular filtration rate prior to gadolinium-enhanced MRI scan

Dear Editor, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast media are commonly used in medical imaging and are usually gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). They can be divided...

Functional improvement after inpatient rehabilitation in community hospitals following acute hospital care

Early inpatient rehabilitation therapy has been known to have beneficial impact on physical function and mobility, psychological status and cognitive function of patients following...

Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Continuous Blood Purification in the Intensive Care Unit

The last decade has seen a progressive change in the style of management of severe acute renal failure (acute renal failure which requires the...

Urinary 2/16α-hydroxyestrone Ratio: Correlation with Serum Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 and a Potential Biomarker of Breast Cancer Risk

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Singapore with age-standardised incidence rates increasing markedly from 26.8 to 38.7 per 100 000...

The Role for Preoperative Localisation Techniques in Surgery for Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is well recognised as a clinical problem that has a myriad of presentation. The classical presenting symptoms of hypercalcaemia have been well documented...

Clinical Predictors of Nephritis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Lupus nephritis is a common manifestation of lupus associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of cytotoxic agents has resulted in improved renal...

Outcome of Tunnelled Central Venous Haemodialysis Catheters Inserted by Radiologists

In end-stage renal failure patients, maintaining adequate vascular access continues to be an ongoing challenge. Native arteriovenous fistulas or synthetic arteriovenous grafts are satisfactory...

A Case Series of Falciparum Malaria-induced Acute Renal Failure

Predominantly a disease of hot and humid climates, malaria affects 270 million people worldwide annually, and has a mortality rate of 1%. The increasing...

Renal Cell Carcinoma in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

Dunnil and associates first described the association of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) and end stage renal disease. The...

Inferior Vena Cava Thrombectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma with Thrombus

A characteristic feature of renal cell carcinoma is the development of tumour thrombus extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC). This takes place in...

Current Therapeutic Strategies in Glomerulonephritis

Twenty years ago, the therapy of glomerulonephritis (GN) was relatively simple as it was believed that treatment with prednisolone should be confined to patients...

Preliminary Results of Heart-beating and Non-heart-beating Donor Kidney Transplants—The Singapore Experience

End stage renal failure (ESRF) is the most common end stage organ disease treated with transplantation in Singapore. Though renal transplantation is the preferred...

Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which could lead to visual impairment and blindness, is a recognised serious morbidity amongst surviving premature infants. The inverse relationship...

The Use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway in Post-Tonsillectomy Haemorrhage—A Case Report

A 53-year-old man with a history of hypertension and asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was admitted to the hospital for an elective uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, tonsillectomy and bilateral...

Deep Vein Thrombosis after Total Knee Replacement

Western literature reports a very high incidence of deep vein thrombosis in its population especially after orthopaedic surgery. In total knee replacement without prophylaxis,...

The Role of Cytokines and Cytokine Gene Polymorphism in T-cell Activation and Allograft Rejection

Cytokines are peptide molecules that are responsible for intercellular signalling during immune activation events. Cytokines are responsible, in large part, for the regulation of...

Proteinuria and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Gene Polymorphism

Proteinuria is considered a marker of renal disease. Traditionally it has been thought that proteinuria is the result of diseased glomeruli. This article is available...

Genetics of Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy

Immunoglobulin (Ig) A nephropathy is the most common primary glomerulonephritis in various parts of the world, and it was detected in 25% of biopsy...

Urinary Retention in Hospitalised Older Women

Voiding dysfunction is a relatively common problem in hospitalised older patients. Up to one-third of hospitalised elderly were reported to have post-void residual urine...

Case Reports of Low Dose Cyclosporine A Therapy in Adult Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome

There have been many reports on the use of conventional doses of cyclosporine A (CsA) in inducing remission among adults with minimal change nephrotic...

Abdominal Complications after Cardiac Surgery

Despite intensive therapeutic efforts, both the incidence and mortality of gastrointestinal complications after cardiac surgery employing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have not decreased during the...

A Twelve-year Review of Radical Cystectomies in Singapore General Hospital

Bladder carcinoma is the tenth most common cancer affecting men in Singapore. It is more common in men with an age-standardised incidence rate of...

The Course of Pregnancy in a Patient with Nail-Patella Syndrome

The nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder defined by the association of nail dysplasia, bone abnormalities and, frequently, renal disease. We...

Outcome of Pregnancy in Asian Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Experience of a Single Perinatal Centre in Singapore

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic connective tissue disease with a reported prevalence of 5 to 100/100,000. Women are affected much more...

Pregnancy after Renal Transplantation: Experience in Singapore General Hospital

Successful renal transplantation significantly improves the sexual and reproductive functions of women with end-stage renal disease and offers the best hope for those who...

Clinical Update on Deep Vein Thrombosis in Singapore

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and its acute complication–pulmonary embolism (PE), is one of the most important preventable causes of death in hospital patients. It...

Challenges in Perinatal Medicine

One of the significant milestones in the perinatal care in Singapore is the birth of the Perinatal Society of Singapore in March 1989. This...

Adolescent Alcohol and Other Substance Use: Sharing the Australian Experience

The most common causes of morbidity in adolescence often have behavioural or social determinants, and can have enormous social and economic consequences for adolescent...

Seasonal Variations of Clinical and Biochemical Parameters in Chronic Haemodialysis

Seasonal variations in the general population in some body functions and diseases incidences have been well-established (e.g., vitamin D levels, allergic rhinitis, blood pressure,...

Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS)

Liver failure is clinically heterogeneous in aetiology, pathophysiology, clinical severity and prognoses. It can be divided into the following categories: acute liver failure (ALF),...

Hand-assisted Laparoscopic Living Donor Nephrectomy

Minimally invasive donor nephrectomy using laparoscopic techniques has become a very attractive method of procuring kidneys from live donors, compared to the traditional standard...

3rd College of Physicians’ Lecture – Translational Research: From Bench to Bedside and From Bedside to Bench; Incorporating a Clinical Research Journey in IgA Nephritis (1976 to 2006)

In our quest to pursue knowledge regarding a patient’s illness or seek a cure for the disease, as doctors we have to derive the...

Guidelines on Cardiac CT in Singapore (2006)

The heart is difficult to image because of its complex wall motion and variability of the cardiac cycle. Recent advances in 16 and 64-slice...

Commercial Renal Transplantation – Body Parts for Sale

A 45-year-old Singaporean was seen for review by a nephrologist at a restructured hospital. She had been on follow up by a private nephrologist...

Factors Associated With Functional Decline of Hospitalised Older Persons Following Discharge From an Acute Geriatric Unit

Hospitalisation is a stressful event for the older person. The physiological changes associated with ageing, such as decreased muscle strength and aerobic activity, reduced...

Measurable Predictive Factors for Progression to AIDS among HIV-infected Patients in Singapore

The first case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was detected in Singapore on 16May 1985. The number of newly diagnosed HIV/acquired immuno-deficiency virus...

Multimodal Antiemetic Therapy and Emetic Risk Profiling

In the last few years, hundreds of papers exploring the issue of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) have been published. It has been estimated...

Factors Associated with Decompression and Strabismus Surgery in Thyroid Eye Disease

Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a visually and socially disabling condition. Newly diagnosed patients are often fearful of sight-threatening complications that include optic nerve...

Concomitant Coronary Artery Disease Among Asian Ischaemic Stroke Patients

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality following ischaemic stroke. The annual risk for myocardial infarction following ischaemic stroke is approximately...

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor versus Angiotensin 2 Receptor Antagonist Therapy and the Influence of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism in IgA Nephritis

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ATRA) are both well established drugs utilised to help retard the progression of chronic...

The Association Between Parental Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Medical Students’ Personal and Professional Development

In order to commit to their mission and placement requirement efficiently and effectively, policy-makers need to decide which types of students their training units...

Risk Factors for Conversion to Open Surgery in Patients With Acute Cholecystitis Undergoing Interval Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become a routine surgical procedure in general surgical units all over the world. Its implementation has expanded dramatically and is considered...

Cerebral Microangiopathy in Patients with Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Cardiovascular complications account for the highest rate of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), type 1 and type 2, respectively. The...

Drug Use and Dosing in Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important therapeutic problem. There is an increasing realisation that renal impairment is under-diagnosed, and this has led to...

ANCA-negative Pauci-immune Crescentic Glomerulonephritis with Thrombotic Microangiopathy

Pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis (Pauci-immune CGN) is the most common cause of CGN. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) defines a clinicopathological syndrome consisting of intraluminal platelet thrombosis...

Urotensin 2 and Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha (RARA) Gene Expression in IgA Nephropathy

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis in Singapore1 and in many parts of the world, contributing significantly to the pool of...

Epidemiology and Management of Surgical Upper Limb Infections in Patients with End-stage Renal Failure

Hand infections are common in the general population, and their management is usually uncomplicated. Several papers have noted that patients with diabetes mellitus have...

Peripheral Arterial Disease in Community-based Patients with Diabetes in Singapore: Results from a Primary Healthcare Study

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a significant complication of diabetes mellitus and accounts for the majority of amputations among these patients with diabetes. In...

Novel Trends in Haemodialysis: Where Are We Heading?

Despite advances in haemodialysis technology over the past 40 years and rapid proliferation of clinical guidelines over the last decade promoting evidence-based practices, the...

Evaluation of Intensive Care Unit-acquired Urinary Tract Infections in Singapore

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common types of nosocomial infections encountered in the inpatient settings including intensive care unit (ICU)....

Triplicate Ureter with Contralateral Duplicate Ureter

What do you see in this intravenous urogram? 1. Left lower ureteric calculus with proximal hydroureteronephrosis 2. Left duplicated ureter with lower ureteric calculus 3. Right triplicate...

Outbreak of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1-2009) in Singapore, May to September 2009

The first cases of infection with a novel influenza A (H1N1) strain were reported in 6 cases in California and 2 cases in Texas...

Rationale for Redefining Obesity in Asians

Obesity is a condition characterised by an excess of body fats. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there were about 1.6 billion overweight...

The Risk Factors for Ultrasound-diagnosed Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Adolescents

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing recognised as one of the most important causes of chronic liver disease in Western countries. It encompasses...

Profile of Hospitalisation and Death in the First Year after Diagnosis of End-stage Renal Disease in a Multi-ethnic Asian Population

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is reaching epidemic proportions and is increasingly a public health issue due to the cost of providing care to these...

Primary Hyperoxaluria

An 18-year-old male presented with complaints of abdominal pain. He had history of previous episodes of renal colic and passage of stones in urine....

Kidney Cancer and Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Taiwan

Kidney cancer accounts for 3% to 4% of all cancers. In a systematic review by Mathew and et al,2 the incidence of kidney cancer...

Dietary Protein Intake in a Multi-ethnic Asian Population of Healthy Participants and Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

Clinical practice guidelines recommend different amounts of dietary protein intake for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The recommended daily protein intake varies according to...

Avulsed Tip of a Systemic Iceberg

An 18-year-old male presented to the emergency department of Khoo Teck Puat Hospital with knee pain and swelling while playing basketball. He was unable to bear weight....