Imaging plays an important role in the detection and characterisation of opportunistic infections and malignancies in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The imaging features of opportunistic infections are often non-specific, but when examined in the context of CD4 levels will often allow a correct diagnosis to be made. It is important to be aware of specific syndromes such as lymphoproliferative disease and AIDS nephropathy. The radiologist is often the first clinician to suspect the possibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or AIDS in a patient’s diagnostic work-up and it is, therefore, important that radiologists are familiar with the imaging features of this disease and its complications.
The pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a global healthcare problem and HIV infection is the most common cause of death worldwide. There are now 60 million deaths recorded from the infection worldwide by the United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS) organisation, most of them in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.
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