Introduction: Diabetes and habitual smoking cause advanced coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian patients at a younger age. No definite data exist as to whether off-pump (OPCAB) is better than conventional on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CCAB) in terms of postoperative renal complications. Thus, we aimed to compare the renal outcomes of on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on our patients, which constituted a predominantly Asian population.Materials and Methods: A cohort of 395 patients following CCAB were compared with 293 patients who underwent OPCAB. Baseline demographics, comorbidities, intraoperative data, intensive care unit stay, number of grafts, New York Heart Association (NYHA) score, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, EuroSCORE risk assessment model, and postoperative complications particularly renal, were collected and analysed. Results: The off-pump group consisted of significantly older patients with higher Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) and ASA scores. Additionally, the off-pump group involved a significantly greater number of smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Other demographic parameters were not different between the groups. Postoperative investigations showed a significantly elevated serum creatinine (100.3 ± 42.5 vs 127.6 ± 114.2 μmol/L; off-pump vs on-pump; P = 0.039) and urea levels (5.9 ± 3.1 vs 10.6 ± 15.6 mg/dL; off-pump vs on-pump; P = 0.006) in the on-pump group. Moreover, there was a high tendency towards a higher rate of renal dysfunction associated death in this group. Conclusions: OPCAB is a safe and equally efficient operative method compared to CCAB, and has a significant lower risk for postoperative renal complications as a treatment modality for surgical coronary revascularisation.
To date, the major part of routine cardiac surgery is performed using extracorporeal circulation with cardioplegic arrest. Regardless the technique of cardioplegia, temporary renal dysfunction can be observed frequently. Renal dysfunction requiring dialysis occurs in less than 5% of the patient undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
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