Today, milk formulas have evolved to not just daily nutrition, but also as part of the essential medical treatment, or what we term as nutritional therapy. Clinical situations
where the physician may consider using specialised milk formulas are: (i) conditions that inhibit any one or combination of processes involved in nutrition—ingestion,
digestion, absorption and metabolism; and/or (ii) diseases where nutritional therapy acts as a medical intervention to prevent, delay or reduce medical complications or
sequelae. Examples are inborn errors of metabolism, severe malabsorptive syndromes (e.g. short bowel syndrome, congenital enteropathy), food allergies, Crohn’s disease
and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.
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