Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are rapidly expanding groups of enzymes that can hydrolyse the majority of beta-lactam antibiotics with the exception of carbapenems, and are inhibited by clavulanic acid. They are commonly found on plasmids, which are extra-chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that can transfer between
bacteria. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaeceae (ESBL-E) frequently cause infections in Singapore hospitals, and have increased rapidly since the 1990s to approximately 20%
and 35% of all Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) clinical isolates respectively.
This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download PDF” on top to view the full article.