Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the most important infectious disease of our time. Likewise, the availability of highly effective therapy for HIV represents one of the greatest accomplishments of drug research and development in modern times. Antiretroviral therapy (ART), usually comprising a combination of 3 drugs that act against one or more steps in the viral life cycle, has transformed HIV from a disease that was almost universally fatal as recently as the mid-1990s, into a manageable chronic disease which has a virtually normal life expectancy.
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