• Vol. 30 No. 6, 600–606
  • 15 November 2001

Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected Patients in Singapore



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Introduction: Oral lesions have been recognised as prominent features of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection since the beginning of the epidemic.

Objective: This descriptive study was conducted to study the types of oral lesions among HIV-infected patients in Singapore.

Materials and Methods: Oral examination was done on 81 randomly selected HIV-infected patients attending the specialist outpatient clinic at the Communicable Disease Centre.

Results: A total of 9 different lesions were observed in 45 (56%) patients. The lesions observed were oral candidosis (35%), periodontal disease (16%), aphthous-like ulcers (5%), oral hairy leukoplakia (5%) and lymphoma (1%).

Conclusion: The oral manifestations of HIV-infected patients in Singapore appear to be less frequent in comparison with those patients from Africa and Europe. Similarities in oral findings among the HIV-infected patients in Asia are evident with a notable lack of oral Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and a low prevalence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and oral hairy leukoplakia.

The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease has pursued a relentless course since it was first recognised in the early 1980s and if current trend continues, it is most likely to carry on well into the 21st century. Asia and South Asia are expected to shoulder the greatest burden of this pandemic.

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