• Vol. 42 No. 5, 216–224
  • 15 May 2013

Pathologic Changes in Highly Myopic Eyes of Young Males in Singapore



Introduction: This study describes the pathologic changes in the retina of a group of young Asian subjects with myopia worse than –10 diopters spherical equivalent (SE) refraction.

Materials and Methods: The study population consists of 20 male subjects undergoing preemployment screening for public service for a 1-year period from 2009 to 2010. A detailed series of visual tests of function, fundus examination and grading, ocular biometry and posterior segment optical coherence tomography were performed for all eyes.

Results: A total of 21 eyes with mean SE of –10.88 diopters, [standard deviation (SD) , 1.28 diopters], and mean age of 21.8 years (SD, 1.3 years) were included. Out of 21 eyes, 17 (81.0%) had beta peripapillary atrophy, 10 (47.6%) had clinically detectable optic disc tilt, 1 (4.8%) had positive T-sign and 18 (85.7%) had retinal tessellation, 4 (19.0%) had posterior vitreous detachment and 14 (66.7%) had peripheral retina degeneration. The mean retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness was 92.48 mm (SD, 9.99 mm).

Conclusion: None of the 21 highly myopic eyes had features of myopic retinopathy but most of these young males had clinically visible myopia-associated abnormalities of the optic disc, vitreous and peripheral retina. Generally, these eyes had thinner RNFL. Further longitudinal studies are required to investigate if these eyes will eventually develop complications of pathological myopia.

World Schizophrenia Day falls on 24 May. Schizophrenia is a devastating brain disorder affecting about 1% of the population worldwide. With typical onset in late adolescence
and early adulthood, it is for most patients a chronic relapsing psychotic illness, with persisting cognitive deficits that impair return to premorbid social and occupational function. Medications effectively reduce psychotic symptoms like hallucinations and delusions. However, they do not impact cognitive deficits and negative symptoms. So, antipsychotic medications have not led to further improvements in functional outcomes.

This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download PDF” on top to view the full article.