Instructions for Authors

  1. All manuscripts submitted to the Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore, must be original works that have not been previously published and must be submitted exclusively to the Annals.
  2. Statements in articles are the responsibility of the authors.
  3. Authors are required to complete an Author Declaration Form during the online submission process. We accept digital signatures for the form.
  1. Annals welcomes manuscripts in the following Categories of Articles.
  2. Authors are to adhere to the guidelines stated for each category in drafting their manuscripts.
  3. All case reports will only be considered as a Letter to the Editors.
All papers submitted to the Annals will undergo editorial and external reviews. Most papers undergo at least 2 peer reviews.

Authors are also required to submit the details of 4 nominated reviewers for their manuscripts (2 from the country of origin and 2 from overseas) in the following format:

No.Name of ReviewerName of InstitutionEmail AddressSpecialty
  Nominated reviewers’ names must be spelt in full, and they should not be collaborators or from the same institution as the authors.

Nominated reviewers deemed to have possible personal, professional, or financial conflicts of interest will be replaced with other reviewers. Assignment of reviewers will be determined by the Editorial Board.

Reviewers’ manuscripts are blinded such that authors or organisations are not identified.

Beyond peer reviews, Annals follows a consensus process involving the Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editors from the Editorial Board.

Authors may be required to revise their manuscripts for reasons of content and word count. The Board reserves the right to edit all articles for purposes of style, format and clarity. Manuscripts with excessive typographical errors may be returned to authors for revision.

Compliance by authors to requested revisions does not automatically bind the Annals to publish any article.
Annals adopts ICMJE recommendations for authorship. Refer to ICMJE definitions for authors and contributors

The ICMJE recommendations for authorship are based on the following 4 conditions:
  1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
All other forms of participation such as general support by departmental chairman, financial and material support, grants, secretarial support, scientific advice, etc., should be mentioned as acknowledgements at the end of the paper.

For the article categories, Letter to the Editor and Images in Medicine, authorship should be limited to a maximum of 7 authors. This applies to new submissions from 18 July 2022.

Any change in authors (e.g. additions, deletions or change of order) after the initial manuscript submission must be approved by all authors. An explanation of the change must be submitted to the Annals, signed by all authors, including the added/removed/moved authors.
  1. Submit your manuscript at You will first be required to register as a user.
  2. Prepare the following separate files to be uploaded: Author declaration form, Cover letter, Title page, Manuscript, Highlighted manuscript (if submitting a revision), Table(s), Figure(s), Patient consent form.
  3. Remove all author-identifying details in the manuscript body of one copy of your manuscript in order to ensure anonymity for a blinded peer review process. When removing author-identifying details, please anonymise the names of authors, institutions, institution review board names and approval numbers. If your manuscript contains an Acknowledgements section, include it in the Title Page. Submissions of manuscripts that are not anonymised will result in a delay in manuscript processing.
  4. For new submissions, upload two copies of your manuscript: one blinded and one unblinded, during the online submission.
  5. If you are submitting a revised manuscript, upload two copies of your manuscript: one clean copy that is blinded and with the revised sections highlighted as red font text, and another clean copy that is unblinded.
  6. Manuscripts for Original Articles and Review Articles must include an abstract. For Commentary, the abstract is optional.
  7. If you encounter problems with your submission, you may email the Editorial Office for assistance at [email protected]
  8. Authors are not to resubmit a rejected manuscript under a same or different title. Authors are to contact the Editorial Office if they would like to resubmit in a different category.
  9. A submission fee may be charged for duplicate submissions.
Manuscripts must be accompanied by a Cover Letter signed by all co-authors. This must include:
  1. information on prior publication or submission elsewhere, of any part of the work;
  2. information on whether the submitted manuscript overlaps or duplicates any other papers, published or not;
  3. information on whether the submission is part of a companion paper or set of papers, and whether the other papers will be submitted to the Annals;
  4. whether the paper is being submitted for a specific theme issue (please specify the title of the theme issue);
  5. description of use of generative AI or AI-assisted technologies (see Author Declaration Form for details);
  6. any additional information that may be helpful to the editor in assessing the paper.
Title Page should contain:
  1. the title of the article (do not use abbreviations);
  2. the full name of each author with family name behind (underline family name);
  3. only one credential/degree for each author;
  4. names of departments and institutions to which they are attached;
  5. a short running head of no more than 40 characters (count letters and spaces);
  6. name, address (institution), email (office) and telephone number of corresponding author;
  7. word count of manuscript body and abstract (if any).
An abstract summary of the paper (not exceeding 250 words) is required for the following categories using the following format:
  1. Original Articles: Introduction (questions addressed); Method (design, setting, sample, interventions, if appropriate, chief outcome); Results (main findings); and Conclusion (only those related to results, both positive and negative, and clinical research implications)
  2. Review Articles, Clinical Practice Guidelines, Consensus Statements: Introduction (principal aims of the review); Method (sources of data, criteria for their selection); Results (main findings); Conclusion (principal conclusions, and clinical and research implications)
  3. Commentary: Abstract is optional. If included, use unstructured form of under 250 words.
  4. All other categories of manuscripts (Editorial, Letter to the Editor, Images in Medicine) do not require an abstract.
  5. The abstract will be included with the citation when indexed in databases like Medline. Thus, the abstract will appear when a computer search retrieval is done. Consequently, we would urge all authors to ensure that a good and comprehensive abstract of their article is prepared with each submission.
  6. When submitting an Original Article and Review Article, we encourage you to include a focused “tweetable abstract“ in 140 characters or less, after this abstract component in your manuscript.
  1. Authors are to adhere to the guidelines stated for each category of article in drafting their manuscript.
  2. Original Articles should not exceed 3,000 words for main text, a total of 6 tables and figures, and maximum of 40 references.
  3. Review Articles should not exceed 4,000 words for main text, a total of 6 tables and figures, and a maximum of 60 references.
  4. For Original Articles and Review Articles, provide a summary of up to 80 words in bullet points for a Clinical Impact box. Please have your Abstract in view when preparing this box. Example:
    • This pilot study is the first to highlight the epidemiological need to screen women working as foreign domestic workers in Singapore for cervical cancer.
    • Findings underscore the potential disease burden in this population.
    Clinical Implications
    • The study supports the need to increase the awareness of and access to cervical cancer screening in women who work as foreign domestic workers in Singapore.
    • This data can potentially help policy-making and guide efforts to improve the health and productivity of such workers in Singapore.
  5. For Original Articles and Review Articles, provide a tweet/highlight of 140 characters or less on the key message of the study.
  6. Use Times New Roman, font size 12, double line spacing. Leave margins normal (i.e. one inch or 2.54cm) and number the lines continuously (in Microsoft Word, select: Layout > Line Numbers > Continuous).
  7. System Internationale (SI) units should be used for measurements.
  8. When using abbreviations, spell words out in full in the first instance (such as superior vena cava, Wolff Parkinson White), and then place the abbreviation (SVC, WPW) after it. Thereafter, the abbreviations are to be used in the text.
  9. Do not begin sentences with a numerical figure. Numbers should be spelt out in words if they lead a sentence.
  10. Cite in numerical order every reference, figure and table. (Order of mention in text determines the number given to each.) For in-text reference citations, use Arabic numerals in superscript after punctuation marks.
  11. Describe in the manuscript if any generative artificial intelligence (AI) or AI-assisted technologies have been used, and how.
  12. Declare at the end of the manuscript any affiliations or financial involvement with any commercial organisation with a direct financial interest in the subject or materials discussed in the manuscript.
Any statistical method used should be detailed in the methodology section of the paper, and any not in common use should be described in detail and supported by references.
As a separate section in the Title Page document, one or more statements could specify:
  1. contributions that need acknowledging but do not justify authorship;
  2. acknowledgements of technical help and/or material support.
  1. In-text reference citations are to be numbered as superscript numerals.
  2. Place the References list immediately after the main text of manuscript.
  3. Number the references in the order of which they are mentioned in the text.
  4. Where there are more than 3 authors, list the first 3 authors followed by a comma and "et al."
  5. Abbreviate titles of journals according to the style used in PubMed.
  6. Examples of reference format: Goh KJ, Choong MC, Cheong EH, et al. Rapid progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome: Review of current understanding of critical illness from COVID-19 infection. Ann Acad Med Singap 2020;49:108-18. World Health Organization. WHO timeline−−COVID-19, 27 April 2020. Available at: Accessed on 18 May 2020. Kish L. Basic Concepts of Sampling. In: Survey Sampling. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 1965:35-74.
  7. For original articles and review articles, cite only articles that have undergone peer review and are available on PubMed. Articles from pre-print servers such are not acceptable.
  8. If you are using EndNote to format references, please download the EndNote output style at
  1. Place each table on a new page.
  2. Give each table a number (e.g. Table 1, 2, etc.) and a title/caption in sentence case. Number tables in the order of which they are mentioned in the text.
  3. Do not use the enter key or space key to enter data in a table. Each data must be entered in a new cell.
  4. Footnotes to each table should be indicated by letters of the alphabet in ascending order
  5. Identify in alphabetical order all abbreviations used.
  1. Acceptable formats are TIFF, EPS, JPEG, PNG or PPT. To ensure high resolution, a resolution of 300dpi or higher is required. A separate image file should be submitted for each figure.
  2. Figures should be professionally drawn; freehand lettering is unacceptable.
  3. Use arrows to designate special features.
  4. Number figures in the order of which they are mentioned in the text.
  5. Colour figures will be published at the author’s own expense, SGD80 per page (prevailing goods and services tax will apply).
  6. List all figure title/captions in sentence case, and legends, if applicable, on a separate page in the manuscript.
  7. All abbreviations used in the figures are to be identified and explained in corresponding legends.
Materials that are not essential to the understanding and presentation of your research should not be included. However, should these lend support to your discussion, you may submit materials labelled clearly as Supplementary, e.g. Supplementary Table 1, Supplementary Appendix, etc. Supplementary materials will be published online only, in the original format provided, at the discretion of the editors.
  1. Wholesale reproduction of all previously published tables, charts, figures and photos will require the author to seek written permission from the copyright holder/publisher concerned. Upload the permission document in your online submission of manuscript.
  2. Patients shown in photographs should have their identity concealed and should give their written consent to the author for publication. Upload the patient consent form in your online submission of manuscript.
  3. Reproduction of modified data will require at least a reference citing.
The Annals requires clinical trials to be registered in a public registry before consideration for publication. Those who are uncertain whether their trial meets the ICMJE definition should err on the side of registration if they wish to seek publication. If researchers or others have questions about the need to register a specific study, they should err on the side of registration or consult with their institutional review board.

Please refer to the registry that you choose to register in, for instructions about the registration process for that specific registry, e.g.

When reporting a clinical trial, authors should ensure that its Data Sharing policy complies with requirements from respective institutional review boards and medical councils, and funding agencies.

Authors are to declare affiliations / financial involvement with any organisation with direct financial interest in the subject or materials discussed in their manuscript, within the Author Declaration Form.

Associate Editors are to declare conflicts of interest in relation to the authors or the organisations; while Reviewers are to declare potential conflicts based on the blinded manuscripts.

Annals aims to publish articles that report on work that is morally acceptable, with informed consent, and expects authors to follow the Declaration of Helsinki

Research involving human subjects, human material, or human data must also have been performed according to the appropriate ethics committee and ethics requirement of the respective institutions involved. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether institutional and national standards for the use of laboratory animals were followed.
When a correction is needed, Annals will publish a correction notice within the online article as soon as possible, detailing the correction made.

As an evidence-based journal, calls for retraction of data will be directed to the authors for their response.
Annals is dedicated to upholding the highest standards of academic integrity. Plagiarism, defined as the uncredited use of another's work, is strictly prohibited in all submitted manuscripts.

Plagiarism: Plagiarism includes copying text, ideas, data, or work without proper citation, paraphrasing without attribution, or using images, figures, or tables without permission and acknowledgment.

Detection: We perform manual checks for all submissions.

Consequences: Manuscripts found with plagiarism may be rejected, and the author's institution may be informed. Future submissions to Annals may be prohibited or suspended for a period of time.

Author Responsibility: Authors must ensure the originality of their work, properly citing all sources, including their prior publications. This is part of the Author Declaration Form required for all submissions.

Editorial Review: Allegations of plagiarism are taken seriously, and authors have the opportunity to explain potential overlaps.

Appeals: Authors can appeal by providing evidence to support their claims.
Authors will be provided with page-proofs to proofread for typesetting errors after copyediting of the MS Word manuscript. Important changes in data are allowed but authors may be charged for excessive alterations. Proofs must be returned within the given deadline. Author’s request for colour printing will incur additional charges.
To help defray the Annals’ substantial processing and publishing expenses, there is a Publication Charge of SGD500 (prevailing goods and services tax will apply) for each accepted Original Article and Review Article. This takes effect for papers submitted after 1 January 2023. Fellows and Members of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore, who are the First or Corresponding Authors will enjoy a discounted fee of SGD150 (prevailing goods and services tax will apply) per accepted Original Article and Review Article.

The Editorial Office will contact the corresponding author when the relevant article is accepted to process the payment.
Bringing your articles to an ever-expanding group of readers is an important step to promote awareness for your content and contribution to your field of medical research.
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