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Instructions for Authors

  1. All manuscripts submitted to the Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore, must be original works that have not been previously published and must be submitted exclusively to the Annals.
  2. Statements in articles are the responsibility of the authors.
  3. Following acceptance, the Publisher reserves copyright of all published materials and such materials may not be reproduced in any form without written permission of the Publisher.
  4. Authors are required to complete an Author Declaration Form during the online submission process.
  1. Authors are required to submit the details of 4 nominated reviewers (2 from your country of origin and 2 from overseas) for their manuscripts in the following format:

    No. Name of Reviewer Name of Institution Email Address Specialty
  2. Names of the reviewers must be spelt in full and they should not be collaborators or based in the same institution as the authors. The decision on the assigned reviewers will be strictly determined by the Editorial Board.
  3. All papers submitted to the Annals will be subjected to external and/or editorial review.
  1. Annals welcomes manuscripts in the following Categories of Articles.
  2. Authors are to adhere to the guidelines stated for each category in drafting their manuscripts.
  3. All case reports will only be considered as a Letter to the Editors.
  1. The Editorial Board will consider for publication manuscripts submitted in the format established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.
  2. The Editorial Board reserves the right to edit all articles for purposes of style, format and clarity.
  3. Authors may be required to revise their manuscripts for reasons of content and word count. Excessive typographical errors may be returned to authors for revision.
  4. Compliance by authors to requested revisions does not automatically bind the Annals to publish any article.
Annals adopts ICMJE recommendations for authorship. Refer to http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/roles-and-responsibilities/defining-the-role-of-authors-and-contributors.html The ICMJE recommendations for authorship are based on the following 4 conditions:
  1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
All other forms of participation such as general support by departmental chairman, financial and material support, grants, secretarial support, scientific advice, etc., should be mentioned as acknowledgements at the end of the paper.

For the article categories, Letter to the Editor and Images in Medicine, authorship: maximum of 7 authors. This applied to new submissions from 18 July 2022.

Any change in authors (e.g. additions, deletions or change of order) after the initial manuscript submission must be approved by all authors. An explanation of the change must be submitted to the Annals, signed by all authors, including the added/removed/moved authors.
  1. Submit your manuscript at https://aams.manuscriptmanager.net. You will first be required to register as a user.
  2. Prepare the following separate files to be uploaded: Author declaration form Cover letter, Title page, Manuscript, Highlighted manuscript (if submitting a revision), Table(s), Figure(s), Patient consent form.
  3. Remove all author-identifying details in the manuscript body of one copy of your manuscript in order to ensure anonymity for a blinded peer review process. When removing author-identifying details, please anonymise the names of authors, institutions, institution review board names and approval numbers. If your manuscript contains an Acknowledgements section, include it in the Title Page. Submissions of manuscripts that are not anonymised will result in a delay in manuscript processing.
  4. For new submissions, upload two copies of your manuscript: one blinded and one unblinded, during the online submission.
  5. If you are submitting a revised manuscript, upload two copies of your manuscript: one clean copy that is blinded and with the revised sections highlighted as red font text, and another clean copy that is unblinded.
  6. The manuscript uploaded for Original Article and Review Article must include an abstract. For Commentary, the abstract is optional.
  7. If you encounter problems with your submission, you may email the Editorial Office for assistance at annals@ams.edu.sg
  8. Authors are not to resubmit a rejected manuscript under a same or different title. Authors are to contact the Editorial Office if they would like to resubmit in a different category.
  9. A submission fee may be charged for duplicate submissions.
Manuscripts must be accompanied by a cover letter signed by all co-authors. This must include:
  1. information on prior publication or submission elsewhere, of any part of the work,
  2. information on whether the submitted manuscript overlaps or duplicates any other papers, published or not,
  3. information on whether the submission is part of a companion paper or set of papers, and whether the other papers will be submitted to the Annals,
  4. whether the paper is being submitted for a specific theme issue (please specify the title of the theme issue),
  5. any additional information that may be helpful to the editor, such as whether the author(s) will be willing to meet the cost of reproducing colour illustrations.
The title page should contain:
  1. the title of the article (do not use abbreviations);
  2. the full name of each author with family name behind (underline family name);
  3. only one credential/degree for each author;
  4. names of departments and institutions to which they are attached;
  5. a short running head of no more than 40 characters (count letters and spaces);
  6. name, address (institution), email (office) and telephone number of corresponding author;
  7. word count of manuscript body and abstract (if any).
A 250-word summary of the paper is required for the following categories using the following format:
  1. Original Articles Introduction: questions addressed Methods: design, setting, sample, interventions (if appropriate), chief outcome Results: main findings Conclusion: only those related to results, both positive and negative, and clinical research implications
  2. Review Articles, Clinical Practice Guidelines, Consensus Statements Introduction: principal aims of the review Methods: sources of data, criteria for their selection Results: main findings Conclusion: principal conclusions, and clinical and research implications
  3. Commentary Abstract is optional. If included, use unstructured form of under 250 words.
  4. All other categories of manuscripts (Editorial, Letter to the Editor, Images in Medicine) do not require an Abstract.
  5. As the Annals has been listed in the Index Medicus and entered into the Medline On-Line Database, the abstract will be included with the citation in Medline. Thus, the abstract will appear when a computer search retrieval is done. Consequently, we would urge all authors to ensure that a good and comprehensive abstract of their article is prepared with each submission.
  6. When submitting an Original Article and Review Article, we encourage you to include a focused “tweetable abstract“ in 140 characters or less, after this abstract component in your manuscript.
  1. Authors are to adhere to the guidelines stated for each category of article in drafting their manuscript.
  2. Original Articles should not exceed 3,000 words for main text, a total of 6 tables and figures, and maximum of 40 references.
  3. Review articles should not exceed 4,000 words for main text, a total of 6 tables and figures, and a maximum of 60 references.
  4. For Original Articles and Review Articles, provide a summary of up to 80 words in bullet points for a Clinical Impact box. Please have your Abstract in view when preparing this box.Example:
    • This pilot study is the first to highlight the epidemiological need to screen women working as foreign domestic workers in Singapore for cervical cancer.
    • Findings underscore the potential disease burden in this population.
    Clinical Implications
    • The study supports the need to increase the awareness of and access to cervical cancer screening in women who work as foreign domestic workers in Singapore.
    • This data can potentially help policy-making and guide efforts to improve the health and productivity of such workers in Singapore.
  5. For Original Articles and Review Articles, provide a tweet/highlight of 140 characters or less on the key message of the study.
  6. Use Times New Roman, font size 12, double line spacing. Leave margins normal (i.e. one inch or 2.54cm) and number the lines continuously (in Microsoft Word, select: Layout > Line Numbers > Continuous).
  7. System Internationale (SI) units should be used for measurements.
  8. Spell words out in full in the first instance (such as superior vena cava, Wolff Parkinson White), and then place the abbreviation (SVC, WPW) after it. Thereafter, the abbreviations are to be used in the text.
  9. Do not begin sentences with a numerical figure. Numbers should be spelt out in words if they lead a sentence.
  10. Cite in numerical order every reference, figure and table. (Order of mention in text determines the number given to each.) For in-text reference citations, use Arabic numerals in superscript after punctuation marks.
  11. Declare at the end of the manuscript any affiliations or financial involvement with any commercial organisation with a direct financial interest in the subject or materials discussed in the manuscript.
Any statistical method used should be detailed in the methodology section of the paper, and any not in common use should be described in detail and supported by references.
As a separate section in the Title page document, one or more statements could specify:
  1. contributions that need acknowledging but do not justify authorship;
  2. acknowledgements of technical help and/or material support.
  1. In-text reference citations are to be numbered as superscript numerals.
  2. Place the References list immediately after the main text of manuscript.
  3. Number the references in the order of which they are mentioned in the text.
  4. List the first 3 authors followed by a comma and "et al."
  5. Abbreviate titles of journals according to the style used in PubMed.
  6. Examples of reference format: Goh KJ, Choong MC, Cheong EH, et al. Rapid progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome: Review of current understanding of critical illness from COVID-19 infection. Ann Acad Med Singap 2020;49:108-18. World Health Organization. WHO timeline−−COVID-19, 27 April 2020. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/27-04-2020-who-timeline---covid-19. Accessed on 18 May 2020. Kish L. Basic Concepts of Sampling. In: Survey Sampling. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 1965:35-74.
  7. For original articles and review articles, cite only articles that have undergone peer review and are available on PubMed. Articles from pre-print servers such medRxiv.org are not acceptable.
  8. If you are using EndNote to format references, please download the EndNote output style at https://endnote.com/style_download/annals-academy-of-medicine-singapore/
  1. Place each table on a new page.
  2. Give each table a number (e.g. Table 1, 2, etc.) and a title/caption in sentence case. Number tables in the order of which they are mentioned in the text.
  3. Do not use the enter key or space key to enter data in a table. Each data must be entered in a new cell.
  4. Footnotes to each table should be indicated by letters of the alphabet in ascending order
  5. Identify in alphabetical order all abbreviations used.
  1. Acceptable formats are TIFF, EPS, JPEG, PNG or PPT. To ensure high-quality printing, resolution of 300dpi or higher is required. A separate image file should be submitted for each figure.
  2. Figures should be professionally drawn; freehand lettering is unacceptable.
  3. Use arrows to designate special features.
  4. Number figures in the order of which they are mentioned in the text.
  5. Colour figures will be published at the author’s own expense, SGD80 per page (prevailing goods and services tax will apply).
  1. List all figure title/captions in sentence case, and legends if applicable, on a separate page in the manuscript.
  2. All abbreviations used in the figures are to be identified and explained in corresponding legends.
  1. Wholesale reproduction of all previously published tables, charts, figures and photos will require the author to seek written permission from the copyright holder/publisher concerned. Upload permission document in your online submission of manuscript.
  2. Patients shown in photographs should have their identity concealed and should give their written consent to the author for publication. Upload patient consent form in your online submission of manuscript.
  3. Reproduction of modified data will require at least a reference citing.
Materials that are not essential to the understanding and presentation of your research should not be included. However, should these lend support to your discussion, you may submit materials labelled clearly as Supplementary, e.g. Supplementary Table 1, Supplementary Appendix, etc. Supplementary materials will be published online only, in the original format provided, at the discretion of the editors.
The Annals requires clinical trials to be registered in a public registry before consideration for publication.

In June 2007 the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) adopted the WHO’s definition of clinical trial: "any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes."

Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example, drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events.

Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration. The ICMJE member journals implemented the expanded definition of clinically directive trials for all trials that began enrolment on or after 1 July 2008.

Those who are uncertain whether their trial meets the expanded ICMJE definition should err on the side of registration if they wish to seek publication in an ICMJE journal. The ICMJE secretariat office is unable to review specific studies to determine whether registration is necessary. If researchers or others have questions about the need to register a specific study, they should err on the side of registration or consult with their Institution Review Board.

Please refer to the registry that you choose to register in for instructions about the registration process for that specific registry, e.g. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov
Bringing your articles to an ever-expanding group of readers is an important step to promote awareness for your content and contribution to the discussion in your field of medical research.
  1. We are on Twitter and will tweet about your paper once it is accepted and ready to be published. When submitting an Original Article and Review Article, we encourage you to include a focused “tweetable abstract“ after the abstract component in your manuscript. The “tweetable abstract“ should include the main conclusion and key message of your paper in 140 characters or less (to allow us to add a shortened link to the article, hashtags and other twitter handles). Share with us your Twitter handle if you are on Twitter too, so we can tag you.
  2. Annals Instagram is a platform to showcase images depicting innovations and discoveries in your area of medical research, as part of the medical exchange on social media. If you are interested in submitting your images, please send to us at annals@ams.edu.sg, together with a short caption of about 100 words. A high-resolution quality of at least 300dpi will allow a better display of your images.
All decisions made on the submitted manuscripts are final and the Annals does not encourage any appeal.
Authors will be provided with page-proofs to proofread for typesetting errors after copyediting of the MS Word manuscript. Important changes in data are allowed but authors may be charged for excessive alterations. Proofs must be returned within the given deadline. Author’s request for colour printing will incur additional charges.
To help defray the Annals’ substantial processing and publishing expenses, a Publication Fee of SGD250 (prevailing goods and services tax will apply) will be charged for each accepted Original Article and Review Article. This takes effect for papers submitted after 1 January 2022. Fellows and Members of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore who are the corresponding authors will enjoy a discounted fee of SGD150 (prevailing goods and services tax will apply) per accepted article.

The Editorial Office will contact the corresponding author when the relevant article is accepted to process the payment.