• Vol. 37 No. 11, 919–923
  • 15 November 2008

The Association of Smoking with Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Non-diabetic Patients



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Introduction: There is limited evidence about the association between smoking and metabolic syndrome (MS). The aim of this study was to assess the association of smoking with MS components.

Materials and Methods: As part of the baseline survey of a community-based study, we studied 5573 non-diabetic men. All participants were interviewed and underwent physical examinations and blood collection.

Results: The study participants comprised 1625 smokers and 3948 non-smokers, with a mean age of 38.07 ± 14.85 years. Serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were higher in smokers than in non-smokers (LDL-C: 115.34 ± 39.03 vs 112.65 ± 40.94 mg/dL, respectively, P = 0.015 and TG: 175.13 ± 102.05 vs 172.32 ± 116.83 mg/dL, respectively, P = 0.005). Body mass index, waist circumference and waist hip ratio were lower in smokers than in non-smokers. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers (systolic: 112.06 ± 15.888 vs 117.25 ± 17.745 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.000; diastolic: 73.66 ± 10.084 vs 76.23 ± 10.458 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.000). The percentage of individuals with 2 MS components was higher in smokers than in non-smokers (39.64% vs 33.00%, respectively, P = 0.000). However, the percentage of non-smokers with 3 MS components was higher than in smokers (49.62 % vs 43.82%, respectively, P = 0.000).

Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis that lifestyle factors such as smoking can adversely affect MS components. However, we should acknowledge that these differences may have resulted from the large sample sizes studied and may not be clinically significant. The lower prevalence of some MS components in smokers than in non-smokers might be because of their lower anthropometric measures.

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is conceptualised as a constellation of physiologic or anthropometric abnormalities. Typically, it includes excess weight, hyperglycaemia, elevated blood pressure, low concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and hypertriglyceridaemia.

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