• Vol. 39 No. 4, 299–302
  • 15 April 2010

Outbreak of Novel Influenza A (H1N1-2009) Linked to a Dance Club



Download PDF


Introduction: This paper describes the epidemiology and control of a community outbreak of novel influenza A (H1N1-2009) originating from a dance club in Singapore between June and July 2009.

Materials and Methods: Cases of novel influenza A (H1N1-2009) were confirmed using in-house probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Contact tracing teams from the Singapore Ministry of Health obtained epidemiological information from all cases via telephone.

Results: A total of 48 cases were identified in this outbreak, of which 36 (75%) cases were patrons and dance club staff, and 12 (25%) cases were household members and social contacts. Mathematical modelling showed that this outbreak had a reproductive number of 1.9 to 2.1, which was similar to values calculated from outbreaks in naïve populations in other countries.

Conclusion: This transmission risk occurred within an enclosed space with patrons engaged in intimate social activities, suggesting that dance clubs are places conducive for the spread of the virus.

Influenza A (H1N1-2009) is a novel strain of influenza virus. The infection is thought to have first occurred in Mexico in March 2009, and then spread worldwide, resulting in the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century.

This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download PDF” on top to view the full article.