• Vol. 40 No. 12, 523–532
  • 15 December 2011

Subcutaneous Infection with Non-mouse Adapted Dengue Virus D2Y98P Strain Induces Systemic Vascular Leakage in AG129 Mice



Introduction: Dengue (DEN) is a mosquito-borne viral disease which has become an increasing economic and health burden for the tropical and subtropical world. Plasma leakage is the most life threatening condition of DEN and may lead to hypovolaemic shock if not properly managed.

Materials and Methods: We recently reported a unique dengue virus strain (D2Y98P) which upon intraperitoneal (IP) administration to immunocompromised mice led to systemic viral dissemination, intestine damage, liver dysfunction, and increased vascular permeability, hallmarks of severe DEN in patients (Tan et al, PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2010;4:e672).

Results: Here we report the clinical manifestations and features observed in mice subcutaneously (SC) infected with D2Y98P, which is a route of administration closer to natural infection. Similar to the IP route, increased vascular permeability, intestine damage, liver dysfunction, transient lymphopenia (but no thrombocytopenia) were observed in the SC infected mice. Furthermore, the SC route of infection was found more potent than the IP route whereby higher viral titers and earlier time-of-death rates were measured. In addition, various staining approaches revealed structurally intact blood vessels in the moribund animals despite pronounced systemic vascular leakage, as reported in dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) patients. Interestingly, measurement of soluble mediators involved in vascular permeability indicated that vascular leakage may occur at an early stage of the disease, as proposed in DEN patients.

Conclusion: We believe that this novel mouse model of DEN-associated vascular leakage will contribute to a better understanding of DEN pathogenesis and represents a relevant platform for testing novel therapeutic treatments and interventions.

Dengue (DEN) is an arthropod-borne viral disease that is endemic in subtropical and tropical countries. The highly domesticated Aedes aegypti mosquito is the main vector for DEN virus (DENV) transmission to humans. With approximately half the world’s population residing in DEN endemic regions and more than 50 million new infections estimated to occur annually, DEN certainly poses a global health threat.

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