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TB or not TB? The axillary lump question

An 81-year-old woman of healthy weight presented with a 2-week history of a painless right axillary lump. Physical examination revealed a 2cm firm nodule...

Cardiac sarcoidosis: Difficulties in diagnosis and treatment

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem, granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. It affects the lungs in 90% of cases, but is also known to affect other...

A Case Report of Erythema Induratum of Bazin’s Disease

There are many dermatological manifestations of tuberculosis, ranging from distinct entities such as tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, lupus vulgaris, scrofuloderma, to tuberculides. The term tuberculide...

A Case of Mycobacterium scrofulaceum Osteomyelitis of the Right Wrist

Whilst infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis may be a common occurrence in this part of the world, those caused by atypical mycobacteria are rarely...

Hard Metal Lung Disease—The First Case in Singapore

A 38-year-old Chinese man and lifetime non-smoker, who had previously been well, was referred for investigation of bilateral reticulonodular infiltrates noted on his chest...

Human Genetic Susceptibility to Tuberculosis

The World Health Organization has declared that the recent resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) is a global emergency. Southeast Asia, which is seeing the greatest...

A Review of Cutaneous Granulomas and Lupus Vulgaris Following BCG Vaccination in a Skin Hospital in Singapore

BCG vaccines are live vaccines derived from a strain of Mycobacterium bovis that was attenuated by Calmette and Guerin at the Pasteur Institute in...

All that Wheezes is not Asthma—Broncholithiasis, a Forgotten Disease

Asthma is a very common condition which presents clinically with cough, shortness of breath and wheezing. However, ‘all that wheezes is not asthma’, is...

Scanning Laser Polarimetry in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients on Chemotherapy

Pulmonary tuberculosis is a worldwide disease. In Hong Kong, there are about 7000 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis each year and the prevalence remains...

Ethambutol-associated Optic Neuropathy

Tuberculosis (TB) has been present since ancient times. Around 460 BC, Hippocrates identified phthisis, which is the Greek term for consumption (TB seemed to...

Mycobacterium-related Ocular Inflammatory Disease: Diagnosis and Management

Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease that has been detected in 3000-year-old Egyptian mummies. Robert Koch’s discovery of the tubercle bacillus as the aetiologic...

Infectious Respiratory Illnesses and their Impact on Healthcare Workers: A Review

With the recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and its exceptionally high transmission rate in healthcare settings, healthcare workers (HCWs) and administrators...

Development of a Core Curriculum on Tuberculosis Control for Philippine Medical Schools

Medical schools play an important role not only in the building of medical expertise but also in the socialisation of future physicians. Societies expect...