• Vol. 29 No. 6, 714–718
  • 15 November 2000

Granuloma Annulare: A Review of 41 Cases at the National Skin Centre

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ABSTRACT

Introduction: Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign, inflammatory skin disorder that has no proven aetiology or widely accepted theory of pathogenesis. We present the results of a local study examining the characteristics of this disorder.

Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 41 patients with granuloma annulare seen at a tertiary dermatological skin hospital in Singapore. The disease was classified based on whether it was localised or generalised. Remission rates and associated diseases were documented.

Results: The majority (93.9%) of lesions were localised. GA tends to occur within the first three decades of life, and 39.4% of patients were 10 years old and below. There was a slight female preponderance, and no predilection for any particular racial group. Remissions were seen in 67.6% of patients who were followed up for at least 12 months, and remissions only occurred with the localised form of GA. There were 4 cases of disseminated GA and 1 case of perforating GA. There were 6 patients with associated diabetes mellitus, 2 with pulmonary tuberculosis, and 4 patients each with hypercholesterolaemia and a history of atopy.

Conclusion: The characteristics of GA in our local population do not differ significantly from that of overseas studies. While localised forms of GA have a high chance of resolving, the generalised forms of the disease are difficult to treat and do not tend to resolve totally.


Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign, inflammatory disorder of the skin that has no proven aetiology or widely accepted theory of pathogenesis. There are several clinical manifestations, ranging from localised GA, which is the commonest form and is characterised by erythematous or flesh-coloured papules in an annular arrangement, to less commonly seen variants, including the generalised, subcutaneous and perforating types.

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