The menisci are important tissues in the healthy knee due to their shock absorption and load distribution properties. Meniscal tears are important clinically due to pain and swelling and the mechanical symptoms they cause such as locking. The arthroscopic anatomical classification of meniscal tears was described by Dandy in 1990. In the paper, he noted that the majority (69%) of meniscal tears were vertical types which gave rise to bucket handle tears. The other types of tear morphology included horizontal which gave rise to flaps, radial, cystic degeneration, and tears with inverted fragments. In particular, the paper reported that 6% of medial meniscal tears were inverted fragments which arose from horizontal flap tears or ruptured bucket handle fragments. Such inverted fragments could be found tucked beneath the intact meniscal rim. Dandy made a note that inverted tears were often difficult to recognise but could be identified by thickening and rounding of the meniscal margin.
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