• Vol. 35 No. 12, 875–881
  • 15 December 2006

The Effectiveness of Transvaginal Anterior Colporrhaphy Reinforced with Polypropylene Mesh in the Treatment of Severe Cystoceles



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Introduction: Grade 4 cystoceles are among the most challenging to achieve a successful repair for gynaecologists. The high rate of recurrence of severe prolapse encouraged surgeons to use meshes. Only recently have meshes been used transvaginally for pelvic organ prolapse. The aim of our pilot study was therefore to determine the effectiveness of transvaginal anterior colporrhaphy reinforced with prolene mesh in the treatment of severe or recurrent cystoceles by looking at their primary surgical outcomes as well as their complications.

Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted by the urogynaecology unit at KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital (KKWCH) in Singapore based on operations performed from April 2002 to December 2003. The inclusion criterion was that women had to have at least a grade 4 or recurrent grade 3 cystocele and had undergone a vaginal anterior colporrhaphy reinforced with prolene mesh. The women were further subdivided into 3 groups depending on whether vaginal hysterectomies were performed or not as well as the absence or presence of the uterus.

Results: Thirty-seven patients with severe cystoceles underwent this procedure. The 3 mean follow-up times for the 3 groups ranged from 14.4 to 19.2 months (range, 2 to 32). Overall for the 3 groups, 75.7% were cured with no or grade 1 cystocele, 18.9% had asymptomatic grade 2 cystocele while 5.4% developed grade 3 or 4 cystocele. There were no mesh erosions.

Conclusion: Transvaginal anterior colporrhaphy reinforced with a tension-free prolene mesh in the treatment of severe or recurrent cystoceles is simple, safe, easily performed and is associated with a low failure rate and morbidity.

Using the Baden-Walker halfway system, Grade 4 cystoceles are defined as extrusions of the bladder base beyond the vaginal introitus with patient straining maximally and represent the extremes of anterior vaginal wall prolapse (Table 1). They result from increased laxity and weakness of the urethrovesical supporting system comprising the cardinal ligaments, periurethral and vesicopelvic fasciae.

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