• Vol. 50 No. 3, 241–249
  • 15 March 2021

Endovenous cyanoacrylate ablation for chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins among Asians



Introduction: Endovenous cyanoacrylate glue (CAG) ablation for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and varicose veins has shown non-inferior outcomes with an excellent safety profile, high patient satisfaction rate, and excellent efficacy when compared to the gold standard of endothermal ablation. A review of the current literature for CAG use in CVI showed that most studies and longer-term data are from Caucasian-based populations, which are subject to different anatomical venous variations and socio-economical contexts. This review aimed to gather the current evidence for CAG use in Asian CVI patients. Methods: Asian studies for the use of CAG in CVI were included in this review. Successful ablation rates, quality of life improvement and novel complications such as glue hypersensitivity reactions are described, along with anatomical descriptions of superficial venous anatomy in study patients. Use of CAG in Singapore and Asia was addressed. Results: CAG has been gaining traction as an option for CVI treatment in Asians. In Singapore, it has been adopted with comparable low complication rates and significant improvement of quality of life after treatment. As we increase our understanding of the variations in venous anatomy in the Asian population, new techniques such as retrograde deployment of the device and use of CAG ablation for venous leg ulcers have been developed. Conclusion: Further robust evidence in terms of large randomised control trials along with costeffectiveness studies are needed to determine the true value of CAG ablation in the Asian setting.

In the past 2 decades, the management of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) has been revolutionised by the introduction of minimally invasive endovenous techniques, which have replaced open surgical high tie and stripping as the treatment of choice. CVI is common in the Western population and is reported to affect 164 in 1,000 individuals. The prevalence of CVI in the Asian population is reportedly lower than that in the non-Hispanic white population, but is expected to rise because of ageing and an increasing incidence of obesity. Some studies have shown that the Asian venous patient tends to present at a younger age with less severe symptoms, but these data may not be representative of the diverse Asian population.

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