• Vol. 42 No. 11, 603–607
  • 15 November 2013

Observer-Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (ORIME) Framework to Guide Formative Assessment of Medical Students



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The Observer-Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (ORIME) is adapted from RIME, an intuitive, self-explanatory and “synthetic” framework that assesses formatively, a student’s ability to synthesise knowledge, skills and attitude during a clinical encounter with a patient. The “O” refers to a student’s ability to pay attention and perceive with open-mindedness, people and events around him or her. The framework is suitable for defi nition of interim outcomes in a 5-year undergraduate programme. To align students’ and clinical teachers’ expectations further, selection of case complexity that is commensurate with student’s seniority and competence should be guided and an adapted version of the Minnesota Complexity Assessment Tool is proposed.

The Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine) has begun classes on 5 August 2013. With Imperial College of London as one of the parent universities, it was logical to adopt the United Kingdom General Medical Council Tomorrow’s Doctors2 as a basis for LKCMedicine new graduate outcomes. Because Tomorrow’s Doctors enunciates outcomes in terms of a graduate (i.e. end product of medical school), definition of interim outcomes is necessary for a 5-year medical school programme to guide assessment of student progress.

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