• Vol. 43 No. 4, 216–219
  • 15 April 2014

The Relationship Between Gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Bilirubin (Bil) and Small Dense Low-Density Lipoprotein (sdLDL) in Asymptomatic Subjects Attending a Clinic for Screening Dyslipidaemias

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ABSTRACT

Introduction: Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), bilirubin (Bil) and small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) particles are each known to be risk markers for cardiometabolic diseases which are characterised by oxidative stress conditions. These markers are connected with the oxidative milieu; however, the association between GGT, Bil, and sdLDL has been hardly examined. This hospital-based study investigated the association between GGT and sdLDL, as well as the association between Bil and sdLDL, in asymptomatic subjects.

Materials and Methods: Cardiometabolic variables, GGT, Bil and the mean LDL particle size were measured in 100 asymptomatic subjects attending a clinic for screening dyslipidaemias (36 men and 64 women, mean age 64 years). Correlation analyses of the association between the mean LDL particle size and other variables, such as GGT and Bil, were performed.

Results: The mean (standard deviation) levels of GGT, Bil, and the mean LDL particle size were found to be 21.7 (8.3) IU/L, 14.0 (4.3) μmol/L, and 26.7 (0.6) nm, respectively. An univariate correlation test showed both a signifi =cant inverse correlation between the mean LDL particle size and GGT (r = – 0.33, P <0.01) and a signifi =cant positive correlation between the mean LDL particle size and Bil (r = 0.32, P <0.01). A multiple regression analysis revealed similarly significant results of their correlations, independent of the other cardiometabolic variables.

Conclusion: These results suggest that the correlation of GGT and sdLDL, as well as that of Bil and sdLDL, may be cooperatively associated with cardiometabolic processes. Further research is warranted in order to confirm the observed association


Oxidative stress, which is caused by an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance, is an emerging risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a crucial health problem in Western countries, Asia and other developing countries. Therefore, understanding oxidative stress conditions and developing a therapeutic approach to limit the effects of oxidative stress are crucial for the prevention of CVD. Recently, 2 serum markers, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and bilirubin (Bil), which are reflective of hepatic function in general, have been recognised as oxidative stress and antioxidative markers. In fact, GGT and Bil levels are shown to be associated with the development of cardiometabolic diseases, while the underlying mechanisms of the association between GGT and CVD, as well as the underlying mechanisms of the association between Bil and CVD, are not yet sufficiently established.

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