Introduction: The objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of ceftazidime (2 g every 8 h), piperacillin/tazobactam (4 g/500 mg every 6 h), and meropenem (1 g every 8 h), when combined with amikacin (15 mg/kg once daily), in the empirical treatment of high-risk febrile neutropenic episodes in patients with haematological malignancy.Materials and Methods: A prospective, comparative study designed in the haematology unit of a university hospital in Turkey. Results: A total of 89 febrile episodes in 60 neutropenic patients were treated; 29 febrile episodes in 23 patients with ceftazidime plus amikacin (group 1), 30 episodes in 25 patients with piperacillin/tazobactam plus amikacin (group 2), and 30 episodes in 25 patients with meropenem plus amikacin (group 3). The 3 groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, underlying malignancy, pretherapy neutrophil counts, duration of neutropenia and types of infections. Neutropenia, since the start of fever, persisted for ≥10 days in all of the episodes in the 3 study groups. Nearly all of the episodes were seen in patients with acute leukaemia. In 25.8% (23/89) of the febrile neutropenia episodes, an aetiologic organism was isolated, with gram-negative bacteria being the most commonly isolated. The success without modification rates were 34.5%, 30% and 36.7% for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (P >0.05). After modification with a different class of antimicrobial therapy, the response rates increased to 65.5%, 63.3% and 70% for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (P >0.05). The mean duration of treatment and the time to defervescence were also comparable in all groups. In all arms, side effects were minimal. Conclusions: It is concluded that the 3 regimens were equally effective and safe in the empirical treatment of high-risk febrile neutropenic episodes.
Cancer patients who become severely neutropenic as a result of intensive myelosuppressive chemotherapy are at high risk for developing life-threatening infections, and unless they are treated at the first sign of infection, the rate of mortality is high. Because of the defect in the inflammatory response, the classic signs of infection such as pain, heat, redness and swelling are often absent in neutropenic patients.
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