Bariatric surgery is the euphemistic name for the surgical treatment of severe or morbid obesity. Weight loss is induced by 2 main mechanisms. The first mechanism is restriction of the stomach, effected either by placement of a band to narrow the gastric inlet (think of a choker necklace) or by removing part of the stomach to limit its capacity. The second mechanism is reduced nutrient absorption; a gastro-intestinal bypass is created such that there is less surface area and contact time between food and intestine. These mechanisms are represented today in the 3 most widely accepted procedures—laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB).
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