• Vol. 44 No. 4
  • 15 April 2015

Dietary Protein Intake in a Multi-ethnic Asian Population of Healthy Participants and Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

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ABSTRACT

Introduction: : Clinical practice guidelines recommend different levels of dietary protein intake in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It is unknown how effectively these recommendations perform in a multi-ethnic Asian population, with varied cultural beliefs and diets. We assess the profile of protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population, comparing healthy participants and CKD patients.

Materials and Methods: We analysed the 24-hour urine collections of the Asian Kidney Disease Study (AKDS) and the Singapore Kidney Function Study (SKFS) to estimate total protein intake (TPI; g/day). We calculated ideal body weight (IDW; kg): 22.99 × height2 (m). Standard statistical tests were applied where appropriate, and linear regression was used to assess associations of continuous variables with protein intake.

Results: : There were 232 CKD patients and 103 healthy participants with 35.5% diabetics. The mean TPI in healthy participants was 58.89 ± 18.42 and the mean TPI in CKD patients was 53.64 ± 19.39. By US National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines, 29/232 (12.5%) of CKD patients with measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <25 (in mL/min/1.73 m2 ) had a TPI-IDW of <0.6 g/kg/day. By Caring for Australasians with Renal Impairment (CARI) guidelines, 76.3% (177/232) of CKD patients had TPI-IDW >0.75g/kg/ day. By American Dietetic Association (ADA) guidelines, 34.7% (44/127) of CKD patients with GFR <50 had TPI-IDW between 0.6 to 0.8 g/kg/day. Only 1/6 non-diabetic CKD patients with GFR <20 had a protein intake of between 0.3 to 0.5 g/kg/day. A total of 21.9% (25/114) of diabetic CKD patients had protein intake between 0.8 to 0.9 g/kg/day

Conclusion: On average, the protein intake of most CKD patients exceeds the recommendations of guidelines. Diabetic CKD patients should aim to have higher protein intakes.


Clinical practice guidelines recommend different amounts of dietary protein intake for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The recommended daily protein intake varies according to the level of kidney function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in mL/min per 1.73 m2 body surface area). It is unknown how effectively these recommendations perform in a multi-ethnic Asian population, with its cultural beliefs and different diets. In this cross-sectional study, we compare dietary protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population of CKD patients versus a cohort of healthy participants.

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