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Four cases of HIV infection in men taking pre-exposure prophylaxis in Singapore

Dear Editor, Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with co-formulated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) is an effective prevention strategy against sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency...

A case series of higher-order multifetal pregnancies managed at a tertiary maternity unit

Dear Editor, Delayed childbearing and increased use of assisted reproduction technology (ART) have resulted in a dramatic rise in the incidence of multifetal pregnancies. In...

Clinical efficacy of primary human papillomavirus (HPV) screening with partial genotyping for HPV-16 and HPV-18 subtypes in women from 25 years old

The World Health Organization has launched a campaign to eliminate cervical cancer on the basis of effective vaccines against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes,...

Characteristics of anti-transcriptional intermediary factor 1 gamma autoantibody-positive dermatomyositis patients in Singapore

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a heterogeneous group of acquired, systemic autoimmune conditions characterised by muscular and extramuscular manifestations. As a subset within the...

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: Not nearly the end of the road

The clinical spectrum of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) has broadened over the past half century from a simple disease characterised primarily by muscle and...

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease screening in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cost-effectiveness and price threshold analysis

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing epidemic and has become a major cause of liver-related mortality and indication for liver transplantations globally....

Barriers to breast cancer screening in Singapore: A literature review

Breast cancer is a major public health concern and a leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide, including Singapore.1 According to the 2018...

Attitude towards screening for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in newborns in Singapore

Dear Editor, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common congenital infection.1 A systematic review that included 77 studies from 36 countries reported that the overall...

Retrospective analysis of neonates born after assisted reproductive technology and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit

Dear Editor, There are limited studies evaluating neonatal outcomes after assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Asia, especially Southeast Asia, hence this study aimed to...

Glaucoma Pattern Amongst the Elderly Chinese in Singapore

Glaucoma is a major cause of world blindness in developing and developed nations. The WHO Global data on blindness show that over half of...

Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix

It is clear from studies in Canada, Scandinavia, and more recently the United Kingdom, that routine Pap smear screening has not only reduced the...

Recurrent Gigantic Pyogenic Granuloma Disturbing Speech and Mastication: A Case Report and Literature Review

Pyogenic granulomas are common benign fibrovascular growths of the oral cavity that are non-neoplastic in nature. They may also present as skin lesions. This article...

Population-based Mammographic Screening in Singapore: What are Participants’ Views?

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Singapore and has been increasing in incidence since 1968. This rise is particularly marked...

Disseminated Penicillium marneffei Infection: A Report of Five Cases in Singapore

Penicillium marneffei is a dimorphic fungus that can cause infection in immunocompromised hosts. Reports on infection with this organism were initially uncommon, but after...

Factors Affecting Success in an Embryo Cryopreservation Programme

The first pregnancy resulting from the thaw and transfer of cryopreserved pre-embryos was reported in 1983 by Trounson and his team, in Melbourne, Australia....

Use of Ligase Chain Reaction and Polymerase Chain Reaction on Urine Specimens to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic in Singapore

Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are amongst the most common bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the world, causing substantial morbidity in young sexually-active...

Hyperlipidaemia during Normal Pregnancy, Parturition and Lactation

Increase in the plasma lipid fractions in normal pregnancy have been described but irregularity of sampling, difference in materials studied (whole blood, serum, and...

Spectrum of Abnormal Mammographic Findings and Their Predictive Value for Malignancy in Singaporean Women from a Population Screening Trial

While screening mammography can detect early breast cancers, a significant proportion of asymptomatic women are subject to unnecessary workup and surgery when biopsies for...

Isolated Non-compaction of Ventricular Myocardium: A Report of Three Cases

Non-compaction of ventricular myocardium is a rare morphogenic arrest of compaction of the ventricular myocardial fibres during intrauterine life. Usually, the left ventricle is...

Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Transmission from Mother to Child—A Cohort Study in Singapore

Since the onset of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in the mid-1980s, the number of HIV-infected cases has risen sharply throughout the world....

Current Understanding of Pre-eclampsia

Pre-eclampsia is a major cause of adverse obstetric outcome. It remains one of the leading causes of maternal mortality1 and continues to contribute significantly...

Outcome of Pregnancy in Asian Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Experience of a Single Perinatal Centre in Singapore

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic connective tissue disease with a reported prevalence of 5 to 100/100,000. Women are affected much more...

Osteoporosis Risk Factor Assessment and Bone Densitometry—Current Status and Future Trends

Osteoporosis affects predominantly elderly women; although younger women and men may also be affected. Demographically, the number and proportion of the elderly (aged 65...

Exogenous Surfactant Therapy in Newborn Infants

Exogenous surfactant therapy is widely used in the management of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and may have a role in the management of...

Obstetric Cholestasis: Current Opinions and Management

Obstetric cholestasis (OC) is a pregnancy-specific liver disorder. It is also known by other names, such as pruritus gravidarum, recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy...

Oral Lesions and Conditions Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in 1000 South Indian Patients

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major global health problem. It is estimated that the number of people living with HIV infection in...

Abnormal Liver Function Tests in the Symptomatic Pregnant Patient: The Local Experience in Singapore

The diagnostic work-up of abnormal liver function tests (LFT) in pregnancy is challenging, as the conditions peculiar to pregnancy have to be considered in...

Diabetic Retinopathy in Type II Diabetics Detected by Targeted Screening Versus Newly Diagnosed in General Practice

The epidemic of type II diabetes mellitus is now recognised worldwide. In India, it has been estimated that the population with type II diabetes...

Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: Universal or Selective Ultrasound Screening?

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Financing Newborn Screening Systems: US Experience

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Legal Issues in Neonatal Screening

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Neuroblastoma Screening in Japan: Population-based Cohort Study and Future Aspects of Screening

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Establishing a Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Programme

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Impact of the National Hearing Screening Programme in China

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Neuro-developmental Deficits in Early-treated Congenital Hypothyroidism

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Considerations in Choosing Screening Conditions: One (US) Approach

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Towards Universal Newborn Screening in Developing Countries: Obstacles and the Way Forward

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Diabetic Retinopathy in Diabetics Referred to a Tertiary Centre from a Nationwide Screening Programme

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in Asia. Singapore has one of the highest prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus (DM)...

Caesarean Scar Pregnancy: A Diagnosis to Consider Carefully in Patients with Risk Factors

A uterine scar pregnancy is a gestation separated from the endometrial cavity and completely surrounded by the myometrium and the fibrous tissue of the...

Screening Tools for Bacteraemia in a Selected Population of Febrile Children

Bacteraemia refers to the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. The presence or absence of toxicity differentiates occult bacteraemia, which is relatively asymptomatic, from...

Prevalence of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis among Female School Children in Singapore

Scoliosis screening in schools is still widely practised worldwide despite some countries abandoning the practise in recent years. Screening usually consists of visual inspection...

Human Rights as a Cornerstone of AIDS Prevention, Treatment and Public Health Measures

The International AIDS Conference (IAC) and the Singapore AIDS Conference (SAC) are biannual meetings held on even years. Both these meetings are occasions for...

Evaluation of the Dried Blood Spot (DBS) Collection Method as a Tool for Detection of HIV Ag/Ab, HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HCV in a Malaysian Tertiary Referral Hospital

Dried blood spot (DBS) or dried plasma spot (DPS) collection offers to be a promising alternative to whole blood or plasma sampling, as it...

Presentation and Outcome Amongst Older Singaporeans Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS): Does Age Alone Drive Excess Mortality?

Singapore is a country of high income with a low level human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, the yearly incidence of disease currently standing at...

Causes of Death in Hospitalised Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected Patients at a National Referral Centre in Singapore: A Retrospective Review from 2008 to 2010

The advent of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era has greatly reduced the mortality and incidence of new diagnoses of acquired immune deficiency...

Supplementary Breast Ultrasound Screening in Asian Women with Negative But Dense Mammograms—A Pilot Study

Mammogram has been the gold standard for breast cancer screening and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been advocated for screening of high- risk individuals....

National Health Survey on the Prevalence of Urinary Abnormalities in the Population: then and now (1975 to 2012)

In the planning of a tuberculosis prevalence survey in Singapore in 1975, it was decided to include a urine examination of the respondents using...

Hearing Loss in Newborns with Cleft Lip and/or Palate

Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is one of the commonest congenital malformations. A recent update collating data from international organisations for the years 2002...

The Greying Pandemic: Implications of Ageing Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Population in Singapore

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global public health issue. It is estimated that there are 37.9 million people living with HIV (PLHIV) today....

Reasons for termination of pregnancy in mid-trimester: A single-centre experience

This is a retrospective study conducted on 118 women who underwent mid-trimester pregnancy termination at 12–24 weeks’ gestational age at a tertiary obstetric unit...

Maternal obesity and risk of adverse obstetric outcomes in Malaysia

Obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), hypertension and preeclampsia. Unlike the well-known...