• Vol. 41 No. 12, 620–624
  • 15 December 2012

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (PML-IRIS): Two Case Reports of Successful Treatment with Mefloquine and a Review of the Literature

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Failure of cell-mediated immunity allows reactivation of the ‘JC’ polyomavirus (JCV) in oligodendrocytes, and the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). This is most commonly associated with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but is also described after biological therapies such as natalizumab, and rarely other conditions.

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