• Vol. 42 No. 12, 667–673
  • 15 December 2013

Risk Factors and Time-Trends of Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Syphilis, Toxoplasmosis and Viral Hepatitis Infection and Seroprevalence in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infected Patients

100



100 Views
18 Downloads

Download PDF

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chronic bacterial, viral and parasitic infections contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV) infection. This study investigated risk factors and time-trends of the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV), toxoplasmosis and hepatitis A total antibody; and co-infection with syphilis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C among newly diagnosed HIV individuals in Singapore.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. A random sample of 50% of HIV infected patients who visited the Communicable Disease Centre (CDC), Singapore for first-time care from January 2006 to December 2011 were analysed.

Results: Among the 793 study subjects, 93.4% were male; 77.9% of them were of Chinese ethnicity; mean age at HIV diagnosis was 41.4 years; and the mean baseline CD4+ T-cell count was 222 cells/mm3. The prevalence of sero-reactivity for CMV was 96.8%; hepatitis A: 40.9%; and toxoplasmosis: 23.7%. Co-infection with syphilis was identifi ed in 12.3%; hepatitis B: 8.1%; and hepatitis C: 2%. Among those co-infected with hepatitis C, 73.3% of them were intravenous drug user (IVDU). Syphilis co-infection was signifi cantly more common among men who have sex with men (MSM) (multivariate OR: 2.53, 95% CI, 1.31 to 4.90, P = 0.006).

Conclusion: This study described the baseline rates of HIV co-infection with syphilis, hepatitis B and C in Singapore, and sero-reactivity to CMV, toxoplasmosis and hepatitis A. The increased rates compared to the general population may have important consequences for disease progression, response to antiretroviral treatment and long-term general health.


For individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), access to effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has in a short time changed the prospect of this disease to a chronic, manageable condition.1 With virologic suppression and immune reconstitution, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining conditions now cause less morbidity and mortality and life expectancy approaches that of uninfected individuals.

This article is available only as a PDF. Please click on “Download PDF” on top to view the full article.