Introduction: Reduced instrument size, increased flexibility, coupled with improved optics and larger working channels have enhanced the capabilities of the ureterorenoscope.Materials and Methods: We present our initial experience with the new 7.5F flexible ureterorenoscope. A total of 29 flexible ureterorenoscopies were performed from July 1995 to December 1997 by a single surgeon. The indications for flexible ureterorenoscopy was therapeutic in 10 (34.5%) patients (all had urolithiasis) whilst it was diagnostic in 19 patients (65.5%). For the diagnostic cohort, 9 (31.0%) patients had haematuria with radiological upper tract filling defect, 8 (27.6%) had radiological upper tract filling defect alone and 2 (6.9%) had ureteropelvic junction narrowing for evaluation. Results: Of the therapeutic cases, all 10 (100%) were stone free at 3 months. Of the diagnostic cases, 12 (63.2%) had normal findings, 4 (21.1%) had urolithiasis and 3 (15.8%) had transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Of the 3 cases of TCC, one was managed endoscopically. Conclusions: The smaller calibre and actively deflectable 7.5F flexible ureterorenoscopes facilitate various endoscopic procedures thus broadening the diagnostic and therapeutic scope of the ureterorenoscope.
Intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA) has a reported success rate of between 94% and 98% for upper limb surgery. Limitations to its use include the quality of intraoperative anaesthesia, tourniquet pain and lack of adequate postoperative analgesia.
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