Renal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are uncommon congenital lesions consisting of abnormal communications between the renal artery and the renal vein via a vascular nidus. Renal AVMs can be classified as cirsoid, angiomatous or aneurysmal.
Cirsoid lesions are often large with multiple feeder vessels. Angiomatous lesions are smaller with one vessel feeding multiple interconnected distal branches and veins. Less often, large lesions can present as aneurysmal AVMs, where single feeding vessels are shown to be calcified and associated with renal artery aneurysmal disease. The
aneurysmal AVMs more commonly produce cardiovascular signs and symptoms such as hypertension, while the other types tend to present with gross haematuria. The indications for intervention are haematuria, hypertension, heart failure and rupture.
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