Introduction: In this study of 109 patients with IgA nephritis (IgAN), we compared the long term effects on patients treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor antagonist (ATRA) alone with respect to renal outcome in terms of ESRF from 1995 to 2006. The renal outcome is also correlated with the ACE gene ID polymorphism to study its influence on response to ACEI/ATRA therapy.Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven patients were on treatment with ACEI/ATRA (22 on ACEI alone, 47 on ATRA alone and 8 on both). The other 32 patients were on no treatment (control group). Results: Compared to controls, treated patients had lower serum creatinine (P<0.001), lower proteinuria (P<0.001) and fewer number progressing to ESRF (P<0.001). For those with the II and ID genotype there were significantly fewer patients with ESRF in the treatment group. With the DD genotype, treatment did not change the poor renal outcome with regard to ESRF. Patients on ACEI therapy had a higher incidence of ESRF compared to those on ATRA (P<0.001). For the control group, the projected number of years-to-ESRF was 10 years. For those on ACEI therapy it was 11 years, and for those on ATRA therapy it was 24 years. Among patients with the II genotype, those treated with ATRA had significantly less incidence of ESRF compared to those treated with ACEI (P<0.001). Conclusion: ATRA therapy was found to be effective in retarding disease progression to ESRF in IgAN compared to ACEI therapy. Genotyping showed better response to ATRA therapy only for those with the II genotype.
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ATRA) are both well established drugs utilised to help retard the progression of chronic kidney diseases to end-stage renal failure (ESRF), either by reducing proteinuria or even reversing mild renal impairment and restoring normal renal function in some cases. Recently Suissa et al reported that the use of ACEI in diabetic patients is not associated with a long-term decreased risk of ESRF.
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