• Vol. 43 No. 9, 448–453
  • 15 September 2014

Can Preoperative Scoring Systems be Applied to Asian Hip Fracture Populations? Validation of the Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS) and Identification of Preoperative Risk Factors in Hip Fractures

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ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hip fractures in the elderly are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Determining which patients will benefit from hip fracture surgery is crucial to reducing mortality and morbidity. Our objectives are: 1) to define the rate of index admission, 1-month and 1-year mortality in all hip fracture patients, and 2) to apply the Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS) to determine validity in an Asian population.

Method: This is a prospective cohort study of 212 patients with hip fractures above 60 years from September 2009 to April 2010 for 1-year. Sociodemographic, prefracture comorbidity and data on functional status was collected on admission, and at intervals after discharge. The main outcome measures were mortality on index admission, 1 month and 12 months after treatment.

Results: In our study, the overall mortality at 1-month and 1-year after surgery was 7.3% and 14.6% respectively. Surgically treated hip fracture patients had lower odds ratio (OR) for mortality as compared to conservatively treated ones. The OR was 0.17 during index admission, 0.17 at 1-month, and 0.18 at 12-months after discharge. These were statistically significant. Adjustments for age, gender, and duration to surgery were taken into account. The NHFS was found to be a good predictor of 1-month mortality after surgery.

Conclusion: Surgically treated hip fracture patients have a lower OR for mortality than conservatively managed ones even up to 1-year. The NHFS has shown to predict 1-month mortality accurately for surgically treated hip fracture patients, even for our Asian population. It can be used as a tool for clinicians at the individual patient level to communicate risk with patients and help plan care for fracture patients.


Osteoporotic hip fractures are common and have significant consequences on mortality and functional capability which indirectly has familial, social and economic repercussions. The inpatient mortality rates approach 4% to 12%, while 1-year mortality is between 12% to 37%.2, Studies from Denmark, Italy, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (US) showed that the 1-year survival rate might be as low as 64% to 75%. Those from Sweden, Greece, and Japan however revealed that the survival rate is around 80% to 90%. In Singapore, the mortality rates have been shown to be around 5.7% at index admission and between 15% and 26% at 1-year.

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