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Treatment outcomes of micropulse cyclophototherapy in uveitic glaucoma

Dear Editor, We present a case series, describing the utility of micropulse cyclophototherapy in the treatment of uveitic glaucoma. Prevalence of glaucoma in patients suffering from...

Through the eyes into the brain, using artificial intelligence

Neurological dysfunction is a leading cause of disability, affecting more than 276 million people worldwide.1 Over the last decades, the prevalence of neurological dysfunction...

The eye as a window to the brain

Over the last 20 years, it has become evident that the age-old expression, “the eye is the window into the soul”, might in fact...

Clinical outcome of bacterial endogenous endophthalmitis in 15 patients

Dear Editor, Endophthalmitis refers to the inflammation of the ocular cavities and their immediate adjacent structures without extension beyond the sclera, usually secondary to...

A Case Report of Neutrophilic Eccrine Hidradenitis in a Patient Receiving Chemotherapy for Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH) is a neutrophilic dermatosis primarily affecting the eccrine glands and occurs most commonly in patients undergoing chemotherapy for a malignancy. This...

Glaucoma Pattern Amongst the Elderly Chinese in Singapore

Glaucoma is a major cause of world blindness in developing and developed nations. The WHO Global data on blindness show that over half of...

Frontal Sinus Mucoceles Causing Proptosis—Two Case Reports

Frontal mucoceles are collections of inspissated mucus which occur when there is obstruction to the outflow of the frontal sinuses. The obstruction may be...

Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Patients with Resected Dukes’ C and High-risk B2 Colon Cancer with Fluorouracil and Levamisole

Carcinoma of the large bowel is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in Singapore. Although the great majority of patients are discovered at...

Experience with a Nine-step Policy Dealing with Requests for Medically Inappropriate Interventions for Cancer

Although great strides have been made in treating cancers, a significant number of patients still reach the point at which no curative treatment is...

Invasive Cancer after Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

The objective of a cervical screening programme is to prevent invasive cancer of the cervix by detecting and treating pre-invasive disease of the cervix....

The Polarprobe—Emerging Technology for Cervical Cancer Screening

Cervical cancer is a preventable disease that affects nearly half a million women worldwide. The Papanicolaou smear has been used for screening for over...

Occult Virilizing Ovarian Tumours in Postmenopausal Women: Problems in Evaluation with Reference to a Case

A remarkable variety of endocrinologic disorders may cause virilization syndromes. This can pose a diagnostic dilemma to even the most experienced clinicians. This article is...

Occult Virilizing Ovarian Tumours in Postmenopausal Women: Problems in Evaluation with Reference to a Case

A remarkable variety of endocrinologic disorders may cause virilization syndromes. This can pose a diagnostic dilemma to even the most experienced clinicians. This article is...

Pelvic Spleen Masquerading as an Ovarian Neoplasm

A 53-year-old Caucasian woman, a receptionist in a general practice, was referred to the gynaecology outpatient clinic with an 18-month history of heavy, irregular...

A Case Report—Delayed Vesicocutaneous Fistula After Radiation Therapy for Advanced Vulvar Cancer

To our knowledge this is the first reported case of an isolated vesicocutaneous fistula related to previous radiation therapy for recurrent vulvar cancer. This article...

Optimal Treatment in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

Gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD) encompass a spectrum of interrelated conditions: Hydatidiform mole (HM) Invasive mole (IM) Choriocarcinoma (CC) Placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT) This article is available only as...

Fallopian Tube Carcinoma—A Review

Fallopian tube cancer is the least common of gynaecological malignancies. It was first described by Renaud in 1847. This article is available only as a...

Current Management of Early Vulvar Cancer

Carcinoma of the vulva is an uncommon malignancy, but one that is amenable to early diagnosis if symptoms and signs are appropriately investigated. Although...

Topoisomerase-I Inhibitors in Gynaecologic Tumours

Topoisomerases are essential nuclear enzymes with a multiplicity of cellular functions involving DNA replication, RNA transcription, mitosis, and chromosome condensation. Two classes have been...

Screening for Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is the most common gynaecological malignancy with over 5000 new cases diagnosed every year in the UK and 22 000 in the...

Biomarkers in Carcinoma of the Cervix: Emphasis on Tissue-related Factors and Their Potential Prognostic Factors

Accurate staging is of utmost importance in determining the prognosis of carcinoma of the cervix. Demographic features such as race and socio-economic status have...

The Management Dilemma of the Mildly Abnormal Smear: Fact or Fiction?

Carcinoma of the cervix is still a relatively common gynaecological malignancy. However, despite being potentially preventable it still claims the lives of many women...

Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix

It is clear from studies in Canada, Scandinavia, and more recently the United Kingdom, that routine Pap smear screening has not only reduced the...

Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumours: Experience in the National University Hospital of Singapore

One of the most remarkable advances in the management of gynaecological cancers is in malignant ovarian germ cell tumours. Before the early 70s, some...

A Phase II Study of Combined CPT-11 and Mitomycin-C in Platinum Refractory Clear Cell and Mucinous Ovarian Carcinoma

Platinum resistance, either de novo or acquired, is a major obstacle in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. Platinum-resistance has been classified into the...

Single Agent Paclitaxel in Resistant and Relapsed Epithelial Ovarian Cancer After First-line Platinum-based Chemotherapy—Experience in an Asian Population

Ovarian carcinoma ranks fourth among causes of death in women and is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancies in Western countries. In...

Uterine Papillary Serous Carcinoma—The KK Hospital Experience

Endometrial carcinoma comprises a morphologically heterogeneous group of tumours. Several authors during the 1960s and 1970s described an unusual variant of endometrial cancer containing...

Radiotherapy as Local Adjuvant Treatment for Endometrial Carcinoma—A Review of 45 Patients

Radiotherapy as an adjunct to surgery has long been used in the management of endometrial carcinoma with the intent to improve local tumour control...

Outcome of Obstructive Uropathy After Pelvic Irradiation in Patients with Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

Radiotherapy is the mainstay treatment for locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix. It is also administered as an adjuvant therapy to patients deemed at...

The Surgical Management of Colorectal Complications from Irradiation for Carcinoma of the Cervix

Radiation bowel injury is a significant clinical problem because of the technical difficulties of surgery. Among the more common causes is radiation of carcinoma...

Adjuvant Chemotherapy in “High Risk” Patients after Wertheim Hysterectomy—10-year Survivals

Wertheim radical hysterectomy has today become an accepted method of management of stage IB and early stage IIA cervical carcinoma, particularly in young patients...

A Review of Patients with High-risk Carcinoma of the Cervix Treated with Combined Surgery and Postoperative Radiotherapy

It is generally accepted that early stage invasive carcinoma of the cervix, stage I to stage IIA disease, can be treated with equal effectiveness...

Outcome of Early Cervical Carcinoma Treated by Wertheim Hysterectomy with Selective Postoperative Radiotherapy

Cancer of the cervix is the fourth most common cancer in females in Singapore after breast, colorectal and lung cancers. It forms 7.8% of...

Gynaecologic Oncology—The Next Lap

Cancer of the pelvic reproductive organs and external genitalia accounts for one in six cancers in women. It can occur in women of all...

A Case Series of Ocular Disease as the Primary Manifestation in Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic, systemic, non-caseating, granulomatous disease with protean clinical manifestations. Although the first description of sarcoidosis was attributed to Hutchinson, its ocular...

Trends in the Pattern of Blindness and Major Ocular Diseases in Singapore and Asia

Singapore’s population has grown rapidly since 1965, the year in which it gained independence. The total population enumerated at its first census in 1970...

A Case of Accelerated Development of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in a Woman with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus after Pregnancy

Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in persons between the age of 24 and 64 years both in the US and the...

Trilateral Retinoblastoma—A Case Report

Retinoblastoma is the third most common tumour in childhood. It is inherited genetically. This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download...

Excimer Laser Phototherapeutic Keratectomy for Recurrent Corneal Erosions

Recurrent cornea1 erosion (RCE) syndrome is a commonly encountered clinical condition which may be difficult to treat. Hansen first described it in 1872. This article...

Use of EMLA Cream or Alfentanil for Analgesia during Ophthalmic Nerve Blocks

Cataract surgery is performed mainly as day-case surgery, with the majority performed under regional anaesthesia. Retrobulbar block, combined with facial nerve block, provides good...

Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Patients with Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma of the Undifferentiated Type

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) of the undifferentiated type has a unique geographic distribution and is rather different, biologically and aetiologically, from squamous cell cancer of...

Cancer Gene Therapy—Fantasy or Foresight?

Genes define life, at least in its biological sense. The prospect of being able to manipulate human biological processes through genetic engineering understandably evokes...

A Preliminary Study of the Immunohistochemical Detection of a Novel Tumour Marker, 22-1-1 Antigen, in Gynaecological Cancer Specimens

Monoclonal antibodies expressed against specific tumour cells can play a useful role in the study and management of such cancers. Such antibodies have been...

3rd Yahya Cohen Lecture: The Role of the Myofibroblast-Like Cell in Hepatocellular Carcinoma—Host Defence?

It is indeed a great honour for me to be named the third Yahya Cohen lecturer and I would like to express my deepest...

1998 Runme Shaw Memorial Lecture: Somatic Evolution of Cancer

The interpretation of cancer as a somatic evolutionary process involving genetic mutation followed by selection, goes back to the early years of this century....

Prognostic Factors in Endometrial Carcinoma

In the United States of America, endometrial carcinoma is the most common cancer of the female genital tract and has an annual incidence of...

Continuous Infusion 5-fluorouracil as Salvage Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer

Studies have shown beyond doubt that chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer prolongs survival, impedes progression and stabilises disease. Compared with supportive care alone, it...

Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which could lead to visual impairment and blindness, is a recognised serious morbidity amongst surviving premature infants. The inverse relationship...

Effect of Antiangiogenic Agents on Experimental Animal Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Metastatic spread is the principal reason of treatment failure in solid tumours. Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy have not manifestly altered the prognosis for...

Murine Metastatic Tumour Models for Cancer Gene Therapy Research

In the evaluation of any new cancer treatment, the use of appropriate experimental animal tumour models to bridge the gap between in vitro discovery...

An Animal Model for the Study of Hepatic Stellate Cell and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Interaction

Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are mesenchymal cells that are prominent in various forms of liver injury, in particular with cirrhosis or carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis....

Synergistic Effect of Hepatitis B Virus and Aflatoxin B1 in Hepatocarcinogenesis in Tree Shrews

Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the commonest cancers in some parts of the world including several areas in China. The geographically distinct...

The Expression of Insulin-like Growth Factor II, Hepatitis B Virus X Antigen and p21 in Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis in Tree Shrews

Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multistage and multifunctional process. Epidemiological studies indicate that contamination of food with aflatoxin B, (AFB,) and chronic infection with hepatitis B...

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes mellitus affects some 9% of Singaporeans. Studies had shown that virtually all insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1) and 85% of non-insulin dependent...

Cross-Sectional Study of Near-work and Myopia in Kindergarten Children in Singapore

Myopia is the commonest eye disease worldwide, and is especially prevalent in certain Asian countries such as Taiwan, Japan and Hong Kong. Physiologic myopia...

Extended Resection of Locally Advanced (T4) Stomach Cancer

Cancer is the most common cause of death in Singapore. Although there is a gradual decline in incidence of stomach cancer over the years,...

Design of Phase I and II Clinical Trials in Oncology and Ethical Issues Involved

Drug development is costly and time-consuming in terms of economic, patient and research resources. An integrated effort involving academia, industry, and regulatory authorities is...

The Correction of Oriental Lower Lid Involutional Entropion Using the Combined Procedure

Involutional entropion is a frequent cause of ocular irritation in the local elderly patients. The inturning of the lid margin and the eyelashes result...

Spectrum of Abnormal Mammographic Findings and Their Predictive Value for Malignancy in Singaporean Women from a Population Screening Trial

While screening mammography can detect early breast cancers, a significant proportion of asymptomatic women are subject to unnecessary workup and surgery when biopsies for...

Hereditary Breast Cancer: A Brief Overview

Worldwide, breast cancer is the third most common form of cancer, after lung and stomach cancer, and it is the most common form among...

Update of Genetics in Colorectal Carcinomas: Genomic Instability and Somatic Evolution

The hypothesis that carcinogenesis occurs through stepwise accumulation of mutations1 has now been generally accepted. However, there is continual dispute over how carcinogenesis can...

Myopia: Gene-environment Interaction

Myopia affects up to 70% of adults in Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Japan. The prevalence rates in these Asian countries are higher than...

Pseudomembranous Colitis in a Patient Treated with Paclitaxel for Carcinoma of the Breast: A Case Report

Paclitaxel was discovered in 1963 as a crude extract from the bark of the pacific yew Taxus brevifolia. Since its development, a range of...

Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma Presenting with Biliary Ductal Invasion—A Case Report

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumour worldwide. The local incidence of HCC is 40 per 100,000 in males and 20 per 100,000...

Pathology of Ductal Carcinoma In situ of the Breast: A Heterogeneous Entity in Need of Greater Understanding

Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in Singapore women, with an age-standardised rate of 46.1 per 100,000 per year and an annual increase in...

Two Cases of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

A 44-year-old Indian man was found to have a raised carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (49.5 μg/L) detected on routine medical examination in February 2000....

Causes and Management of Descemet’s Membrane Detachment Associated with Cataract Surgery—Not Always a Benign Problem

It is well known that stripping of Descemet’s membrane (DM) occurs not infrequently during cataract surgery. In 1928, Samuels described frequent DM detachments of...

Primary Anorectal Malignant Melanoma: Clinical Features and Results of Surgical Therapy in Singapore—A Case Series

Malignant melanoma arising from the anal canal was first described in 1857. It is uncommon, comprising only about 1% of all anal canal tumours. This...

A Case of Alpha-Fetoprotein-Producing Gastric Cancer

A 57-year-old accountant presented to her doctors in a neighbouring country in early October 1998 with problems of easy bruising, bleeding gums, one single...

Case Report: Acute Tumour Lysis Syndrome

Acute tumour lysis syndrome (ATLS) is one of the most urgent of all oncological treatment-related complications. It has a broad impact on organ dysfunction,...

12th Chapter of Surgeons Lecture: Shifting Paradigms in the Management of Breast Cancer—A Surgical Perspective

The recorded history of breast cancer management spans four millennia. This story about breast cancer management is also one about change, about resistance to...

CerbB2 Status in Breast Cancer: Pathologic Issues

The cerbB2 gene, also known as Her2/neu, encodes a transmembrane cell receptor with tyrosine kinase activity and epidermal growth factor receptor homology. All normal...

Cancer Incidence in Singapore, 1998 to 1999

The Singapore Cancer Registry has been monitoring the trends in cancer incidence since 1968. It publishes 5-yearly incidence figures for the periods 1968-1972, 1973-1977,...

6th Yahya Cohen Lecture: Visual Experience During Cataract Surgery

What a patient can see during his or her surgery can be a cause of anxiety for the patient. It may cause additional stress...

Efficacy and Tolerability of Irinotecan in Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer in Singapore

Colorectal cancer is the second most commonly encountered malignancy in the developed countries; in Singapore, it is the commonest cancer. With early detection, patients...

The Mastectomy Clinical Pathway: What Has It Achieved?

In an era of increasing healthcare cost and scarce resources, the tension between the cost and quality of healthcare demands not only effective but...

Agreement or Prediction: Asking and Answering the Right Question

In an article published in this journal, Chia discusses the difference between measuring association and agreement. In this paper, we extend the discussion to...

Age-related Macular Degeneration: What’s New

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the developed western world, accounting for approximately 50% of all cases of...

Preliminary Experience in Radionuclide Therapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Hepatic Intra-arterial Radio-conjugates

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy worldwide. In Singapore, the age-standardised incidence rate is 18.9 per 100,000 per year. This article is available only...

Visual Rehabilitation with New-Age Rigid Gas-Permeable Scleral Contact Lenses—A Case Series

Advanced primary corneal ectasia presents a difficult problem in terms of visual rehabilitation. Soft contact lenses do not address the astigmatic aberrations in these...

Paediatric Extracranial Germ Cell Tumours: A Retrospective Review

Germ cell tumours (GCTs) in children account for 2% to 3% of childhood malignancies. They arise from primordial germ cells and constitute a heterogeneous...

Re: 188Rhenium-TDD-Lipiodol in Treatment of Inoperable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma—A Case Report

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy that is best treated by surgery. However, in the vast majority, surgery is not possible and alternative...

Primary Meningococcal Arthritis and Endogenous Endophthalmitis: A Case Report

Primary meningococcal arthritis (PMA) and endogenous meningococcal endophthalmitis are both uncommon presentations of meningococcal infection that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of...

Carcinoma of the Cervix: Role of MR Imaging

In females with cancer, cervical carcinoma is second to breast cancer in both incidence and mortality worldwide. About 465,000 new cases are diagnosed each...

Radionuclide Therapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy worldwide. It is a major cause of death from cancer in East Asia, especially China, Japan, Korea,...

Non-consensual Double Reading in the Singapore Breast Screening Project: Benefits and Limitations

Double reading of mammogram is not the standard practice in the United Kingdom National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP). Rather, single reading of...

Gyrate Atrophy of the Choroid: Two Cases

Gyrate atrophy of the choroid (GA) is a rare choroidal dystrophy. It is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in progressive deterioration in peripheral...

Measuring Quality of Life in Chinese Cancer Patients: A New Version of the Functional Living Index for Cancer (Chinese)

Health-related quality of life (QOL) is recognised as an important aspect of patient care. In oncology studies, it may stand as the primary end-point....

The Molecular Biology of Peritoneal Carcinomatosis from Gastrointestinal Cancer

The term “peritoneal carcinomatosis” was first used by Sampson in 1931 to describe the intra-abdominal spread of ovarian carcinoma. Although ovarian cancers account for...

Colorectal Hepatic Metastases: Role of Radiofrequency Ablation

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in Singapore, accounting for 15.9% of all cancers registered with the Singapore Cancer Registry in the...

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in the Management of Colorectal Metastases: A Review of the Literature

Colorectal cancer accounts for the most number of deaths after lung cancer, both in the West as well as locally in Singapore. Liver is...

Hepatic Resection for Colorectal Metastases to the Liver: The National Cancer Centre/Singapore General Hospital Experience

Colorectal carcinoma is the fourth most common malignancy and the second leading cause of death worldwide. Although surgical resection in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy...

Computed Tomographic Appearance of Colorectal Hepatic Metastases

It is important to recognise the computed tomography (CT) appearance of hepatic metastases from colorectal primaries, as resection in a selected group may offer...

Current Status in Imaging of Colorectal Liver Metastases

Colorectal cancer is a common primary that metastasizes to the liver. About 20% of patients with colorectal cancer will have detectable metastases at the...

Current Concepts of Tumour Metastasis

Tumour metastasis, or the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumour to distant sites, remains the principal cause of treatment failure and poor...

Chemoprevention of Colorectal Cancer – Experimental Approach and Clinical Applications

The age-old adage of “Prevention is Better than Cure” is still very relevant in today’s practice of medicine. Many randomised population trials have already...

Practical Issues in Adjuvant Therapy for Rectal Cancer

This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download PDF” on top to view the full article.

Total Mesorectal Excision (TME) – Twenty Years On

In 1982, Heald et al1 at the Basingstoke District General Hospital introduced the concept of total mesorectal excision (TME) as a means of performing...

Flat and Depressed Lesions of the Colon and Rectum: Pathogenesis and Clinical Management

It was previously thought that the vast majority of colorectal cancers were derived from polypoid adenomas. However, several investigators have noted that most colorectal...

Surgical Management of Colorectal Metastases to the Liver

Colorectal carcinoma is the second commonest cancer in both males and females in Singapore, accounting for about 15% of all cancer cases. The liver...

Recent Advances in the Total Management of Colorectal Cancer

Considerable improvements in the survival and outcome of colorectal carcinoma have been made in recent years. These have been the result of advances in...

Unusual Case of Bowel Infarction with Invasive Aspergillus in an Immunocompromised Patient

The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer has been established and there has been a growing interest in its role in...

Initial Experience of Macular Translocation in Singapore – One-year Results

Choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) is a devastating complication of macular degeneration and a major cause of irreversible vision loss in many developed countries. The most...

Ocular Surface Stem Cells and Disease: Current Concepts and Clinical Applications

The ocular surface is a complex biological continuum responsible for the maintenance of corneal clarity, elaboration of a stable tear film for clear vision,...

Re: Evidence for an “epidemic” of myopia

In the Annals January 2004 theme issue on Myopia, Park and Congdon have disputed the reality of the increases in prevalence of myopia in...

Contact Lens Microbial Keratitis and Prior Topical Steroid Use: A Disaster in the Making?

Topical steroid use in cornea ulcers is still a very contentious issue in ophthalmology. A recent review by Wilhelmus found that the use of...

Integrated Hydroxyapatite Implant and Non-integrated Implants in Enucleated Asian Patients

Much has been published on the complications of integrated and non-integrated implants. Most studies on integrated implants pertain to experience with the hydroxyapatite implant,...

The HercepTest and Routine C-erbB2 Immunohistochemistry in Breast Cancer: Any Difference?

The proto-oncogene c-erbB2 (also known as HER2/neu) is located on chromosome 17q21 and encodes a 185-kD transmembrane glycoprotein. It belongs to the human epidermal...

A Case of Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Manifesting as Acute Abdomen

T, a 23-year-old female, was previously well until November 2000 when she presented with 1-year history of sore throat associated with neck lumps for...

A Case of Maffucci’s Syndrome With Pleural Effusion: Ten-year Follow-up

A 23-year-old male patient was admitted to Ataturk Chest Disease Hospital with non-productive cough, dyspnoea, chest pain and back pain. These complaints had begun...

Clinical Indications for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scanning

The purpose of these guidelines is to provide a broad framework for clinicians considering the use of positron emission tomography (PET) scanning for their...

Positron Emission Tomography – A Vital Component of Molecular Imaging

Contemporary medical imaging is progressing towards quantification of tissue function in addition to merely providing anatomical information, as illustrated by the rising use of...

Two Case Reports of Metastases from Colon Carcinoma to the Thyroid

Metastases to the thyroid are not as rare as previously believed and have been shown, in autopsy series, to be more common than primary...

Trends in Cancer Incidence Among Singapore Malays: A Low-risk Population

Cancer is now one of the most common causes of death in the world. Inspection of changes in cancer incidence in ethnically or geographically...

The Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial: Lessons from the Study Design

“A properly planned and executed clinical trial is a powerful technique for assessing the effectiveness of an intervention”. While each new clinical trial involves...

Myopia Progression Among Preschool Chinese Children in Hong Kong

Myopia occurs when the image of distant objects, focused by the cornea and lens, falls in front of the retina. It is the commonest...

The Epidemiology of Myopia in Hong Kong

Myopia is a refractive condition in which the image of a distant object is formed anterior to the retina of the unaccommodated (relaxed) eye....

Prevalence of Myopia in Taiwanese Schoolchildren: 1983 to 2000

Today in Taiwan, with increasing level of educational and living standard, the prevalence and severity of myopia appear to be on an upward trend....

Evidence for an “Epidemic” of Myopia

A number of authors have recently proposed that myopia is increasing at an “epidemic” rate, particularly in East Asia, and especially among populations of...

Using Natural STOP Growth Signals to Prevent Excessive Axial Elongation and the Development of Myopia

Myopia in humans results from an imbalance between the refractive power of the cornea and lens and the axial length of the eye, such...

Ocular Shape and Myopia

Myopia develops from a mismatch of the eye’s anatomical axial length and its focal length, as determined by the combined optical powers of the...

Is it Possible to Slow the Progression of Myopia?

The rates of myopia, including high myopia , have been reported to be rising to epidemic proportions in Asia and solutions to this huge...

Issues and Challenges for Myopia Research

Myopia is an ocular disorder of major public health and socioeconomic significance in many East Asian urban cities. In Singapore, the prevalence of myopia...

Accommodative Stimulus Response Curve of Emmetropes and Myopes

There is a strong association between myopia and near work, and it has been reported that the rapid rise in the prevalence of myopia...

Electrophysiological Findings in Persons With Nyctalopia

Nyctalopia is a subjective sensation of poor vision under dark conditions. It may be clinically associated with retinal diseases affecting the rod photoreceptors or...

Image-guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Malignancies: Experience at Singapore General Hospital

Radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the treatment of focal liver malignancies is a relatively new image-guided procedure that is gaining increasing acceptance in the radiologic...

Neisseria meningitidis Keratitis in Adults: A Case Series

Neisseria meningitidis has been reported as a causative organism for conjunctivitis and endogenous endophthalmitis, more commonly in neonates and young children. A search of...

Visual Recovery Following Emergent Orbital Decompression in Traumatic Retrobulbar Haemorrhage

Acute retrobulbar haemorrhage is a potentially sight threatening condition that can occur spontaneously or following retrobulbar injections and trauma to the orbit. Visual loss...

Macular Carotenoids and Age-related Maculopathy

The macula lutea is an anatomic region of the posterior retina that measures approximately 5.5 mm in diameter, and is exquisitely specialised for sharp...

Book Review

Ophthalmologists today depend heavily on various investigative modalities such as fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for an...

Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (r-TPA) in Fibrin Dissolution due to Postoperative Endophthalmitis

Cataract surgery is one of the most successful surgical procedures performed. However, postoperative endophthalmitis, defined as severe inflammation involving both the anterior and posterior...

Orbital Metastatic Tumour as Initial Manifestation of Asymptomatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma

Metastatic orbital tumour from gastric cancer is rare. In a Japanese survey of metastatic orbital tumours seen over 95 years, gastric metastases accounted for...

Eye Injuries in Singapore – Don’t Risk It. Do More. A Prospective Study

The issue of ophthalmic trauma is a major cause for concern. An estimated 55 million eye injuries occur each year worldwide, leaving 1.6 million...

Retrospective Review of Eyes with Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration Treated with Photodynamic Therapy with Verteporfin and Intravitreal Triamcinolone

Among the variety of paradigms implicated in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV), an inflammatory component has been a recent focus of interest. The...

Rates of Posterior Capsule Rupture During Cataract Surgery Among Different Races in Singapore

Posterior capsule rupture (PCR) is a potentially serious intraoperative complication of cataract surgery. The anecdotal experience of some surgeons suggests that differences in the...

Detection and Quantification of the Abelson Tyrosine Kinase Domains of the bcr-abl Gene Translocation in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia Using Genomic Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a clonal stem cell malignancy characterised by massive proliferation of mature and immature granulocytes, basophils and spleen cells, but...

The Feminist Approach in the Decision-making Process for Treatment of Women With Breast Cancer

The ethical theories employed in healthcare today generally assume a modern Western philosophical framework, which is applied to many issues such as abortion, euthanasia,...

Surgically-induced Corneal Changes Following Macular Translocation with Punctate Retinotomies and Chorioscleral Infolding (Limited Macular Translocation)

Changes in corneal curvatures and astigmatism after retinal surgery are well documented. Although some of these changes are mild and transient, some have reported...

Updates on the Surgical Management of Paediatric Cataract with Primary Intraocular Lens Implantation

Paediatric cataract has a low incidence compared with adult cataract. The estimated incidence is about 1 to 6/ 10,000 births. This article is available only...

Efficacy of Measuring Visual Performance of LASIK Patients under Photopic and Mesopic Conditions

LASIK is routinely carried out to correct the refractive errors of myopic patients. A high percentage of patients have good high-contrast visual acuity after...

Role of Ultrasound Biomicroscopy (UBM) in the Detection and Localisation of Anterior Segment Foreign Bodies

The presence of an intraocular foreign body (IOFB) is a common complication of ocular trauma. For surgical planning, the localisation of IOFBs has to...

Diabetic Retinopathy in Type II Diabetics Detected by Targeted Screening Versus Newly Diagnosed in General Practice

The epidemic of type II diabetes mellitus is now recognised worldwide. In India, it has been estimated that the population with type II diabetes...

Ethical Issues in Ophthalmology and Vision Research

The importance of ethics in research was highlighted in the USA when a healthy volunteer subject, 24-year-old Ellen Roche, died in a Johns Hopkins...

Can Long-term Corticosteroids Lead to Blindness? A Case Series of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Induced by Corticosteroids

Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is an idiopathic disorder characterised by serous detachment of the macula, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) detachment and areas of RPE...

A Novel Locus for X-linked Retinitis Pigmentosa

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is characterised by initial night blindness followed by progressive loss of visual fields and eventually, loss of central vision. RP is...

Utility and Validity of the Self-administered SF-36: Findings From an Older Population

The shift towards broader health perspectives and the emphasis on patient preferences have led to the development of many health questionnaires and their inclusion...

The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in the Diagnosis and Management of Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation (RAP) in Patients with Age-related Macular Degeneration

Retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP), initially described as deep retinal vascular anomalous complex in 1992 by Hartnett et al, has been recently defined as a...

Axial Length: A Risk Factor for Cataractogenesis

There are several known risk factors for cataract formation, including older age, lower educational status, smoking, ultraviolet light exposure, trauma, dehydration, diabetes, uveitis and...

Clinical Features of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa Associated with a Rhodopsin Mutation

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most prevalent group of inherited retinopathies. This spectrum of diseases affects approximately 1 in 4800 individuals. This article is available...

A Novel Mutation of the VMD2 Gene in a Chinese Family with Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy

Best vitelliform macular dystrophy is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by an egg yolk-like appearance of the macula. The vitelliform “egg yolk” lesions result...

Characterisation of Human Tear Proteins Using High-resolution Mass Spectrometry

Over the last few years, with advances in mass spectrometry, there has been increasing interest in exploring the proteome of body fluids such as...

Scanning Laser Polarimetry in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients on Chemotherapy

Pulmonary tuberculosis is a worldwide disease. In Hong Kong, there are about 7000 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis each year and the prevalence remains...

Time to Raise Awareness of Blindness as Another Smoking-related Condition

Singapore currently has a comprehensive range of tobacco control policies and programmes. It started implementing legislative measures against cigarette smoking in the early 1970s,...

“Galaxy in My Eye”: An Artist’s View of Cataract Surgery from Behind the Crystalline Lens

Cataract surgery is the most commonly performed elective surgery in many countries. As a result of advances in surgical and anaesthetic techniques, most cataract...

Methodologies for Interventional Myopia Studies

Past studies on intervention in myopia progression have given conflicting results. For example, in the past, studies on (PMMA) hard contact lenses took researchers...

Ethambutol-associated Optic Neuropathy

Tuberculosis (TB) has been present since ancient times. Around 460 BC, Hippocrates identified phthisis, which is the Greek term for consumption (TB seemed to...

Concurrent Intermediate Uveitis and an Enhancing Intracranial Lesion as the Initial Manifestation of Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis remains an enigmatic disease with protean manifestations. It is a multi-system disorder of unknown cause characterised by an accumulation of T-lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes...

Retrobulbar Alcohol Injection for Orbital Pain Relief Under Difficult Circumstances: A Case Report

The management of pain in the orbital region, whether ocular or orbital in origin, is complex and lies at the margins of several subspecialty...

Book Review

In Retinal Vascular Disorders, Dr Mohan and co-authors cover common and important retinal vascular disorders in a series of short chapters which are written...

Vision 2020 and Prevention of Blindness: Is it Relevant or Achievable in the Modern Era?

This review article considers the universal definition of blindness, the causes of world/global blindness, and ongoing international efforts in blindness prevention. The prospects for...

Enhancement of the Mechanical and Biological Properties of a Biomembrane for Tissue Engineering the Ocular Surface

The most recent treatment for severe ocular surface disease is the transplantation of cultivated corneal and conjunctival epithelial stem cells, which makes use of...

Mycobacterium-related Ocular Inflammatory Disease: Diagnosis and Management

Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease that has been detected in 3000-year-old Egyptian mummies. Robert Koch’s discovery of the tubercle bacillus as the aetiologic...

Photodynamic Therapy for Choroidal Neovascularisation Secondary to Inflammatory Chorioretinal Disease

Photodynamic therapy using verteporfin (Visudyne, Novartis Ophthalmics) has been proven safe and effective for the treatment of predominantly classic, age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-related subfoveal...

Variables Determining Perceived Global Health Ranks: Findings from a Population-based Study

In 1982, Mossey and Shapiro first demonstrated that global self-rating of health was a better predictor of 7-year survival than medical records or self-reports...

Multivariate Analysis of Childhood Microbial Keratitis in South India

Corneal infection is the most common cause of profound ocular morbidity leading to blindness worldwide. Corneal infection in children is difficult to diagnose and...

Can the Sequential Use of Conventional Silicone Oil and Heavy Oil be a Strategy for the Management of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy?

Advances in vitreoretinal surgery have greatly increased the anatomical re-attachment rate in cases with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). The availability of perfluoro-carbon liquids, indirect viewing...

Surgical Outcomes of 25-Gauge Transconjunctival Vitrectomy Combined With Cataract Surgery for Vitreoretinal Diseases

The recent development of 25-gauge instrumentation for vitreous surgery has promoted a great interest in the transconjuctival sutureless vitrectomy system. Similar to the trend...

New Concepts in the Management of Optic Nerve Sheath Meningiomas

Optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSMs) account for one-third of primary optic nerve tumours, are the second most common optic nerve tumours after gliomas, and...

Ophthalmic Regional Block

Patient comfort, safety and low complication rates are the essentials of local anaesthesia. The anaesthetic requirements for ophthalmic surgery are dictated by the nature...

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Radiation-induced Optic Neuropathy

Radiation optic neuropathy (RON) is an infrequent but usually devastating consequence of radiation to the optic pathways. It is almost exclusively an iatrogenic phenomenon,...

The Natural History of Occult Choroidal Neovascularisation Associated With Age-related Macular Degeneration. A Systematic Review

Choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) is a leading cause of blindness in the western world. It causes 90% of the visual loss in age-related macular degeneration...

Retinal Prostheses for the Blind

Each year, thousands of people are afflicted with photoreceptor degenerative diseases that reduce vision to bare light perception or complete blindness. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP)...

Age-related Macular Degeneration: An Emerging Challenge for Eye Care and Public Health Professionals in the Asia Pacific Region

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a severe ocular disease characterised by progressive deterioration of the macula, the most sensitive central back portion of the...

Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide for the Treatment of Diffuse Diabetic Macular Oedema – A Case Report

Focal and grid laser photocoagulation are the primary surgical treatments for diabetic macular oedema. However, laser treatment of eyes with diffuse macular oedema has...

Postirradiation Sarcoma of the Sphenoid Bone – A Case Report

Radiation-associated tumours of the temporal and maxillary bone have been reported in patients treated with radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. There was no previously reported...

Bruch’s Membrane Abnormalities in Dome-shaped and Mushroom-shaped Choroidal Melanomas

Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and is diagnosed chiefly in the fifth to seventh decades of life. The choroid is...

Human Limbal Progenitor Cell Characteristics are Maintained in Tissue Culture

The surface of the eye is covered by 3 distinct forms of non-keratinising stratified squamous epithelium – transparent corneal epithelium overlying the corneal surface,...

Angiographic Characteristics of Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy in an Asian Population

Acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a condition of unknown origin characterised by a serous detachment of the macula. It afflicts young healthy adults,...

A Nationwide Survey on the Knowledge and Attitudes of Malaysian Optometry Students on Patients’ Visual Experiences During Cataract Surgery

Cataract is one of the most common causes of visual impairment in the elderly and its surgery is the most common major ophthalmic surgery,...

Phase II Trial of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Sequentially Administered in Asian Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. It ranks first among males and third among females in the incidence of...

Towards 2020 Vision in Singapore

With the increasing demands of contemporary life, higher levels of visual performance are expected. In modern societies such as Singapore, many more adults will...

Putting Together Lesions in the Brain, Retina, Kidney and Pancreas

A 40-year-old Malay lady presented with a 6-month history of headache. She had a past history of a left nephrectomy 6 years ago. This article...

Fungal Pan-sinusitis with Severe Visual Loss in Uncontrolled Diabetes

Fungi are known opportunistic organisms, which potentially invade and infect a host with depressed immunity. Fungal pan-sinusitis complicated with orbital apex syndrome or cavernous...

Prevalence of Refractive Error in Malay Primary School Children in Suburban Area of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia

Refractive error remains one of the primary causes of visual impairment in children worldwide. Prevalence of visual impairment in children, is defined as uncorrected...

Tuberculosis Masquerading as Recurrent Metastatic Carcinoma of the Cervix

The incidences of certain malignancies are increasing and are major causes of mortality. Diagnosis can be difficult and delayed. This article is available only as...

Opening Our Eyes to Guide Dogs for the Blind in Singapore

The concept of the modern guide dog first began in Germany after World War I in an effort to support veterans blinded in combat....

Association of Epstein-Barr Virus with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Current Status of Development of Cancer-derived Cell Lines

Although nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been reported in almost all parts of the world, most cases of NPC are found in South East Asia,...

Diabetic Retinopathy in Diabetics Referred to a Tertiary Centre from a Nationwide Screening Programme

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in Asia. Singapore has one of the highest prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus (DM)...

Progressive Hemi-facial Atrophy and Keratoconus

Progressive hemifacial atrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome, PHA) is characterised by slowly progressive atrophy, usually involving one side of the face, and may be associated with...

Massive Retroperitoneal Adrenal Haemorrhage as the First Manifestation of a Lung Cancer

A 74-year-old man was admitted with sudden onset of right upper quadrant abdominal pain radiating towards right shoulder and right thigh. Pain was aggravated...

4th FY Khoo Memorial Lecture 2008: Nasopharyngeal Cancer Workgroup – The Past, The Present and The Future

Thank you Madam Chairman. First, I would like to thank the Singapore Radiological Society and the College of Radiologists, Academy of Medicine Singapore for...

Effects on the Contralateral Eye After Intravitreal Bevacizumab and Ranibizumab Injections: A Case Report

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is recognised as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinal neovascularisation. Anti-VEGF therapies...

Phase II Trial of Gemcitabine in Combination with Cisplatin in Inoperable or Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high incidence rate in Asia. In Singapore, it is the third most common cancer amongst males, and constituted 8%...

Pancreas-only Metastasis from Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

A 51-year-old Chinese man presented with a 3 month’s history of left cervical lymphadenopathy, rhinorrhoea, tinnitus and nasal congestion. On nasopharyngoscopy, a fungating mass...

Induction Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Using Paclitaxel and Carboplatin Combination Followed by Surgery in Locoregionally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer – Asian Experience

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in Singapore. The age standardised incidence rate is 45 per 100,000/year. This article is available only...

Successful Surgical Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma With Calvarial Metastases

Renal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for 3% of all cancers. Isolated haematuria or pain is the most common form of presentation. This article is available...

Current Understanding of the Treatment and Outcome of Acute Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma: An Asian Perspective

Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major cause of irreversible blindness in Asia and many parts of the world. It is a particularly serious...

The Toxicity and Outcomes of Continuous 5-fluorouracil/Cisplatin-based Chemotherapy Followed by Chemoradiation in Patients with Resected High-risk Gastric Cancer: Results of a Single Institute

Gastric carcinoma is the second most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Surgery is the only curative therapy, although 5-year survival rates remain poor...

Acute Concomitant Esotropia during Heroin Detoxification

Although acute concomitant esotropia following heroin detoxification or withdrawal has been described in a few case reports in Europe and Australia, it has not...

Intraocular Avastin (Bevacizumab) for Neovascularisation of the Iris and Neovascular Glaucoma

Neovascularisation of the iris is associated with many ischaemia retinal disorders and elevated levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor is found in patients...

Local Experience of Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Prostate with Correlation to Radical Prostatectomy Specimens

Prostate cancer ranks among the top 10 cancers in Singapore. The incidence of prostate cancer has risen by 5% to 118% in most Asian...

MMP-2, TIMP-2 and CD44v6 Expression in Non-small-cell Lung Carcinomas

Studies have provided data that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) facilitate tumour invasion, the establishment of metastases. On the other hand, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors have been...

Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features and the risk of malignancy in thyroid cytology: Data from Singapore

As only 5–10% of thyroid nodules harbour malignancy, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is important in triaging nodules requiring surgical excision from nodules that may be...

Characteristics of unplanned hospitalisations among cancer patients in Singapore

Cancer is a pervasive global problem with growing healthcare utilisation and costs.1-3 This situation is similar in Singapore where cancer incidence is on the...

The case for better hospitalisation selection in cancer patients

Public hospital occupancy rates and resource utilisation in Singapore are perennially high. In the last 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been...

Lack of Awareness amongst Community Patients with Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy: The Singapore Malay Eye Study

Diabetes is a major public health problem, and diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people.1 Previous studies have documented poor...

Cysticercosis of the Levator Palpebrae Superioris

Cysticercosis cellulosae, the larval form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, causes cysticercosis, in which humans serve as the intermediate hosts in the parasite life cycle. Cysticercosis...

Outcomes of Oral Tongue Cancer: Does Age Matter?

Oral cancer (including oral cavity and oropharynx) is the eighth most common cancer worldwide with oral cavity cancer among the 3 most common malignancies...

Surgical Metastasectomy in AJCC Stage IV M1c Melanoma Patients with Gastrointestinal and Liver Metastases

The prognosis of patients with stage IV melanoma or recurrent melanoma is poor with an estimated median survival period of 6 months. The recent...

Coexistence of Unicentric Castleman’s Disease and Locally Advanced Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma: More Than a Coincidental Association?

Castleman’s disease (CD) is an enigmatic lymphoproliferative disorder due to its rarity, uncertain aetiopathogenesis and heterogeneous clinicopathologic forms. This case report presents an unusual...

Management of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Metastatic Prostate Cancer with only Endocrine Therapy

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a systemic disorder that presents acutely with multiple organ failure. Although defined classically as a syndrome with a pentad...

Phosph-Akt1 Expression is Associated with a Favourable Prognosis in Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide with an estimated 34,290 deaths recorded in the United States in 2008....

Intraretinal Segmentation on Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an indispensable tool in the management of retinal and optic nerve diseases as well as in clinical trials....

Intravitreal Bevacizumab for the Treatment of Myopic Choroidal Neovascularisation in an Asian Population

Myopic choroidal neovascularisation (mCNV) is one of the most common causes of permanent central visual loss in patients with high myopia, and its natural...

Prospective Audit of Febrile Neutropenia Management at a Tertiary University Hospital in Singapore

Febrile neutropenia (FN) is considered a medical emergency and remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Oncology and Haematology units worldwide. A...

An Audit Study of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Ultrasound, Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Frozen Section in the Evaluation of Thyroid Malignancies in a Tertiary Institution

Thyroid lesions constitute a considerable bulk of surgical practice, majority of which are thyroid nodules. A large population study revealed that clinically apparent thyroid...

Inadvertent Use of Bevacizumab to Treat Choroidal Neovascularisation During Pregnancy: A Case Report

The recognition that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD) has led to...

Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Singapore Cancer Patients

Worldwide, the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) by cancer patients is highly prevalent. For cancer specialists, knowledge on CAM use in their...

rTSβ as a Novel 5-fluorouracil Resistance Marker of Colorectal Cancer: A Preliminary Study

Although colorectal cancer is common in Western countries, in the past, it has been uncommon in Asian countries. However, its prevalence has gradually been...

Atypical Presentation of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) typically presents with a retinal “cherry red spot”. In CRAO, infarction of the retinal nerve fibre layer renders the...

Dilemmas in Management of Brain Tumours in Pregnancy

Brain tumours in pregnancy are rare with an incidence of 15 per 100,000 and previous reports have shown variable outcomes. We present a case...

Peritoneal-based Malignancies and Their Treatment

Peritonectomy or cytoreductive surgery has been described as the treatment of choice for selected patients with evidence of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from the gastrointestinal...

Immunophenotypic, Cytogenetic and Clinical Features of 113 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Patients in China

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous disease with abnormal proliferation and accumulation of immature lymphoblasts within the bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood and...

Managing buccal space tumours

Dear Editor, The buccal space is an infrequently addressed fascial space of the head and neck region. Intrinsic tumours of the buccal space are...

Acute Marjolin’s Ulcer: A Forgotten Entity

Marjolin’s ulcers are malignancies that arise from areas of chronic irritation or injury that undergo malignant transformation after a period of many years. Such...

Kidney Cancer and Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Taiwan

Kidney cancer accounts for 3% to 4% of all cancers. In a systematic review by Mathew and et al,2 the incidence of kidney cancer...

A 22-year-old Woman Had a Lung Mass

A 22-year-old woman had an abnormal chest X-ray (Fig. 1) in her regular health examination. She was asymptomatic and a non-smoker. Chest computed tomography...

Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma of the Thyroid: A Case Report

Dear Editor, Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare form of neoplasm that usually occurs in the deep soft tissue of the lower limbs with...

Re: An Alternative Diagnosis: Bartonella Neuroretinitis

I would like to thank the authors for the reply to our case report. The differential diagnosis of Bartonella neuroretinitis in this patient was...

An Alternative Diagnosis: Bartonella Neuroretinitis

We refer to the letter ‘Lyme Neuroretinitis in Singapore: A Diagnostic Dilemma’ published in the April 2012 Vol. 41 No. 4 issue of the...

Five Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting as Asymptomatic Elevation of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level

Early detection of malignancies is not easy. Few methods of health screening have been proven to be of value. The use of carcinoembryonic antigen...

Too Much Medicine: Time to Stop Indiscriminate Cancer Screening

Like most industrialised countries in the world, cancer has now become the leading cause of mortality in Singapore. Approximately 1 in 3 deaths in...

27-Gauge Vitrectomy for Primary Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment: Is it Feasible?

Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) using the 27-gauge transconjunctival approach is the last frontier of small gauge vitrectomy. Only 1 paper has been published so...

A Decade of Progress in the Understanding, Prevention and Treatment of Age-related Macular Degeneration in Singapore

The year 2014 had marked the 10th anniversary of the nationwide Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Awareness Week in Singapore.1 This public health campaign, organised...

Outcomes of oesophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant compared with definitive chemoradiotherapy

Oesophageal cancer is the 7th most common cancer in the world, with 572,034 new cases diagnosed in 2018, and is the 6th most common...

Incidence and trends of ophthalmic cancer in Singapore: Data from Singapore Cancer Registry

Ophthalmic cancers are commonly encountered in clinical practice and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Globally, the incidence of ophthalmic cancers have...

Seeing through the eyes of patients with age-related macular degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a severe ocular disease characterised by progressive deterioration of the macula, the most sensitive central part of the retina....

Neuro-Behçet’s disease presenting as isolated intracranial hypertension

Behçet’s disease (BD) is a chronic multisystem inflammatory disease with a classic triad of painful oral ulcers, genital ulcers and uveitis. Neurological manifestations, though...

Teleophthalmology and its evolving role in a COVID-19 pandemic: A scoping review

The World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020. To control the outbreak,...