• Vol. 28 No. 5, 708–713
  • 15 September 1999

Pathogenesis and Morphogenesis of Craniofacial Developmental Anomalies



Download PDF


A condensed review of the morphogenetic mechanisms of facial fabrication, providing insights into developmental anomalies of clinical concern. Genetics, epigenetics and regulation of molecular, cellular, tissue and organ formation are being elucidated in normal and dysmorphological patterns. The pathogenesis of craniosynostosis is related to fibroblast growth factor expression. Analysis of a 28-month-old-child’s dysmorphic synostotic skull explores possible mechanisms of malformation and deformation.

The current explosion of molecular biology encompassing genetics, morphogenesis, teratogenesis and pharmacogenomics for targeted drug therapy is about to have a profound impact upon the practice of medicine in the next century. A new discipline of molecular medicine is becoming a feature of clinical practice.

This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download PDF” on top to view the full article.